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Printed and Published for Proprietors of the " Newcastle Weekly Chronicle " by 


IK w 

JAN -8 1960 

s^5/Tv nc TrtR 


The Press Gang in the Northern Counties 1 

The Black Cock of Whickham * 

The Nightingale and other Warblers 5 

Prudhoe Castle and the Umfravilles 6 

Welford : John Fenwick, 11 : Sir John Fife, 12; 
Thomas Forster, 58 ; George, Francis, and Joseph 
Forster, 60 ; Jonathan Langstatf Forster, 62 ; 
Westgarth Forster, 105 ; William Garrett, 106 ; 
The Gibsons of Hexham and Stonecroft, 108 ; 
William Sydney Gibson, 154 ; Thomas Gibson, 
156 ; Rev. Thomas Gillow, 157 ; John and 
Benjamin Green, 224; Richard Gilpin, 226; 
Edward Glynn, 228; Joseph Glynn, F.R.S., 
250 ; Sir Leonard Greenwell, 251 ; Thomas 
Michael Greenhow, 251; William Gray, 253; 
George Grey, 297; Robert Grey, D.D., 299; 
Gilbert and George Gray, 300 ; The Sir George 
Greys, of Falloden, 354 ; Henry Grey, D.D., 
356 ; Timothy Hackworth, 358; William Anthony 
Hails, 394; George Hall, D.D., 396; Thomas 
Young Hall, 396; Samuel Hammond, D.D., 
441 ; Rev. George Harris, 443 ; William Harvey, 
444 ; Thomas Haswell, 498 ; Sir Arthur Hazle- 
rigg, 500 ; The Headlams, 538 ; Robert Rhodes, 

Sir John Vanbrugh in the North 15 

Sunderland Town Hall 16 

Katterlelto and his Wonders 16 

The Old Dispensary, Newcastle 20 

Whitley-by-the Sea 21 

The Bigg Market and the'Groat Market, Newcastle... 23 

North-Country Fairies 26 

Arctic and Antarctic Navigators 29 

A Ramble Round York 32 

George Barrington in Newcastle 36 

Stokoe : 

" Aw Wish Yor Muther Wad Cum" 38 

" Billy Oliver's Ramble between Benwell and 

Newcastle" 83 

' ' The Gathering Ode of the Fenwyke" .... 118 

" A U Hinny Burd" 195 

"Dance ti Thy Daddy" 245 

"The Brave Earl Brand and the King of Eng- 
land's Daughter" 318 

'The Keachi'the Creel" 342 

"Luckey's Dream" 410 

"My Love has 'Listed" 438 

" The Pitman's Courtship" 510 

A Delaval Letter 39 

William Bell Scott 40 


St. Cuthbert's Beads, Old Street Cries, Poet 
Close, Greenwells of Broomshields .... . 41 


Thomas Ironsides, a Tyneside worthy ; Elizabeth 
Isabella Spence, Brougham's First Brief, a 
Westmoreland Mathematician, the High Level 
Bridge, Meridian Pillar at Hammerfest, First 
Telegraph Message between Newcastle and 

London 90 

Lady Peat's Property, a Peculiar Parish, the 
Founder of the Salvation Army, George Wat- 
son, mathematician, Mountaineering Feats in 
English Lakeland, an Invitation to Marriage .. 137 
Sand Desks, the Lough Family, " I'm Brown," S. 
Boverick : Watchmaker, the City of Durham, 

"Waterloo Wetheral," "Jessamond Mill" 333 

The Polka, the Devil's Due, "Jessamond Mill," 
John Forster, a Durham Colliery Explosion 182 

Years Ago, Joseph Glynn, F.R.S 330 

James Crosbie Hunter, Sailing Coaches, the Lee 

Penny, the Battle-Field, Newcastle ., 378 

Kemmel's Path, Mease Family, Reminiscence of 
the Stage Coach, Baptist Church in Newcastle, 

Buried Alive 426 

Jonathan Cay, a Venerable Dame, Jane and 
Anna Maria Porter, the Threat of Invasion, 
Carlyle's Estimate of the Folks o' Shields, a 

Cumbrian Bidden Wedding 473 

Lemmings, a Dreadful Winter, Ben Wells, the 

Dancing Master ; Grey's Monument, Newcastle 523 
North -Country Wit and Humour : 43, 92, 139, 187, 

235, 331, 379, 428, 475, 524, 572 
North-Country Obituaries : 44, 93, 140, 187, 236, 282, 

331, 380, 428. 476, 525, 573 
Record of Events :-45, 94, 141, 189, 237, 284, 332, 381, 

429, 477, 525, 573 

Two Notable Weardale Men 49 

Sailors' Strikes on theTyne 52 

The Gipsies of the Border 54, 100, 163., 205 

Cotherstone and Stilton 57 

A Bit of Auld Scotland 63 

The Battle of Homildon Hill 65 

George Fox in the North 68 

Swarthmoor Hall 70 

Sunderland Bridge 71 

Views of Netherwitton 74 

Shepherds' Numerals 77 

The Village of Whittingham 75 

St. Mary's Loch 80 

The Percies and Westminster Abbey...' 82 

The Brown Man of the Moors 84 

TTncle Toby's Toy Exhibition 85 

Bath Lane Church and Schools 86 

The Burning of Sunderland Lyceum 86 

The Flycatchers 87 

Dr. Thomson, Archbishop of York 89 

Anne Clifford, High Sheriff of Westmoreland 97 

Craigie's Cross 102 




The Snowflake and Lapland Bunting 103 

Dove Cottage, Grasmere 104 

The First Mayor of Sunderland Ill 

Wooler, Doddington. and Milfield 112 

Nimmo of thn Rocking Tower 113 

The Siege and Capture of Newcastle, 1644 114 

Richmond, Yorkshire 119 

The Murder of Capt. Berckholtz in Sunderland 

Harbour 123 

"Whisky Jack" 125 

The Delaval Weighing Machine 126 

Around Ford 127 

Regner Lodbrog 128 

A North-Country Bibliopole 131 

The Castle Spectre : A Legend of Houghton 133 

Penrith Beacon ;..'.., 134 

Joseph Blackett, Shoemaker and Poet 135 

"Billy Fine Day " 136 

Henry Tennant 136 

About "Boldon Buke" 145 

Hewson Clarke, Author of " The Saunterer " 149 

A -Ramble Round Richmond 151 

The Kingfisher and the Dipper 158 

Sir William Brereton's Visit to the North 161 

A Visit to Bamburgh 165 

A Lecrend of Cotherstone 173 

North-Country Ghost Stories 174 

Aydon Castle 176 

John Wesley in Newcastle and the North 180 

The Bishop of Peterborough 184 

The Poet Close 185 

Blythe Hurst, Blacksmith and Clergyman 193 

The Massacre of Ambovna, 1623 195 

John Graham Lough, Sculptor 199 

The Legend of Su Oswald 203 

The Pitman 208 

"January Searle" 209 

The Knaresdale Hall Ghost 210 

The Author of "Auld Robin Gray " 211 

Corbridge-on-Tyne 214 

A Sunderland Poet : William Allan 221 

The Hallgarth Tragedy 221 

"The Amphitrite . 222 

Newbiggin-by-the-Sea 223 

" Ye Apothecarie : HisBooke" 230 

Three Members of the Linnet Family 232 

Ednam and the Poet of "The Seasons" 241 

A Border Heroine , 246 

New Post Office in Newcastle ...'. 248 

New Banking Premises in Newcastle 249 

Warkworth Bridge Tower 255 

Woodhorn Church. Northumberland 256 

Billy Purvis '. 259, 314, 373 

Methodism in Newcastle 261 

Ambleside, Windermere, and the Lake District 263 

The Case of Thomas Fury 266 

Stories of Smugglers 269 

An Alnwick Prize Essayist 271 

Cresswell Village 271 

Bywell-on-Tyne 272 

Barge Day on the Tyne 275 

TheGiantCor 277 

The Northumberland Household Book 278 

The Dove Family 280 

The Entry of Biahop Van Mildert into Durham 289 

The Conyers Falchion 291 

Dorothy Wordsworth 291 

The Maddison Monument 294 

A Reminiscence of Mrs. Montagu 295 

Levens Hall, Westmoreland 296 

The Bumler Box 297 

Northumbrian Hermits 302 

Arthur Rousbey, Vocalist 303 

Culzean Castle, Ailsa Crag, and the Coast of Carrick. 304 

The First Tyne Steamboat 306 

St. Crispin's Day Celebrations 309 

A Novel Gathering 311 

The Bishop's Palace, Bishop Auckland 314 

The Rums at Bearpark, near Durham 318 

The Woodpeckers 320 


Louis Dutens, the Eccentric Rector of Elsdon 322 

Samuel Reay, Organist 325 

A Week End at Bellingham 326 

The Rising in the North 337 

Two Border Poetesses 340 

Frank Pickering's Fatal Flight 343 

The Keep of Richmond Castle 344 

The Village of Mitford 344 

A Tyneside Showman 346 

Newcastle and Carlisle : The Canal and the Railroad. 347 

Lilburn Tower 351 

"Lang Jack," a Tyneside Samson 352 

A Riot on the Town Moor 353 

Interior of Cragside 359 

The Battle of Otterburn 362, 402 

Four Members of the Crake Family 364 

The French Dragon and the Newcastle Editor 366 

Scawfell Pikes 368 

The Whitworth Doctors 370 

The Nestor of the Tobacco Trade 372 

Thomas Eyre Maeklin, Artist 373 

The Derwentwater Veteran and Recluse 385 

Aerial Armies 388 

A Quaker Lieutenant 389 

Sir Walter Scott in the North 390 

Cleadon Village 392 

Mr. Alderman Barkas 398- 

The Weardale Linns 399 

Allan Ramsay 404 

The Picktree Brag 407 

Tyneinouth Cliffs a Hundred Years Ago 407 

The Market Place, South Shields 410 

Mrs. Arkwright 411 

Edward Elliott, of Earsdon 413 

The Busty Seam 414 

Jane and Anna Maria Porter 415 

The Pitman's Saturday Night 416 

Wordsworth and the Lake District 417 

John Hodgson, the Historian of Northumberland 420 

Members of the Partridge Family 423 

The Capture of South Shields Fort by Scots . 426 

Ada the Thoughtful, and Harald, Lord of War 433 

Sir Gosselin Denville, Freebooter 436 

A Shields Youth Hanged at Tyburn 439 

St. Agatha's Abbey, Easby 440 

John Horsley, Antiquary 445 

Whitburn Village ' 448 

The Battle of Otterburn : Its Doubts and Perplexities 450 

Game Birds 453 

Joyce's Patent Stove 455 

Rothbury Town 457 

The Ettrick Shepherd 459 

John W. Brown, Artist 463 

Wbitton Tower and Sharpe's Folly 464 

The Baliols in Newcastle 464 

The Northern Circuit Fifty Years Ago 467, 491 

North-Country Slogans.... 470 

The Pillar Rock 472 

Aira Force 473 

Plague and Cholera in the North 481, 553 

John Lilburne, "Freeborn John " 483 

Whickham Village 486 

The Late Baron Watson 494 

John Foster, the Essayist, in Newcastle .. ..495 

The Keelmen's Hospital 496 

Egglestone Abbey 497 

"Shuffle, Darby, Shuffle " 503 

Monkwearmouth Church . . 503 

The Blackfriars, Newcastle 505 

Brass Crosby, Lord Mayor of London 507 

Newcastle from Gateshead 511 

Lord Collingwood . 512 

Our Parish Registers 517,558 

The Battle of the Low Lights 519 

The Mouth of the Tyne 520 

All Saints' Church, Newcastle 521 

Ned Corvan ..'., 522 

Windmill* 529 

Elizabeth Smith, Linguist, &c 535 

Tom Taylor, Third Editor of Punch, 542 




The Simonside Dwarfs 543 

The Walls of Newcastle 545 

Macready in the North 547 

Memorials at Otterburn 550 

The Duddon Valley 553 

Mary of Buttermere 556 

The Widdrington Family and Estates 559 

The Rev. James Murray's " Travels of the Imagina- 
tion " .. 563 


Three Members of the Warbler Family 565 

Marsden Rock 567 

The Castle of the Seven Shields 567 

Longhorsley Tower 568 

The Two Pitmen 569 

The Historian of Durham 569 

Dr. Arnold 571 

Lloyd Jones .... 571 

Epilogue 576 


Nightingale, Blackcap 5 

Golden Warbler 6 

Prudhoe Castle 6, 7, 8, 9 

Gateway, Prudhoe Castle 8 

Oriel Window, Prudhoe Castle ... 9 

Arms of the Umfravilles 10 

Suuderland Town Hall 16 

Newcastle Dispensary 17 

Bigg Market, Newcastle 24 

Groat Market, Newcastle 25 

Micklegate Bar, York 32 

The Shambles. York 33 

Barbican, Walmgate Bar, York... 33 

The Fiddler of York 34 

York Minster, from Monk Bar 

and Market Place 34 

York Minster Towers, from Peter 

Gate 36 

Kirk Yetholm and Gipsy Encamp- 
ment 55 

A Bit of Cotherstone 56 

The Bell at Stilton 57 

Both well Castle, Haddington 64 

Nungate Bridge, Haddington 65 

Swartbmoor Hall 71 

Sunderland Bridge 72 

Netberwitton 73, 74, 75, 76 

Whittingham 80 

St. Mary's Loch 81 

Bath Lane Church and Schools ... 85 

Pied Flycatcher 87 

Spotted Flycatcher 88 

Meridan Pillar, Hatnmerfest 91 

Snowflake 104 

Lapland Bunting 104 

Dove Cottage, Grasmere 105 

Wooler 112 

Doddington Cross 113 

Milfield, near Wooler 113 

Richmond, Yorkshire 120 

Marketplace, Richmond 121 

Grey Friars Tower, Richmond ...122 

Refreshment Room at Ford 127 

Blacksmith's Shop at Ford 128 

Ford Bridge 129 

Penrith Beacon 134 

Terrace Under Castle Wall, Rich- 
mond 151 

Richmond Castle 152 

Swaledale from Willance's Leap... 153 

The Convent, Richmond 154 

The Kingfisher 160 

. TheDipper 161 

South Gateway, Bamburgh Castle 166 

North Gateway, Bamburgh 166 

Entrance to the Keep, Bamburgh. 167 

Bamburgh Castle.. i/iW^m 

Clock Tower, Bambnrgh .' 170 

St. Aidan's Church, Bamburgh ... 171 
Fame Islands from Bamburgh .... 172 

Aydon Castle 176,177 

Garderobe, Aydon Castle 178 


Window at Aydon Castle 179 

Tortures Inflicted in Amboyna.... 197 
Green head, Birthplace of J. G. 

Lough 200 

Lough's Statuary, Newcastle 201 

Lough's Milo 202 

The Pitman Bowler and Pigeon 

Fancier 208,209 

Corbndge-on-Tyne .. 214, 216 

St. Andrew's Church, Corbridge .. 215 

Pele Tower, Corbridge 217, 218 

Figure at Corbridge 219 

The Angel Inn, Corbridge 219 

Old House, Corbridge 220 

Newbiggin-by-the-Sea 223 

St. Bartholomew's Church, New- 
biggin 224, 225 

Text of Apothecarie's Booke 231 

Arctic Redpole, Mealy Redpole... 232 

Mountain Linnet 233 

New Post Office Buildings, New- 
castle 248 

New Banking Premises, Newcastle 249 

Autograph of William Gray 255 

OldTowerand Bridge, Warkworth 256 
Woodhorn Church, Northumber- 
land 257, 258 

Ambleside, Stockghyll Force, and 

Old Mill 264 

Windermere Lake 265 

Cresswell Village and Bay, North- 
umberland 272 

Churches of By well, Northumber- 
land 273 

Wood Pigeon, Rock Dove 280 

Stock Dove, Turtle Dove 281 

The Conyers Falchion 291 

The Maddison Monument 294 

Levins Hall, Westmoreland 296 

The Bumbler Box 297 

Culzean Castle 304 

AilsaCrag 305,306 

Invitation Card to Contributors' 

Gathering 312 

Bishop's Palace, Bishop Auckland 313 
Billy Purvis Stealing the Bundle.. 317 

Green Woodpecker 320 

Spotted Woodpecker, Great 

Spotted Woodpecker 321 

Clock Tower, Bellingham Town 

Hall 326 

Rustic Bridge, Bellingham 327 

Bridge over Hareshaw Linn 327 

Bellingham 328 

St. Cuthbert's Church, Bellingham 329 

The CharltonSpur 329 

Old Sword of the Charltons 329 

'Roman Altar at Binchester 33+ 

Interior of Keep, Richmond Castle 344 

Mitf ord, Northumberland 345 

Lilburn Tower, Northumberland.. 352 

Lang Jack's Castle 353 

Drawing Room, Cragside 360 


Fireplace at Cragside 361 

Corncrake 364 

Water Rail, Spotted Crake 365 

Little Crake 366 

ScawfellPike 368 

Scawfell 369 

Sailing Coach- : 378 

Sir John Woodford's House, Der- 

wentwater 386 

Cleadon Village - 392-3 

Weardale Linns .- 400-1 

Tynemouth Castle and Cliff, 1779.. 408 

Market Place, South Shields 409 

The Pitman's Saturday Night ...416-7 
Partridge, Red-legged Partridge, 
Quail, and Virginian Partridge 424-5 

St. Agatha's Abbey, Easby 440 

Norman Arch, Easby Abbey ... 441 

Whitburn Village 448 

Whitburn Church 449 

Game Birds : Pheasant), Red 

Grouse, Black Grouse 453-4 

Roth bury 456-7 

Thrum Mill, Rothbury 458 

The Pool below Rothbury 459 

Whitton Tower, Rothbury 464 

Sharpe's Folly 465 

The Pillar Rock 472 

AiraForoe 473 

Weekly Chronicle Cycling Cup 479 

Door-case of the Lilburne Mansion 486 

Whickham Church 486* 

Whickham Village 487, 488, 489 

Memorial Stone to Cuthbert How- 

stan 490 

Keelmen's Hospital, Newcastle ... 496 

Egglestone Abbey 497 

Monkwearmouth Church 504 

Black friars, Newcastle 505 

Newcastle from Hillgate 512, 513 

The Mouth of the Tyne 520 

All Saints' Church, Newcastle ... 521 

The Lemming 523 

The Gladstone Casket 527 

Old Mill 529 

Old Mill near North Shields 530 

Chimney Mills, Newcastle 530 

Windmill at Todd's Nook, New- 
castle 531 

Matthew Bank Farm, Jesmond ... 531 

Cowgate Mill, near Fenham 532 

Old Mill, Windmill Hills, Gates- 
head 533 

Round Mill, near North Shields... 534 
Billy Mill, ., ... 534 

Spittle Den Mill, Tynemouth .... 535 

Burn Hall, co. Durham 536 

Scene in Grounds of Burn Hall . 537 

St. Nicholas' Steeple .'.. 41 

Herber Tower, Newcastle 544 

Turret, near St. Andrew's Church, 

Newcastle 545 

Map and Plan of Otterburn 551 



Battle Stones of Otterburn 552 

Bridge at Otterburn 552 

Duddon Valley 553 

Stella Chapel 561 


Sedge Warbler 565 

Grasshopper and Icterine Warb- 
lers 566 

Marsden Rock 567 


Lonf*horsley Tower 568 

Two Pitmen 569 

Wesley Memorial Drinking Foun- 
tain 574- 

John Fife 31 

William Bell Scott 40, 41 

Alderman Thomas Hedley 44 

R. W. Forsyth 46 

Alice Simpkin, Violinist 47 

James Uraggs 49 

Thomas Forster 59 

J. L. Forster 63 

Dr. Thomson, late Archbishop of 

York 89 

Thomas Ironsides 90 

George Walton 93 

Amelia Ed wards, LL.D 94 

William Garret 107 

Andrew White, M.F Ill 

John Wheldon 131 

Joseph Blackett 136 

Henry Tennant 137 

John iDixon. C.E 140 

M<5nie Muriel Dowie 143 

Rev. Joseph Rorke 143 

Whitworth Waliis 143 

Wm. Sidney Gibson 155 

Rev. Thomas Gillow 157 

Esther Blythe 164 

David Blythe 165 

Dr. Mandell Creighton 184 

Poet Close 185 

Aid. Davidson 188 

Aid. Dickinson 188 

Rev. R. F. Proudfoot, B.A 189 

James Horsley 189 

E. A. Maund 189 

Hon. J. B. Patterson 190 

Aid. W. Temple 191 

Rev. Blythe Hurst 193 

John Graham Lough 199 

" January Searle " 210 

William Allan ..'. 221 

Rev. Richard Gilpin 226 

Edward Glynn 228 

Prince Napoleon 240 

T. M. Greonhow, M.D 252 

T. H. Glenny 282 

Henry Christie 284 

C. Jurgenson 285 

P. G. Halvorsen 285 

Captain Bentzon 285 

Catherine O'Hara 286 

Chief-Constable Elliott 286 

SirM. E. Grant Duff 287 

Earl Percy 287 

G. E. T. Smithsou 287 

Captain Mackenzie 288 

Gilbert Gray 300 

George Gray 301 

Arthur Rousbey 304 

Samuel Reay 325 

Sir George Grey 355 

Henry Grey, D.D 357 

John Harvey 372 

Thomas Eyre Macklin 373 

Billy Purvis 576, 377 

Aid. Henry Nelson 381 

Captain Cracknel! 381 

Rev. A. D. Jeffery 384 

Sir John G. Woodford 386 

William Anthony Hails 394 

Thomas Y. Hall 397 

Aid. T. P. Barka- 398 

Fanny Kemble (Mrs. Arkw right). 411 

Edward Elliott 413 

Jane and Anna Maria Porter 415 

John Hodgson 420 

Corporal Roscamp 430 

Private E. Adams 430 

Joseph Reed, jmi 430 

Rev. George Harris 443 

William Harvey 444 

Walter Mavin 458 

John W. Brown 463 

Isabella Moscrip, aged 102 474 

The Duke of Cleveland 477 

Prince of Naples 477 

W. Howitt 479 

Robert Lilburne 486 

Thomas Haswell 498 

Sir Arthur Hazlerigg 500 

Brass Crosby 507 

Lord Collingwood 512 

Ned Corvan 522 

W. E. Gladstone, M.P 527 

Elizabeth Smith, Linguist 536 

Thomas De Quincey . .. 537 

T. E. Headlam . ..538 

Dr. Headlam 539 

Tom Taylor 542 

Lord Widdrington 560 

Rev. James Murray . 563 

Dr. Arnold . ... 571 

W. M. Henzell . ... 573 

B. J. Sutherland.. ... 575 




VOL. V. No. 47. 

JANUARY, 1891. 


$)r*44 (gang in tftc iimrtfrtrn 

JHE practice of impressing seamen to man the 
Royal Navy commenced in the year 1355, 
immediately after England had been deso- 
lated from one end to the other by a 
noisome pestilence, which had scarcely left a sincfle 
country of Europe or Asia free from its ravages, and 
which had swept away near a third of the inhabitants 
wherever it came, about fifty thousand souls being com- 
puted to have perished by it in London alone. It 
was the year before Edward, the Black Prince, in- 
vaded France, on the expiration of a short truce, and 
won the battle of Poictiers, in which the French King 
John was taken prisoner. The resources of England 
being almost wholly drained, and every effort being 
required to man the army and navy, the system of the 
press-gang was introduced by royal proclamation. 

In every emergency, subsequently to Edward III. 'a 
time, impressment was adopted with more or less 
rigour. Maitland tells us that, on the morning of 
Easter Monday, 1596, during the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, the Lord Mayor and aldermen of London received 
tbe royal command to raise a thousand men with the 
utmost expedition, whereupon they repaired with their 
deputies, constable?, and other officers, to the churches, 
and, having caused the doors to be shut, took the people 
during divine service from their worship, till the number 
was completed. The men so raised were marched the 
same night for Dover. But Elizabeth having got advice 
of the reduction of Calais by the Spaniards, the pressed 
men returned to London in about a week after their 
departure. In King William's time, when the press 
were very active during the war with France, the coal 
trade is reckoned to have suffered, in increased wages 

to seamen only, to the extent of some millions sterling. 
For the first three years of the war 9 a voyage was given 
to commou seamen, who before sailed for 36s., "which," 
says Postlethwayt, in his huge folio, "Universal Dic- 
tionary of Trade and Commerce," "computing the 
number of ships and men used in the trade, and of 
voyages made, at eight hands to a vessel, does, 
moderately accounting, make 896,000 difference in one 

Particulars of a few of the more exciting incidents 
connected with the operation of the impressment system 
in the Northern Counties may now be recorded. 

On February 6th, 1755, a smart press for seamen broke 
out at Shields, when sixty or seventy able hands were 
taken by the Peggy Uoop of war, which lay in a deep 
part of the harbour near the Low Lights, ever afterwards 
known as "Peggy's Hole." A few days later, there not 
being a sufficient number of pressed men secured, the 
" volunteer drum " was beat through the streets, offering 
a bounty of 3 to each "gentleman seaman " who should 
enter his Majesty's service. Next year, war having been 
proclaimed against France, another very hot press was 
made both at Shields and Newcastle, and several hundred 
men were taken. 

On the 30th March, 1759, an unfortunate affair hap- 
pened at Swalwell. A press-gang went thither in quest 
of men, but the inhabitants (Crowley's Crew) gave them 
a severe drubbing. Next night the gang returned, and 
another scufHe took place. One William Moffat, a 
barber, was seized, and Mr. Bell, one of the chief in- 
habitants, received fire stabs with a sword in different 
parts of his body, in consequence of which he died. 
Some others, on both aides, were dangerously wounded, 



including the midshipmen who headed the gang. 
Moffat made his escape, but a reward of 20 having 
been offered for his apprehension, he was arrested at 
Whitehaven by a man named Osborn, alias Captain 
Death, so nick-named for his performance in singing a 
celebrated ditty relating to the captain of the Terrible 
privateer, whose servant he had formerly been. Moffat 
was lodged in Carlisle gaol, and afterwards brought to 
Durham, where he was tried at the assizes in August, 
1759, but acquitted. 

In the same year (May 14), about thirty impressed 
men, on board a tender at Sunderland, forcibly made 
their escape. The bravery of their leader was remark- 
able. Being hoisted on deck by his followers, he wrested 
the halbert from the sentinel on duty, and with one band 
defended himself, while with the other he let down a 
ladder into the hold for the rest to come up, which they 
did, and then overpowered the crew. 

The following year (1760), a tender sailed from Shields 
with sixty impressed men on board. As soon as she had 
got out to sea, the men found means to release them- 
selves, and, getting possession of the vessel, took her 
into Scarborough and made their escape, leaving the 
lieutenant and his men battened down under hatches. 

A few years later (1771), the impressed men on board the 
Boacawen cutter, lying at Shields, found an opportunity 
to overpower the watch on deck, and fifteen of them 
escaped. The sentinel, in opposing them, lost three of 
his fingers by the stroke of a cutlass, and an officer was 
desperately wounded in the head. 

On February 12th, 1777, about eight o'clock in the 
evening, the impressed men on board the Union tender 
at Shields rose upon the crew, took possession of the 
ship, and, notwithstanding the fire from the other 
tenders and from Clifford's Fort, carried her out to 

A memorable affair occurred at Sunderland on Feb. 13, 
1783. The sailors at that port, having got liberty to go 
on shore, through the temporary cessation of impressment 
at the close of the first American war, resolved to take 
summary and condign vengeance on the persons who had 
informed against them and their mates while the press- 
gang was in active operation. The informers who were 
caught were mounted upon stout poles or stangs, and 
carried through the principal streets, exposed to the 
insults of the populace. The women, in particular, 
bedaubed them plentifully with rotten eggs, soap suds, 
mud, &c. The drummers of the North York regiment of 
Militia (the Black Cuffs), quartered in the town, got 
orders to beat to arms, and the soldiers paraded the 
streets, which had the effect of clearing them. Amongst 
the informers slanged at this time was Jonathan Coates, 
of Arras's Lane, Sunderland, commonly known as " Jotty 
Coates," who, after undergoing severe punishment on the 
etang, reached his home nearly dead. During the night, 
he heard a noise, which he supposed to be the infuriated 

populace coming after him again, when he crawled into a 
narrow space between Arras's and Baines's Lane, where 
he died. The popular fury ran so high that his relatives 
durst not attempt to bury him in daylight, and his body 
lay in his house until late in the evening of the 20th, 
when some militiamen carried it to Sunderland Church- 
yard, where it was interred without any funeral ceremony. 
The register of burials thus records the interment : 
"Jonathan Coates, February 20th, 1783." 

In February, 1793, the seamen at Shields, Newcastle, 
Sunderland, Blyth, and all along the eastern coast, 
entered into resolutions to resist any attempt to press 
them. On Tuesday, the 19th, they got hold of the press- 
gang at North Shields, and, reversing their jackets, as a 
mark of contempt, conducted them, accompanied by a 
numerous crowd, to Chirton toll-bar, where, dismissing 
them, they gave them three cheers, and told them never 
again to enter Shields, or they should be torn limb from 
limb. On the 18th of the ensuing month, the sailors to 
the number of 500 assembled in a riotous manner, armed 
with swords, pistols, and other weapons, and made an 
attempt to seize the Eleanor tender, in order to rescue the 
impressed men on board. But their design was rendered 
abortive by the activity of the officers of the impressment 
service. The seamen, next day, contemplated going to 
Newcastle to break up the head-quarters of the gangj 
but, hearing that a strong civil and military force (includ- 
ing the Dragoons and North York Militia) were ready to 
receive them, they dispersed, after having treated one 
George Forster, a member of the gang, with the utmost 
cruelty at Howdon Pans. On the 26th April, most 
extraordinary preparations for impressing were made by 
the crews of the armed vessels lying in Shields harbour 
That night, the regiment lying at Tynemouth barracks 
was drawn up, and formed into a cordon round North 
Shields, to prevent any person from escaping. The 
different press-gangs then began their rounds, when 
sailors, mechanics, labourers, and men of every descrip- 
tion, to the number of about two hundred and fifty, were 
forced on board the armed ships. 

It would be tedious to describe, or even enumerate, the 
various press-gang riots, similar to the above, which took 
place on the Tyne and Wear almost every season down to 
the peace of Amiens. After the resumption of hostilities 
in 1803, the like scenes began again to be acted. The coal 
trade was constantly being thrown out of gear, so to 
speak, through the best men on board the colliers being 
dragged away, and the keelmen likewise forcibly pounced 
upon. In the month of April, 1804, a young seaman, 
named Stoddart, being pursued by the press gang down 
the Broad Chare, Newcastle, jumped into the Tyne to 
escape, and was drowned in attempting to swim across 
to Gateshead. 

Where brute force would have failed or been out of 
place, all sorts of discreditable arts were tried by the 
press-gang. Jonathan Martin, the man who set fire to 

January \ 


York Minster, relates, in bis autobiography, how he was 
inveigled by one of the gang. He says : 

In my twenty-second year (1804), I removed to London, 
my mind being intent on travelling to foreign countries. 
One day, while viewing the Monument, a man accosted 
me, perceiving that f was a stranger in town, and 
inquired if I wanted a situation. I informed him of my 
desire to go abroad. He said he could suit me exactly, as 
a gentleman of his acquaintance had a son on board a 
frigate on the Indian station, who wanted a person of my 
description, and that he would give me 32s. a week, 
besides my chance of prize money, which he assured me 
would I e great. I agreed to go as a substitute for this 
man, unconscious that I was in the hands ot the press- 
gang ; but I was soon undeceived by my pretended friend 
lodging me in the rendezvous, where I remained until I 
was removed on board the Enterprise, with a number of 
other impressed men. When I came to be sworn in, I 
found myself on a footing with tbe rest of my unfortunate 

Strange incidents occasionally took place in connection 
with the press system. In 1813 (February 18) a sailor 
named Bell, belonging to the Close, Newcastle, was 
impressed, and safely lodged in the house of rendezvous. 
In the evening, his sister, a young woman under twenty, 
formed the resolution of attempting his rescue, and, for 
that purpose, went to take a "long farewell" of her 
brother, who was to be sent to the tender in the morning. 
She was readily admitted to an interview, but, in order to 
prevent the possibility of escape, brother and sister were 
bolted and barred, for a few minutes, in a room by them- 
selves. During this short space, they managed to 
exchange clothes, and, on the door being opened, the 
young man, "snivelling and piping his eye, "walked off 
unmolested in female attire, while his sister remained to 
fill the situation of a British tar. "It would be diffi- 
cult," says a writer in the European Magazine, who tells 
the story, " to describe the rage and disappointment of 
the gang on discovering how they had been duped ; and 
crowds of persons went to see the heroine, who received 
several pounds from the spectators as a reward for her 
intrepidity and affection. She was soon restored to her 
liberty by order of the magistrates." 

The head-quarters of the gang in Newcastle were at the 
Plough Inn, in Spicer Lane, where a room down the yard 
was the "press room." The gang was at one time com- 
manded by Lieut. Frazer, two midshipmen, a man named 
Corby, and another named Richardson. Both the latter 
had been in the coasting trade before the war, and subsided 
into river pilots after its close. One of them was years 
afterwards " tyler " of a Freemasons' Lodge, and, falling 
into reduced circumstances, found no small difficulty in 
obtaining the usual benevolence of the brethren in con- 
sequence of his past misdeeds. 

The " regulating room " was in that part of the Low 
Street of North Shields called Bell Street, near the 
"Wooden Dolly," on the Custom House Quay. The 
"regulating captain" was one Charlton, who had under 
him a lieutenant, named Flynn, and two midshipmen, 
named Fidler and Bell. Two tenders, the Eliza and the 
Lyra, took their turns on the station in "Peggy's Hole," 

to carry off the sweepings of the gang one of whom, by 
the bye, was a one-legged man, named Harry Swallow- 
to the Lemio, the guard-ship at the Nore. 

We are indebted to a well-informed writer, whose 
article appeared in tbe Newcastle Weekly Chronicle several 
years ago, for the following particulars, which seem neces- 
sary to complete our present sketch : 

Besides the regular gang, there was a small knot of 
amateur spies and informers, who travelled the country 
for miles round, tracking the sailors to Morpeth and other 
inland parts, if they sought shelter with their friends 
from forcible abduction. These vagabond auxiliaries of 
the gang, skilful to recognise the sailor's roll through the 
disguises of long-tailed coats, leather aprons, drab gaiters, 
and other vain subterfuges, represented themselves to be 
in biding, lured the sailors to their own dwellings, and 
then gave secret information to the gang. It fared ill 
sometimes with these gentry when they were found out. 
On one of these occasions, in the year 1812, a spy, who 
repaired to tbe regulating room at Shields to receive the 
head money for the men be bad betrayed, was smuggled 
down a trap-door leading on to the shore, but was recog- 
nised and followed. He soon fled for his life, with a mob 
of sailors and keelmen at bis heels, up the Low Street, and 
took shelter in a house in Bartleman's Bank. The door 
was broken open, and he was thrown down, like a fox 
to a pack of hungry hounds, but doubled on his pursuers, 
who followed him full cry till he was run to earth in the 
hothouse in Squire Collingwood's gardens at Cbirton. 
Scourged with whin bushes, he was made to run the 
gantefope to the Low Lights. Tradesmen put up their 
shutters, and the peaceable inhabitants shrunk within 
doors, for tbe disturbance had assumed the dimensions of 
a riot. Opposite the tender the mob gave three hearty 
cheers to let tbe imprisoned seamen know what was being 
enacted. The men, battened under hatches, by way of 
response, " sallied " the tender till she rolled almost gun- 
wale under, and the officer on board ordered the armed 
crew to tire into tbe hold upon the unarmed men if they 
did not desist. Under these threats something like order 
was restored. The spy was rescued from the bands of his 
tormentors by a rush of the friends of peace who came to 
the assistance of the two constables, then the whole civil 
force of North Shields, and he was dragged, panting, 
bleeding, mud-bedraggled, wounded, and half-dead, into 
tbe Northumberland Arms, to limp home under the cloud 
of night, and resume his honest labours for the public 
good. In 1815 he had another narrow escape for his life. 
At Low Heaton Haugh, then called "Dunny's Green," 
he was tarred and feathered, beaten by the women who 
put stones in their stockings for the purpose and. he 
owed his life to the forbearance of the men he bad 
betrayed, who rescued him from his more merciless tor- 
mentors of tbe other sex. 

The press-gang drove many thousands of active, able- 
bodied British seamen into the American merchant navy 
as well as sent them a-privateering against their fellow- 
countrymen in tbe last American War. Indeed, that war 
was partly caused by the wanton exercise of the right of 
search claimed by the British Government, whose officers 
were accused of taking naturalised American citizens out 
of American vessels, on the ground that they were his 
Majesty's born subjects, and pressing them into King 
George's service. On the other hand, it was no uncommon 
thing for British seamen, captured by the enemy, to 
recognise old shipmates in the masters and sailors 
by whom they were made prisoners. Under this abomin- 
able system, it was estimated that there were at least 
forty thousand British seamen, in tbe year 1812, navi- 
gating merchant ships in neutral vessels under cover of 


\ i 

American protections. That was when the whole tonnage 
of the United Kingdom iu the merchant and transport 
service employed only about 120,000 men. 

Impressment, as may be inferred from what we have 
said, laid its unsparing hands upon useless landsmen as 
well as upon seamen ; and, notwithstanding the fact that 
they were always inefficient, it continued to be the prac- 
tice, so long as the system lasted, to receive on board his 
Majesty's ships any landsmen whom the gang could pick 
up, if they were not physically disqualified. Lord 
Collingwood, who deservedly earned the honourable title 
of the Sailors' Friend, was ever adverse to impressment, 
which he was of opinion might be dispensed with, even in 
war time. Soon after the Mutiny of the Nore, he laid a 
plan before the Admiralty for recruiting the navy by 
raising yearly several thousand boys, whom he would 
have had taught and prepared in ships of the line before 
they were sent into smaller vessels. But, like many 
other excellent schemes of the kind, it was never carried 
into effect, though the modern training ships, such as the 
Wellesley, may be called a modification of it. 

The system of impressment has not been put in force 
for many years now, nor is it likely that it will ever be 

JlUCH interest has from time to time been 
excited in the origin and meaning of a couplet 
^_^_ that is well-known on the banks of the Tyne. 
It has recently been revived by a correspondence which 
has taken place in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. The 
lines run thus : 

The Black Cock of Whickham, he never ran away, 
But once on the Sunday, and twice every day. 

One writer explains that the " black cock " was a 
certain rector who, being too fond of his glass, often ran 
away from his duties, while another asserts that the term 
was appliud to Charles Attwood, the celebrated politician, 
whose career has been sketched in the Monthly Chronicle 
for 1888, p. 56. But Mr. William Bourn writes from 
Whickham : . 

The couplet has been applied not only to Charles 
Attwood, but to any celebrity, and especially to runners, 
rowers, and bowlers, that either were trained in or 
belonged to Whickham. When the lines were composed, 
I am not prepared to say. They have been repeated for 
at least 150 years, old people now living having heard 
them sung by'their grandfathers. 

Why the couplet was written may be more easily 
explained. Cock-fighting was once a favourite sport 
of the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood, as 
well as of the keelmen and pitmen. There is an entry 
made in the books at Gibside of Sir J. Bowes engaging 
workmen to make eight cock-pits at Whickham, one of 
which and I believe the last has lately been filled up at 
Windy Hill, about a mile out of the village. There was 
another famous cock-pit at Dunston Hill, and one on the 
site where the Swalwell Station in built. The last vestige 

of the brutal sport has now disappeared from the village. 
There were several famous breeds of cocks. One of them 
belonged to Sir J. Bowes, being white with yellow backs. 
Another belonged to Sir H. Liddell, white with " brass 
wings. There was also a breed of black cocks, lo whom 
it belonged I am unable to ascertain. But undoubtedly 
it was one of this famous breed which has obtained for 
itself such a world-wide reputation for courage and 
endurance. It must have lived two centuries ago, and 
hence the guesses about the origin of the lines. 

The tune sung and played to the couplet repeated is, 1 
believe, strictly local, and rather inspiring. By reason of 
the roving habits of North-Countrymen, it is known m 
nearly all our colonies. A friend of mine who had been 
in Australia informed me that he was both startled and 
pleased on one occasion, when he and others were trans- 
acting business in the bush among the wilds of that 
country, to hear the tune played by a fiddler. It turned 
out that the player was a Sunderland man who had gone 
to make his fortune as a goldfinder, and had taken his 
fiddle with him. 

Mr. John Stokoe, of South Shields, the compiler of the 
"North-Country Garland of Song," agrees with Mr. 
Bourn as to the improbability of a song having ever been 
sung to the tune, which is essentially a fiddlers' tune. 
The intervals, he says, show it to be of the usual type of 
reels, possessing all the best characteristics of the " reel 
rhythm," although he has never seen it in any collection 
of reels printed north of the Tweed. Mr. Stokoe adds : 

When the Antio.uarian Society of Newcastle began in 
1857 to collect the'melodies and ballads of Northumuria, 
the committee made a close search for the songs of which 
only scraps of words were known, such as " Shew's the 
Way to Wallington," "Sir John Fenwick's the Flower 
AmangTbem," "Fenwick of Bywell," "The Black Cock 
of Whickham," &c., &c. ; and I regret to say in few in- 
stances only were they successful, failing altogether in 
the four I have named. 

The tune subjoined is taken from "Northumbrian 
Minstrelsy," published in 1882, edited by Mr. Stokoe and 
the Rev. J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D. 


1891. / 


Eft* $f afttiicgtrl* antt atfter 

^CORDING to Morris, the nightingale 
(Sylvia luscinia) is found in Italy, France, 
Spain, and Greece, and the more temperate 
parts of Siberia, Sweden, Holland, Den- 
mark, Germany, and Russia. It is known also in Asia. 
Asia Minor, and Syria, and in Egypt, along the Nile, 
Nightingales are plentiful in England. They have been 
seen in the neighbourhood of Doncaster, and near York, 
at Skelton, about five miles north of the ancient city ; near 
Beverley, Barnsley, Leeds, and Sheffield ; Cumberland, as 
far north as Carlisle. Woods, groves, plantations, and 
copses are the niehtingale's favourite resort, but it is also 
found in gardens, even in the neighbourhood of London, 
and also among thick hedges in shady and sheltered 

Nightingales feed on insects of various sorts, including 
spiders and earwigs. The young are fed principally with 
caterpillars. Male : Weight about six drachms ; length, 
six inches and three-quarters. The upper bill is blackish 
brown, with a tinge of red ; the lower one is pale 
yellowish, and dusky brown at the tip ; iris, dark brown ; 
the feathers of the eyelids brownish white ; head, crown, 
neck on the back, and nape, uniform dull chestnut 
brown ; chin and throat, dull greyish white ; breast, pale 
greyish brown, but lighter lower down ; back, reddish 
brown, varying considerably in different individuals, some 

being more red and others more grey. The wings, of 
eighteen quills, have the first quill feather very short; 
the second equal in length to the fifth ; the third the 
longest ; the fourth almost as long. They extend to the 
width of ten inches and a half ; primaries, secondaries, 
and tertiaries, reddish brown ; the inner webs dusky 
brown. The tail, which reaches an inch and a Quarter 
beyond the closed wings, is rufous brown, and rather 
rounded at the end. It is straight and rather long ; the 
feathers rather broad. Under tail coverts dull yellowish 

white. The female resembles the male, but is rather less 
in size. 

The nest is generally placed on the ground in some 
natural hollow in the roots of a tree, on a bank, or at the 
foot of a hedgerow. 

The blackcap warbler (Sylvia atricaptila) is a spring 
and autumn migrant. It is such a fine songster that it 
is sometimes called the mock nightingale. It must not, 
however, be confounded with the black-headed bunting. 
"This charming songster," says Mr. Hancock, "is found 

in all our denes and thickets where there is a dense 
growth of underwood or scrub, formed by the blackthorn, 
bramble, rose, and honeysuckle. Here it constructs its 
nest, and finds the seclusion in which it delights. It 
arrives in April and leaves us in September, and at that 
time may be met with on the coast. Individuals, how- 
ever, winter in the district. Mr. Dale, of Brancepeth, 
Durham, shot a male on the 15th December, 1848, in his 
garden, where it was feeding on the berries of the privet; 
and about two years afterwards the same gentleman 
killed a female, likewise in December, and near the same 
place." The Rev. J. G. Wood waxes eloquent in speak- 
ing of the song of this bird, which, in some respects, he 
rates even higher than that of the nightingale. "With 
the exception of the nightingale," he remarks, "the 
blackcap warbler is the sweetest and richest of all the 
British song-birds, and in many points the voice of the 
blackcap is even superior to that of the far-famed 

The male bird averages from five to six inches in 
length, sometimes a little more. The bill is dusky-hued ; 
and the crown of the head, or "cap, "is black, slightly 
flecked with a lighter tinge. The chin and root of the 
bill to the gape is yellowish orange up to the eye, and 
merges into a bluish-grey patch which runs to the 
shoulder ; iris, dark brown. The back is brownish ash- 
coloured, the wing coverts being darker and edged with 
black. The throat, breast, and under parts are ash- 
coloured, with a tinge of grey beneath. The tail, grey 
beneath, is coloured above like the wings, rather long. 



I Januar j 
\ 1891. 

and square at the end. The female resembles the male, 
but her plumage gent-rally bos a more brownish tinge. 
She is a trifle larger, or rather longer, than her mate, and 
her cap, unlike that of the male, is reddish brown. 

The food of the blackcap warbler in summer is chiefly 
insects and caterpillars, but it is also fond of garden fruit 
and wild berries. On a sunny summer's afternoon it may 
often be seen fluttering about the trunks of trees, picking 
off the metallic-hued flies which love to bask on the warm 
boles. Often the bird catches flies on the wing by a rapid 
dart from some low branch. 

The garden warbler (Sylvia hortenaisj is a spring and 

autumn migrant. "This warbler," says Mr. Hancock, 
" takes up its residence, during its summer sojourn with 
us, in sequestered localities similar to those chosen by its 
rival in song, the blackcap. The nest and eggs of the two 
species are very similar ; and their song is so very much 
alike that it is very difficult to distinguish them." The 

bird arrives in this country about April, and leaves early 
in September. 

The male bird is about six inches long. The bill 
is dusky brown, the base and edges of the lower man- 
dible yellow, and the inside of the mouth a bright orange. 
The iris of the eye is dark brown, with a small speck of 
white. The crown of the head and the upper part of the 
back are greyish brown, the plumage down to the root of 
the tail, above, being of a lighter tinge, with a dash of 
olive. The wings and tail arc nearly the same colour as 
the head and upper part of the back. The neck on the 
sides is brownish grey ; chin and throat, yellowish white, 
the lower and upper parts tinged with reddish brown, as 
are the sides; the remainder yellowish white, almost 
white below. The tail is straight and slightly rounded at 
the end ; and the toes and claws are greyish brown. The 
female closely resembles the male in size and appearance, 
but is rather lighter coloured in plumage above, and 
greyer below. 

The nest is sometimes placed among nettles, on which 
account the bird is often called the nettle creeper. 

antt tftr 

pRUDHOE, from Proud Hoe, the proud hill, 
or Prut How, the swelling mound, is a 
prosperous mining village on the south 
bank of the Tyne, some nine miles or BO 
west of Newcastle. The river at this place begins to 
show traces of that beauty which, higher up, at Stocks- 
field and Riding Mill, renders the Tyne one of the most 

1891. / 


charming of North-Country streams. On the north bank, 
the picturesque village of Ovingham, in which parish 
Prudhoe is situated, nestles amongst its trees, the tower 
of its ancient church being a rare feature in the land- 
scape. On a stately mount between the river and the 
village of Prudhoe stands the fine old castle of the Umfra- 
villes. Lon^ has it been in ruins, though to-day the 
modern mason has been at his patchwork, building up 
a nineteenth century dwelling-house, as well as he 
could, in the midst of mouldering, tottering walls. 

The first of the Umfraville family who came into 
Northumberland was a companion of William the 
Conqueror Robert cum Barba, Robert with the Beard. 
To him the barony of Prudhoe was granted for the 
honourable service of defending the country against 
wolves and the King's enemies with the sword which 
William himself wore when he entered Northumbria. 
The old barony extended to Harlow and Welton 
in the parish of Ovingham, Inghoe in the parish of 
Stamfordham, Chipchase and Birtley in the parish of 
Chollerton, Little Bavington right away in the parish 
of Throckington, even to Capheaton and Harle and 
Kirkwhelpington in the parish of Whelpington, and 
also included the manor and chapelry of Little Heaton, 
or Kirk Heaton. 

Do yon ask what the Urufravilles did to entitle them 
to fame? They did what others did in the times in 
which they lived ; helped the Norman kings and barons 
to rul England, no easy task at that time ; fought in 
their wars, took part in the lone Border struggles with 
the Scots, and worked to re-make Northumberland after 
it had been almost, what with Danes, what with Nor- 

mans, and what with Scots, blotted out. He who 
built the oldest portion of the castle of Prudhoe, 
Odenel de Umfraville, was one of the chief supporters of 
Henry II. against the aggressions of the Scots. When it 
was built, not without much sweating and wearing of bones 
and muscle* on the part of the peasantry on the estates, 
Odenel defended it, like the noble soldier that he was, 
against the army brought by William the Lion, in 1174, 
to devastate England. In that invasion his own castle of 
Harbottle was taken by the Scottish King, the castle of 
Warkworth was captured and destroyed, and Carlisle and 
Werk were surrendered. At Newcastle the Lion King 
was repulsed, and then betook himself to Prudhoe, but 
there again his attempt was frustrated, and he was 
afterwards surprised and taken prisoner with some of his 
attendants at Alnwick. Jordan Fantosme, in his metrical 
chronicle, tells us that Prudhoe was admirably defended. 
Odenel de Umfraville, fearing the garrison too weak to 
hold the castle, rode away on horseback day and night 
tillJie succeeded in getting together four hundred knights 
to help him. After three days' continual assault, the 
Scots, who had made no impression whatever on the 
defenders, abandoned the siege, having first, in their dis- 
appointment and chagrin at not being able to do more 
damage, ravaged the gardens, the cornfields, and the 
goodly orchard, in which they barked all the apple 
trees. Fine sport this for the noble warriors of a king's 
army \ 

Richard de Umfraville, who died in the eleventh year of 
the reign of Henry III., having lived all through King 
John's reign, was engaged in the chief transactions in the 
North during the whole of his life, and took a prominent 






part in resisting the usurpation and exactions of that 
monarch. Richard was, too, a companion of Coeur da 
Lion in the East, and we learn from Harding that, when 
the King had concluded a three years' truce with 
Saladin, "home he went" 

And of Acres he made then captain 
The Baron bold Sir Kichard Umfraville. 

Richard's son, Gilbert, although nothing has come 
down to us of his deeds, is highly extolled by the 
chronicler, Matthew Paris, who terms him " the 
illustrious baron, the defender of the North, and the 
flower of chivalry." His son, also Gilbert, was made 
Earl of Angus under peculiar circumstances by Edward I. 
He was first styled Earl of Angus in a charter granting 
him a market at Overton, on his Rutlandshire estate, in 
the fifty-first year of Henry III. But he was not sum- 
moned to Parliament under this title till the fifth year of 
Edward I., and, yet, several times later, be is sum- 
moned, not as Earl of Angus, but as Gilbert de 

Gilbert, the third Earl of Angus, married Matild* de 
Lucy, an heiress, who had as her second husband Henry 
de Percy, Earl of Northumberland, to whom she brought, 
besides her other great possessions, the castles of Cocker- 

mouth, Warkworth, and Prudhoe. These estates were 
settled on the Earl of Northumberland on condition of his 
quartering the arms of Lucy namely, gules, three lucies 
argent with the Percy bearings of or, a lion rampant, 
azure, in all shields, banners, and coats-of-arms, as may 
now be seen. Thenceforth Prudhoe shared the for- 
tunes of the Percies, and by them was later to be 
held rebelliously against the Crown. The aged Earl 
of Northumberland and his son, the gallant Hotspur, 
who considered themselves chiefly instrumental in placing 
Henry IV. on the throne, became dissatisfied with that 
monarch's wretched administration, and rebuked the 
king and his council for their want of consideration of the 
Percies, to whom they were so indebted for their ser- 
vices on the Scottish marches, and to whom the 
king himself was under considerable pecuniary obliga- 
tions. Their reasonable appeals being slighted, the 
Percies took part with Owen Glendower in his Welsh 
outbreak. The fiery Hotspur perished at Shrewsbury, 
and the Earl of Northumberland was obliged to take 
refuge across the Border, whence he made various raids 
and ineffectual attempts to create insurrections. The 
earl was finally killed at Bramham Moor, his body being 
quartered and exposed at Lincoln, York. Newcastle, and 

January \ 
1891. / 



Berwick. Meantime, Henry personally besieged Wark- 
worth, and Prudhoe and Alnwick were compelled to sur- 
render. The castle and barony of Frudhoe, with the 
rest of their estates, were forfeited, but were afterwards 
restored to the Percies, who, with slight breaks, have 
ever since retained them. 
During the Wars of the Roses, the castle of Prudhoe 


.y v ! - -I Y ..<. , 

was kept in a state of fortification, but there is no note- 
worthy incident connected with it. After the accession 
of the Tudor line, it was neglected, and allowed to fall 
into decay. Lodge says it was tenanted in 1557 
by Henry Percy, brother of Thomas, Earl of North- 
umberland ; but two years later it is described as 
"old and ruinous, being walled about, and 
in form not much unlike a shield hanging 
with one point upwards, situate upon a 
high moate of earth, with high ditches in 
some places, all wrought with man's hand 
as it seemeth, and is of cement, all the scite 
of it, with, as it seemeth, a little garden 
plat, and the bankes, by estimatcion, sc. iii 
acres. There is within the scite, and 
without the walls, an elder chapell, which 
hath been very fair, and covered with 

Prudhoe Castle is entered from the 
south-west by a strong gateway and barbi- 
can, which latter is assumed, from the 
character of the masonry, to be the latest 
portion of the structure. From marks OK 
the stones it is estimated that it was built 
at the close of the reign of Edward I. 
by Gilbert de Umfraville, second Earl of 
Angus, or by his nephew, third earl ; 
and it is conjectured, according to these 
same stone marks, that the workmen who 
built it laboured also in a similar capacity 
at Dunstanburgh and Alnwick. At the 
time when the barbican was built, the 

upper chamber in the gateway tower was converted 
into a chapel, which, it is worthy of note, contains 
the first oriel window that was ever made in England. 
Various theories have been propounded to account for 
this notable departure, some averring that the room 
was not large enough to contain an altar, and 
consequently a portion of the building was carried out 
on corbels to give the requisite space. But the most likely 
way of accounting for it is one given by Mr. Cadwallader 
J. Bates, who knows perhaps more about the old North- 
umbrian castles than anybody living. He thinks that, 
the topmost storey, above the chapel, being used as a 
sleeping apartment, probably by the priest, and it being 
against all practice to have any inhabited structure above 
the altar, this oriel window was carried out beyond the 
walls of the gateway, so that nothing especially no such 
thing as a bedroom should intervene between the most 
sacred part of the chapel and the vault of heaven. 
Another notable feature in the architecture of the gate- 
way is the purity of moulding in the very fine double corbels 
at the base of the inside arch. Moreover, except in the 
Cathedral at Durham, it is uncommon to find two heads, 
as here, side by side, in a corbel. The outer and inner gate- 
ways, connected by strong walls, werejn ruins as early as 
in Queen Elizabeth's time, but they are believed to have 
carried a covered way. The interior of the castle walls 
is an indeterminate ruin, a conglomeration of crumbling 
towers, of which the noblest are the remains of the grand 
old keep, which still overtops all the other buildings. 
Hutchinson, who has accurately described Prudhoe 



f January 
( 189). 

Castle as be saw it, says : "The first gateway is formed 
by a circular arch ; and by the fragments and broken 
walls it evidently appears that it was originally flanked 
with various outworks, and had a tower. This gate gives 
admittance to a covered way, leading to the inner gate, 
about 30 paces in length. There is a sallyport opening on 
each side to flank the walls and defend the ditch. There 
is no appearance of a portcullis in either gateway. The 
second gateway is also formed by a circular arch, above 
which is a high tower, the windows showing that it 
contained three tiers of apartments. A lattice or open 
gate still remains jointed with studs of iron. The roof of 
the gateway is arched in semi-circles, with an aperture in 
the centre from whence those in the upper chamber might 
annoy an enemy who bad forced the gate. From thence 
you enter an area, now so blocked up by the buildings of 
a farm-yard and tenement that it is not possible to form 
any idea of its original magnitude, though it appears by 
the other parts that an open area had surrounded the 
great tower, which does not show any remains of com- 
munication with the outworks, but seems to have stood 
apart on an eminence in the centre. The outward wall 
was defended on the angle to the south-west by a large 
square bastion with loopholes ; to the north-west by a 
circular tower containing several tiers of low chambers, 
singular in their form and height. The inhabitants 
could not have stood erect in them at the time of defence. 
Towards the river, and northward, the wall is guarded 
by several small square bastions, and towards the south- 
east a small mount, placed within the walls, overlooks the 
ditch which guards the southern side and terminates at 
he brink of the cliffs. The large tower is in ruins, only 
the southern wall now standing, and not one bastion 
remains entire, they being all in ruins towards the area. 
A passage runs in the centre of the wall from bastion to 
bastion. Steps ascend in several places from the area to 
the top of the wall, which is broad enough to allow the 
trmed men of the garrison to pass each other, covered 
with a parapet." 

After Mr. Hutchinson's time, the structure suffered con- 
siderable dilapidations, and part of the main tower tumbled 
down ; but the Duke of Northumberland subsequently 
put the whole in a state of repair, and adopted measures 
to preserve the remains. Apartments were also built 
within the area of the castle, but in a most wretched 
taste, quite out of keeping with the venerable walls, for 
the accommodation of a resident steward. 

The older parts of the castle were probably erected 
during the reigns of Stephen and Henry II., when so 
many other baronial fortresses were built. The barbican 
and chapel are said to belong to the reign of Edward I. or 
the early part of that of his unhappy successor ; but the 
lancet windows must have been put in subsequently. 

From an inquisition held in the 18th year of King 
Edward II. it appears that Robert de Umfraville held on 
the day of his death, sixteen years before, the castle and 

manor of Frudhoe, with an orchard belonging to the 
manor. The castle and orchard were worth 1 per 
annum in times of peace, but worth nothing then, on 
account of the destructions of the Scots and the poverty 
of the country. The pigeon-house was worth one shilling 
per annum in times of peace, then nothing, for the 
pigeons were destroyed. One hundred and twenty acres 
of land in demesne was worth sixpence per acre per 
annum in times of peace, then nothing, for they lay waste 
in the lord's hands for want of tenants. Six acres of 
meadow were worth in times of peace sixpence per acre 
per annum, then twopence. And five bondages, each 
containing a toft and sixteen acres ot land, were then 
worth nothing per annum, for want of tenants. This 
gives us a curious insight into the state of the North of 
England six hundred years ago. 

The arms of the Umfravilles are : Gules, a cinquefoil 
within an orle of crosses palonce or. The crest is : Out of 
a mural coronet gules, a griffin's head issuant, ermine. 
The coat of arms may be seen sculptured on the battle- 


ment of the south front of the walls of the Eladon 
parsonage one of the most interesting buildings in 
the county. These arms are, as Hodgson conjectures, 
those of Sir Robert Taylboys, who was descended from a 
branch of the Umfravilles. The inscription below the 
arms is R. D. Rede, which, being interpreted, signifies, 
Robertus Dominus de Rede, or, BS the vulgar tongue hath 
it, Robert, Lord of Rede. It may, however, refer either 
to Sir Robert Taylboys, as stated above, or to Sir Robert 
Umfraville, who died in 1436, shortly after some important 
repairs had been made to Elsdon Castle. It may not 
be out of the way to draw attention to the similarity of 
these arms of the Umfravilles to those of the Umfrevilles of 
Langham, in Essex, and no doubt the latter are a branch 
of the same Norman family that came over with the 
Conqueror. They are : Gules, an orle of crosses flory, 
and cinqfoil or ; and the crest is an eagle's head coupt 
(couped) p'per (proper) out of a ducal crowu or. 




ffitn at itfarfc ' 

SSelforl). /munch, /..&., 

SEVERAL members of the race of Fenwick 
have become at various times citizens of 
Newcastle ; a few of them have achieved 
. _ distinction in the public life of the town. 
Nicholas Fenwick, to whom Ambrose Barnes surrendered 
his alderman's gown, and Vicar March dedicated his 
sermon, "The False Prophet Unmasked," filled the office 
of Sheriff in the municipal year 1678-79, and was Mayor 
in 1682-83 and 1697-98. Robert Fenwick became Mayor 
in 1708. Nicholas Fenwick (2) obtained the shrievalty in 
1713, and was five times Mayor-1720-21, 1726-27. 1736-37, 
1746-47, and 1747-48. He contested the borough as Par- 
liamentary candidate on three successive occasions (1727, 
1734, and 1741), and in each instance wat successful. His 
town residence was the mansion in Pilgrim Street, after- 
wards converted into the Queen's Head Inn, and now the 
home of the Liberal Club; his country seat was at 
Lemington, near Alnwick, where he distinguished him- 
self in forestry, for which he was honoured with the gold 
medal of the Society of Arts. Cuthbert Fenwick. 
passing through the shrievalty in 1719-20, filled the office 
of chief magistrate in 1727-28, and 1739-40. William 
Fenwick was sheriff in 1732, and John Fenwick was 
elected an alderman in 1836. 

John Fenwick, the last of the series, attorney-at-law, 
known to his contemporaries as "John the Baptist," 
claimed descent from the historical family at Wallington, 
through one Ambrose Fenwick, who, he asserted, was a 
son of Sir William Fenwick, of Wallington, and therefore 
brother, or half-brother, to Sir William Fenwick, of 
Meldon, whose mother (Sir William of Wellington's 
second wife) was the famous Meg of Meldon. It is to be 
observed that no such person as this Ambrose occurs in 
Hodgson's elaborate genealogies of the Fenwicks, and if 
Mr. Fenwick's claim be well founded, it must be assumed 
that Mr. Hodgson overlooked him. To whom Ambrose 
Fenwick was married does not appear, but it is stated 
that the Rev. Edward Fenwick, Vicar of Stamfordham, 
in the reign of William and Mary, was his immediate 
descendant. From that point all is clear. There was a 
Rev. Edward Fenwick, who succeeded Ralph Fenwick, 
A.M., in the living of Stamfordham about the end of 
Charles the First's reign, and hnld the appointment for 
many years. He married in May, 1685, a daughter of 
Sir Francis Liddell, of Redheugh, who is supposed to 
have been the Sheriff of Newcastle in 1640, and the 
Mayor of that town in 1654. 
Upon the death of Sir Francis, the Rev. Edward 

Fenwick, in right of his wife, became possessed of 
Redheugh, and having two sons destined for the Church 
he exchanged that property with his " relative," the Earl 
of Derwentwater, for the advowson of Simonburn, one of 
the richest rectories in the diocese. The earl had 
married Catherine, one of the daughters of Sir William 
Fenwick, of Meldon, and would, therefore, if Ambrose 
were a brother or a half-brother of Sir William, bp a near 
relative indeed. His lordship entered at once into 
possession of Redheugh, for the occupant of the rectory 
of Simonburn was over ninety years of age, and it was 
supposed that no great delay would occur in effecting a 
complete interchange. But almost directly after the 
transaction had been arranged, the Rebellion of 1715 
broke out. Lord Derwentwater, as is well known, was 
one of the leaders in the insurrection, was attainted a 
rebel, and all his property became forfeit to the Crown. 
Thus the Rev. Edward Fenwick found himself deprived 
of his wife's estate, and shut out of Simonburn, through 
110 fault of his own truly a hard case. 

Pending suits against the Government for the restitu- 
tion of one or the other of these properties (which were 
resisted on the ground that the exchange was simoniacal), 
in December, 1730, the baffled clergyman died, leaving to 
his two clerical sons but a poor inheritance. The elder of 
them, Ambrose, had succeeded to the living of Stamford- 
ham on the resignation of his father in 1719; the 
other son, Edward, had been inducted vicar of 
Kirkwhelpington in 1720. Ambrose married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Mr. Bradley, attorney, at Gateshead, and 
died childless in 1732. Edward thereupon embarked in a 
new suit to oust the mominee of the Crown from Simon- 
burn, and, being unsuccessful, died 'heartbroken in 
July, 1734, leaving a widow, two sons, and six 
daughters in comparative poverty. Edward, his eldest 
son, was brought up by Mr. Fenwick, of Bywell, and 
designed for holy orders, but preferring a trade, 
he was bound apprentice to Mr. Toppin, a saddler, 
at Hexham. Subsequently he entered the army, and 
died abroad. His eldest son, also named Edward, 
was befriended by Sir Walter Blackett, who, it is said, 
believing him to be entitled to the estates of the cele- 
brated Dorothy Windsor, took possession of one of them 
in the name of the infant, and, being ejected, secured a 
sum of money for the youth, which was paid over to him 
when he had served his time at Hexham to his father's 
business of a saddler. This Edward Fenwick married 
Mary, daughter of John Shield, of Catton, and became 
the father of John Fenwick, attorney, the subject of the 
present article. 

John Fenwick was born at Hexham, April 14, 1787. 
His father intended him to follow the sea, towards which 
he had a boyish predilection, and with that view he was 
taught navigation by George Brown, a local mathema- 
tician, for many years editor of the " Newcastle Tide 
Tables." At the age of fourteen he went as cabin boy in 



r January 

a Shields vessel, stayed long enough to be promoted to 
the cook's galley, and then, conceiving a disgust at his 
surroundings, returned home and was articled to a New- 
castle attorney. On the 9th of June, 1814, he married 
Ann, youngest daughter of Abram Rumney, head master 
of Alnwick Grammar School, and began to make his way 
in the town. The first number of Mr. Joseph Clark's 
Northumberland and Newcastle Monthly Magazine 
(January, 1818) contains an article from his pen, dated 
"Shield Field, November 20, 1817," introducing a case 
relating to the practice of the Mayor and Sheriff's Court, 
in Newcastle the publication of which extended over 
several subsequent issues, and was supposed to correct 
some errors into which Wallis in his "History of North- 
umberland," and the Rev. John Hodgson in the "Picture 
of Newcastle," had unwittingly fallen. Before long Mr. 
Fenwick had become connected with the public life of 
Newcastle in many different directions. A staunch and 
argumentative Baptist, he interested himself in most of 
the leading Nonconformist movements of the day, while, 
as an evangelical dissenter, he co-operated with members 
of other denominations in promoting general schemes of 
piety and benevolence. Among these latter may be 
noted the providing of a cemetery for the interment of 
Nonconformists at the junction of Elswick Lane with 
Arthur's Hill a project that received its first impulse 
from a speech which he delivered in Newcastle in 1825, 
and afterwards published as a pamphlet. 

Moving thus actively in public matters, he became in 
time local treasurer to the Baptist Missionary Society, 
the Religious Tract Society, and the Newcastle Benevo- 
lent Society, and a member of the managing committees 
of the local Indigent and Sick Society, the Sunday School 
Union, the Bible Society, the Bethel Union, the Anti- 
Slavery Society, and kindred organisations. A founder 
and active promoter of the Newcastle and Gateshead 
Law Society, he was honoured by election to the suc- 
cessive offices of vice-president and president of the 
society ; an early nr.ember of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, he filled in after life the post of treasurer 
to that flourishing institution. 

At the elections which followed the passing of the 
Municipal Reform Act of 1835, Mr. Fenwick was nomi- 
nated as one of seventeen suitable persons to represent 
the burgesses of South St. Andrew's Ward in the 
Reformed Town Council. He was not elected, but at 
the first meeting of the new Council he was appointed 
an alderman, receiving twenty votes, being one vote 
more than Mr. James Hodgson, who stood at the 
bottom of the list. For some reason or other the 
position did not fit Mr. Fenwick. He attended eight 
out of twenty meetings of the Council, and then 

Mr. Fenwick was associated with John Trotttr 
Brockett, John Adamson, and others in the formation 
of the Newcastle Typographical Society. Though he 

wrote very little himself, he printed more tracts in the 
society's name than any other member, numbering indeed 
nearly a third of the whole series. 

To the " Archeeologia j3liana " Mr. Fenwick con- 
tributed nothing of his own, but he produced from his 
extensive collection relating to the Derwentwater family 
materials which enabled Mr. Longstaffe and the Rev. 
James Raine to add to the first three volumes of the 
octavo edition of that excellent publication a series of 
papers of great interest and value. In the first volume 
appear "Francis Radclyffe, First Earl of Derwent- 
water, "and "Sir Ed ward Radclyffe, of Dilston." In the 
second volume are "The Heirs General to Radclyffe of 
Derwentwater " and " Extracts from the Accounts of the 
Steward of Sir Francis Radclyffe, Bart., at Dilston, from 
June, 1686, to June, 1687"; while in volume three come 
"The Markets, Fairs, and Mills of Morpeth," and "Dis- 
continuance of an Action against a Recusant. " His son, 
John Clerevaulx Fenwick, contributed to the same 
volume (iii.) an interesting paper on " Bagpipes and Pipe 

Mr. Fenwick died in Newcastle on the 10th of April, 
1867, at the age of eighty. 



Among the fiery leaders who, sixty years ago, conducted 
the campaign upon Tyneside in favour of Parliamentary 
Reform and Municipal Freedom, the most dashing, if not 
the most daring or the most enduring, was the popular 
doctor, the bold huntsman, and the polished gentleman, 
who was known throughout the Northern Counties as 
"young Mr. Fife." 

John Fife was a son of William Fife, a Newcastle sur- 
geon, who practised his profession, at the beginning of 
the century, in Denton Chare, and afterwards till his 
death in 1839, at the house which still occupies the space 
between the west end of that narrow thoroughfare and 
the junction of Westgate Road with Collingwood Street. 
Born in 1795, and brought up to his father's calling, 
"young Mr. Fife" rapidly made his way in the town. 
A high-spirited young man, of polished address and 
courteous manners, abounding in wit and gallantry, able 
to ride to hounds, and conduct himself bravely in a 
drawing-room, he became a general favourite. His 
abilities in these directions helped him to a fortunate 
marriage. On the 26th of March, 1818, he was united at 
All Saints' Church to Elizabeth, second daughter of 
Joseph Bainbridge, a well-known solicitor, who lived in 
Pilgrim Street, in a house he had built for himself, and to 
which, in honour of the great military hero of the day, 
he had given the name of Wellington Place. 

About the time of his marriage, Mr. Fife, having taken 
up his freedom in the Incorporated Company of Barber 
Surgeons and Chandlers, began to practise on his own 

1891. / 



account in Newcastle. Fortune favoured him. The 
Corporation, noting his abilities, made him, in 1819, one 
of the town coroners; the Barber Surgeons, for similar 
reasons, elected him, in 1821, one of their stewards. A 
movement which he inaugurated the following year gave 
him wide popularity among the labouring classes. He 
had made diseases of the eye a special study, and in 
March, 1822, in conjunction with Mr. T. M. Greenhow, 
brother-in-law of Harriet Martineau, he started, upon a 
very modest scale, in Brunswick Place, a medical charity, 
known in after years aa the Newcastle Eye Infirmary. 
Becoming associated with some of the leaders of advanced 
thought in the town, and evincing sympathy with their 
principles, he was invited to co-operate in public move- 

ments of a political character. But to these allurements 
he turned, while his father-in-law lived, a deaf ear. In 
December, 1823, Mr. Bainbridge, undergoing an opera- 
tion in London for aneurism, suddenly died, and then the 
obstacle to Mr. Fife's entry into political life was re- 
moved. Strengthening his intimacy with local leaders, 
and extending his influence among the people, he waited 
for an opportunity to show his strength. The oppor- 
tunity was delayed. At the time of his emancipation 
political opinion in Newcastle was practically stagnant. 
"The great election" of 1826 stirred it a little; the 
struggle for Catholic emancipation produced a ripple or 
two; but for the most part the stream of political 
agitation in the North of England was'standing still. 

All of a sudden, in July, 1830, a revolution broke out 
in France, spread to Brussels, passed over to Brunswick 
and Saxony, and affected, more or less, every throne in 
Europe. In this country the democracy, cowed by the 
Mauchester massacre ten years before, were encouraged 
to lift up their heads and raise their voices once more. 
The Whigs, dexterously availing themselves of the 
democratic upheaval, joined forces with the proletariat in 
order to weaken the Tory Ministry under the Duke of 
Wellington, and agitate for Parliamentary and Adminis- 
trative Reform. In Newcastle, the two parties, Whigs 
and Radicals, met in Mr. Charnley's shop, and projected 
a town's meeting to be held in the Guildhall, for the 
purpose of attesting the "sympathy of Englishmen with 
the cause of liberty in France." At this meeting, held on 
the 7th September, 1830, the Mayor in the chair, Mr. 
Fife made his first public appearance on the political 
platform. Some stirring speeches were delivered so 
stirring, indeed, that they attracted the attention of the 
Age newspaper, which poured out upon the speakers the 
vials of its wrath in the following choice language : 

Mister- Alderman Cramlington was there, and a very fit 
fellow he is for such society ; and John Bowes Wright 
was there, the traveller, him wot told the meeting what 
he saw when he was in Paris ; Doctor Headlam and his 
hat, and Mister Fitfey and his stays, were both there ; 
and Tom Doubleday, sonnet writer and soap-boiler, was 
there, but he did not say six words he was Ashamed of 
his company ; and Aleck Reid, the auctioneer and pawn- 
broker, was there : and Ralph Park Philipson was there ; 
and the Green-eyed Monster was there ; and William 
Irving Wilkinson was there, the man wot wants to be 
called a squire ; and, in fact, all the desperate upon or 
about the town were there, . . . creatures who are as 
unknown in good society in England as they are to the 
inhabitants of Timbuctoo . . . the scum and dregs of 
the town and neighbourhood. Let the quacks of New- 
castle, medical and political, stick to their own business. 
Let them St. John Long their patients, or dabble on in 
coab and grindstones ; but do not let them deal in politics 
or revolutionary humbug. Emulsionary Headlam and 
Sarsaparilla Fife may do very well for the coalheavers 
and skippers of Newcastle, but they ire no more fit to 
embank the liberties of Europe than are the beavers on 
the lakes of America to prevent the outpouring of the 
waters at the Falls of Niagara. 

Once embarked upon a political career, Mr. Fife's zeal 
was limited only by his opportunities. He was one of the 
leading spirits in the formation of the Northern Political 
Union and one of the most effective and energetic 
speakers at the public and private gatherings of that 
triumphant organisation. To his skill in tactics the 
Union owed no small part of its success. While Larkin 
thundered forth fiery invective, Attwood threw out 
scathing satire, and Eneas Mackenzie emitted moral 
platitudes, Fife planned and plotted, marshalled and 
manoeuvred. Possessing a suavity of manner that soothed 
the turbulent, and cultivating a polished rhetoric that 
disarmed the rebellious, he could plead, argue or de- 
nounce with equal facility and effect. Yet, while never 
losing his temper, nor allowing himself to be drawn into 
excess of language, gesture, or demeanour, he knew how 
to "take occasion by the. hand " and mould it to his pur- 



pose. When in the summer of 1831, the burgesses of 
Newcastle met, under the presidency of the Mayor, to 
petition the House of Lords in favour of the Reform 
Bill, and a weak petition was submitted by the Whig 
section of the Reform party, he outmanoeuvred them, 
drove the baffled Whigs out of the room, was put into the 
seat which the Mayor had occupied, and obtained from 
the excited burgesses an enthusiastic vote for a much 
stronger petition which Mr. Attwood had conveniently 
found in his pocket. When the Lords threw out the Bill, 
he was the chief organiser of the great October demonstra- 
tion upon the Town Moor, the leader in the subsequent 
march of three hundred men from Tyneside to Durham 
to prevent Lord Londonderry's " lambs " from breaking 
up a Reform meeting, and the proposer of the resolution, 
already adopted by the Birmingham Radicals, which 
pledged the members of the Northern Political Union to 
pay no taxes until the Reform Bill became the law of the 

At the Newcastle Spital meeting, on the 15th of May, 
1832. Mr. Fife struck the keynote which Charles Larkin 
expanded into a howl of defiance against the throne and 
the aristocracy that echoed and re-echoed all over the 
kingdom. Quoting a speech of Fox against the Sedition 
Bills of 1795, in which that impassioned orator asserted 
that Parliament might pass such bills, and they might 
even receive the Royal sanction, J*et be so unconstitu- 
tional that obedience was no longer a moral duty, and 
insurrection itself be justifiable, and adding the emphatic 
declaration, "In these principles I will live and die," Mr. 
Fife continued 

Here is an immense multitude, and is there one man 
who will not join me in holding up his right hand and re- 
peating after me "In these principles I will live and 
die ?" 

The response, a writer in the Northern Tribune tells 
us, was instantaneous. A forest of hands were uplifted 
in imitation of the speaker, and in solemn cadence the 
vast multitude ejaculated that memorable vow "In 
these principles I will live and die." Scarcely had the 
hands disappeared when a forest of oak saplings was up- 
lifted, and remained there for some minutes, amidst pro- 
found yet most significant silence. Then the speaker 

The House of Commons yet stands between this 
country and a revolution. If it only prove that it is the 
representative of the nation, the people may obtain their 

that cry 

is disregarded, until privilege of Parliament ceases to 
exist, or is grossly violated, then, and not till then, shall 
I, for one, exclaim, " To your tents, O Israel ! " 

With the passing of the Reform Bill, Mr. Fife con- 
sidered that to a considerable extent victory had been 
won, and that the fight should now be left to the enlarged 
constituencies. Finding himself in a minority upon this 
and other questions in the Council of the Political 
Union, he withdrew, and, after a brief existence, the 

organisation itself came to an end. But, although acting 
no longer with Attwood and Larkin, he avowed himself an 
earnest reformer still, and, being shortly after his retire- 
ment elected a member of the committee of the Newcastle 
Mechanics' Institute, he proved the sincerity of his 
avowal by presenting to the library a copy of Fame's 
"Rights of Man." For the next few years, although he 
published a letter to Lord Howick in favour of household 
suffrage, triennial Parliaments, and vote by ballot, he 
concerned himself chiefly in the struggle for municipal 
reform. At the Michaelmas Guild of the burgesses in 
1833, he headed a party of " independent voters " whose 
criticisms of the ruling powers were remarkably pointed 
and unusually free. Towards the close of the proceedings, 
which were stormy and protracted, Mr. Fife and Mr. 
George Clayton Atkinson were nominated for the office of 
sheriff. Mr. Fife lost, and Mr. Atkinson was elected 
amidst the groans and hisses of the burgesses. 

In the summer of 1834 Mr. Fife sustained a heavy 
bereavement in the death of his wife, and, for a time, he 
withdrew from active participation in public work. But 
as soon as the Municipal Reform Act was passed, he 
emerged from his seclusion, and threw himself once more 
into the arena of local conflict. At the first election 
under the new Act he was returned at the head of the 
poll for the ward of St. Nicholas, every man in the ward 
but thirty-seven having given him a vote. Upon the first 
occasion that the Reformed Council assembled Mr. Fife 
was appointed an alderman ; at the second meeting of that 
body he originated a discussion upon the use and abuse of 
the Mansion House, kept it going meeting after meeting, 
and never ceased to agitate till that famous resort of con- 
vivial burgesses was dismantled, and its contents sold to 
the highest bidder. At Michaelmas, 1838, he was elected 
Mayor. He had fairly earned his promotion, and none of 
his opponents raised a hand against it. 

In his election to the Mayoralty Mr. Fife's popularity 
reached its culmination ; before his year of office expired 
it had received serious damage. Into the details it is 
unnecessary to enter. They have been printed over and 
over again, and may always be read in Richardson's 
"Table Book," in Gammage's "History of the Chartist 
Movement," and in "The Odd Book " of Thomas Ainge 
Devyr. It is sufficient here to state that in the summer 
of 1839 the townspeople were seriously disturbed by 
Chartist meetings and processions, accompanied by stone- 
throwing, window-smashing, and other mischief ; that the 
Mayor, as chief magistrate, intervened for the prevention 
of such disorders; and that, failing to secure peaceable 
obedience to his commands, he called out the military, and 
broke up a Chartist demonstration at the point of tho 
bayonet. For these services he was denounced as a 
traitor, a renegade, and a second Judas Iscariot by those 
who bad beforetime been bis warmest friends and sup- 
porters. With the denunciations of the Chartists and 
their friends still ringing in his ears, on the 1st July, 1840, 

1891. / 



he was knighted by the Queen " as a mark of approbation 
of the manner in which he had sustained the office of 
chief magistrate under very critical circumstances." 

Sir John was elected Mayor of Newcastle again in 18W, 
and he continued for many years to take an active part in 
the public life of his native town. Not, however, in the 
sphere of political conflict in which he had won his early 
fame. With advancing age his interest in politics, 
shaken by the events of 1839, declined, and although he 
took an active part in the Anti-Corn Law Agitation, 
being chairman of the League meetings in Newcastle, he 
gradually settled down into a mild and colourless Whig. 
When the next wave of Parliamentary Reform swept 
over the country, assuming the attitude of offended 
dignity contemplating past services, he stood aloof, and 
there the new school of Reformers left him. Meanwhile, 
the fervour which distinguished his early career had 
found a new channel. The vapouring of certain French 
colonels in 1859 turned the thoughts of Englishmen to the 
use of arms, and Sir John's soldierly instincts pushed him 
into the forefront of the agitation. He took the chair at 
a meeting held in Newcastle in the summer of that year 
to promote the volunteer movement, and became the first 
president of the club which shortly afterwards developed 
into the 1st Newcastle Rifle Volunteer Corps. Of that 
corps he was made lieutenant colonel, and he filled the 
post to admiration. He was proud of his volunteers, 
thirteen companies strong ; the volunteers were proud of 
Sir John, who looked every inch a soldier; Newcastle 
was proud of them all together. 

Engrossed in volunteering, Sir John lost to some extent 
his interest in matters municipal as well as political. He 
had formed county connections, and began to consider 
himself as much a country gentleman as an alderman of 
Newcastle. When, therefore, in 1862, the farmers and 
dealers attending Newcastle Cattle Market fell into a hot 
dispute with the Corporation, Sir John, conceiving that 
they had reason for their complaints, made various 
proposals for settling the dispute, and upon these being 
rejected, accompanied by some heated personal remarks 
from one or two lively members of the Council, he 
resigned his office, and nothing could induce him to 
resume it. Failing health compelled him, in December, 
1868, to relinquish his command of the volunteers, and 
from that time to his death, at Reedsmouth, on the 15th 
of January, 1871, the people of Newcastle saw but little 
of their gifted fellow-townsman. 

Sir John Fife was in the commission of the peace for 
his native borough and for the county of Argyle; a 
deputy lieutenant ; an M.A. of Durham ; and a knight in 
the English League of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem. In religion he was a Churchman an earnest 
advocate of the establishment of a bishopric in Newcastle. 
For thirty years he filled the office of surgeon to the 
Newcastle Infirmary, and, besides founding the local Eye 
Infirmary, was one of the early promoters of the New- 

castle College of Practical Science, in which, for some 
years, he officiated as a lecturer. 

in tfte 

NUMBER of valuable documents relating to 
the Pelhain family have been recently ac- 
quired by the Manuscript Department of the 
British Museum. Amongst them are several letters from 
Sir John Vanbrugh, the famous architect, written be- 
tween 1715 and 1723. One of these, addressed to Thomas 
Pelham, Duke of Newcastle, afterwards the well-known 
Prime Minister, relates to Castle Howard and to a visit 
of the Duke of Wharton to York. It runs as follows : 

Castle Howard, Augt Sth, 1721. 

I have no other business to trouble your Grace with a 
letter upon, but to thank you for your warrant. The 
rest is only to remind you, of my constant wishes (others 
would say prayers) for your health and happyness where- 
ever I wander. And amongst those good wishes, one is, 
that you were here at this time, to see in its beauty 
(warm weather too) the most delightful place I ever 
beheld. Many new charms open this year, that never 
appear'd before, and many more will next, that people do 
not dream of now : If I take in what a third will pro- 
duce (bar more Southsea storms) I believe here will bo 
(beyond all content) the top seat, and garden ~>i England. 
Of the house 1 say nothing : The others I may commend, 
because nature made them ; I pretend to no more merrit 
in them than a midwife, who helps to bring a fine child 
into the world, out of bushes boggs and bryars. 

I was at York all last week. A race every day, and a 
ball every night ; with as much well look't company, as 
ever I saw got together. The Ladys I mean in chief. As 
to the men the Duke of Wharton was the top gallant. 
The entertainments ending on Friday. He declar'd it 
the company wou'd stay in towue one day more, he wou'd 
treat the jockeys with a plate, the Ladys with a ball, and 
all together with a supper. T'was done accordingly, and 
my Lady Milner, who had all along been bis partner, 
was now his Cjueen. When supper was ended, he in- 
vited all the good company to meet him again that day 
twelve month, on . he same terms ; with many decent and 
good complimts. to the inhabitants of York and York- 
shire for the honour they did him, and hop't wou'd do 
him again. To which they gratefully bow'd, as who 
wou'd say, yes. But his Grace, thnn bethought himself, 
of one civil thing more, and said. That unless my Lady 
Milner wou'd absolutly engage to be there too, he was 
olF, as to the rest of the company. Upon which she 
look'd she did not know how, and all went home to 

He is now here, for two or three days, & we have jok't 
off the affair of the House of Lords on both sides. Here's 
the house full of company, which I like better when it's 
emptye, so am going to morrow to Lumley Castle, and 
Delavals, which will take me up a fortnight. I shall 
then return to York. 

Here is another letter of Sir John Vanbrugh's ad- 
dressed to "Brigadier William Watkins in Scotland 
Yard," who at that time was one of his colleagues at 
the Office of Works, and held the post of "Keeper of 
H.M. Private Roads and Conductor and Guide in the 
Royal Progresses," at a salary of 200 a year : 

York, Augt. ye 26th, 1721. 

Cou'd you see bow busy I have been ever since I writ 
to you last, you wou'd easily forgive my being so long 



I 1891. 

before I did it again. I return'd but last night from the 
north (for here you must know we are in the south) 
where I have been near this three weeks finding a vast 
deal to do, both at Delavals and Lumley Castle. Since 
it is not easy, to go there often, I resolv'd to do all the 
service I cou'd while I was there now. 

The Admiral [Delaval] is very gallant in bis operations, 
not being disposed to starve the design at all, so that he 
is like to have a very fine dwelling for himself now, and 
his nephew &c. hereafter. 

Lumley Castle is a noble thing, and well deserves the 
favours Lord Lumley designs to bestow upon it : In order 
to which, I stay'd there near a week, to form a general 
design for the whole, which consists, in altering the house 
both for state, beauty and convenience, and making the 
courts gardens and offices suitable to it ; all which I 
believe may be done, for a sum, that can never ly very 
heavy upon the family. If I had had pood weather 
in this expedition, I shou'd have been well enough diver- 
ted in it ; there being many more valluable and agreeable 
things and places to be seen, than in the tame sneaking 
south of England. 

I am going in three or four days again to Castle Howard, 
where I must spend a week or ten days, to do what is 
necessary there. My Lord Carlisle going on with his 
works as usual ; by which the seat is wonderfully improv'd 
this last year. Two years more, tho' they won't 
com pleat all the building, will so beautify the out- 
works, of gardens, park, &c., that I think no 
place I ever saw, will dispute with it, for a delight- 
full dwelling in general!, let the criticks fish out 
what particular faults they please in the architec- 

Here are several gentlemen in these parts of 
the world, that are possess'd with the spirit of 
building, and seem dispos'd to do it, in so good 
a manner, that were they to establish here a sort 
of a Board of Works to conduct the affairs, I 
do verily believe, they wou'd sooner make Hawks- 
moor a commissioner uf it, than that excellent 
architect Ripley. " 

It appears from a further letter, dated Castle 
Howard, August 20, 1723, that the great archi- 
tect had a jovial time of it in the North. "I 
have been drinking waters at Scarborough three 
or four days, "he says, "and am to return thither 
with Lord Carlisle, for a few weeks more, and 
Boon after that, I point towards London." 


j]EW towns even in the North of Eng- 
land have made greater strides ot 
late years than the important town 
at the mouth of the Wear. Its population has 
increased by leaps and bounds; its residential 
suburbs have grown in beauty year by year ; 
and its public buildings have kept pace with 
the march of improvement and prosperity. The 
latest addition to the architectural attractions of 
Sunderland is the new Town Hall. This edi- 
fice, erected at a cost of about 50,000 from 
designs by Mr. Brightwen Binyon, of Ipswich, 
was opened with much ceremony on Nov. 6, 
1890. The style of architecture is described as 
Italian renaissance. It will be seen from the 

accompanying engraving that the new building is really 
a handsome pile. 

Hatttrftltjr awtr fttd 

tlje late latntjs ffllepljan. 

Katterfelto, with his hair on end 

At his own wonders, wondering for his bread. 


jjATTERFELTO flourishes as a fly in the 
precious amber of classic song. Em- 
balmed in enduring verse, he is perpetu- 
ated for all time, wonderstruck by his 
own wonders. With " hair on end " he comes stream- 
ing down to the light and life of the passing 
day, few knowing anything more of him than the 


1891. f 



poet's picture portrays. Familiar as be was when 
the portrait was drawn, he lives for the most of men 
in these lines alone ; and yet, scattered up and down 
over the island, relics must remain of him in sundry 
household corners, in the form of magnets, hygrometers, 
"fire- machines," and other articles of his merchandise, 
sold to his customers at the close of his performances 
when the last century was growing old and about to 
depart. He was vending them in Newcastle while ex- 
hibiting his mysterious " Morocco Black Cat " to ad- 
miring throngs, and ministering to that love of rare 
sights and strange spectacles which belongs to our race. 
When Cowper, in the year 1785, published his "Task," 
and affixed to Katterfelto the words we have taken for 
our motto, there were readings and recitations in Free- 
masons' Hall, London ; and his "John Gilpin" was one 
of the most popular pieces in the programme. It was 
read by Henderson, the famous actor; and none were 
more warm in their applause than Mrs. Siddons. The 
poet heard, of course, of the sudden celebrity into which 
he had been lifted by his " citizen of credit and renown "; 
but his friend Unwin, in communicating to him the fact 
of his metropolitan popularity, slily admonished him that 
he had a competitor for fame in "The Learned Pig." 

The times were sensational then as now. Our ancestors 
were as fond of marvels and excitements as their descen- 
dants ; and in 1783, when the suggestion was made to 
Cowper that led to the prodaction of "The Task," the 
world was running after novelties and wonders. It gave 
crowded audiences to Katterfelto, who, according to his 
own account, was " the greatest philosopher in this king- 
dom since Sir Isaac Newton," but is classed among 
" mountebanks " in " Chambers's Book of Days," and has 
been brought more recently under notice as one of the 

"quacks of the eighteenth century.'' It was in the 
latter years of that century that balloons became the 
fashion and the rage. "Senators, philosophers, ladies, 
everybody," wrote Walpole near the end of 1783, gazed 
aloft at balloons. "I am tired of reading about them in 
the papers, " said the Right Hon. Frederick Montague to 
Mrs. Delany in 1784 ; and in the same year there were 
adventurous journeys above the earth in Northumberland 
and Durham. On the 8th of May, little more than two 
months from the first ascent of Blanchard at Paris in a 
hydrogen balloon, "the ingenious Mr. Jackson, of 
Hutton Rudby," as the Kewcaatle Chronicle reported at 
the time, " entertained the inhabitants of Stockton and 
environs with that fashionable amusement, an air- 
balloon " ; and we learn from Sykes, the Newcastle 
annalist, that on the 9th of August "a balloon was set 
off from the Sandhill, Newcastle, by Mr. Clarke, Jun., 
for the benefit and enlargement of an eminent teacher, 
then in Newgate for a debt contracted when in a bad 
state of health," the sum thus benevolently collected 
amounting to 33, "which answered the intended pur- 

Balloons went up, other "fashionable amusements" 
courted public favour, and the weekly newspaper had a 
word for them all. Cowper was among -its readers in his 
rustic retreat : and with "the folio of four pages" before 

that map of busy life, 

Its fluctuations and its vast, concerns. 

he Closed his fireside picture of what was going on in the 
world beyond his shutters with the lines 

Ethereal journeys, submarine exploits, 

And Katterfelto, with his hair on end 

At his own wonders, wondering for his bread. 

Katterfelto came to Newcastle "for his bread :> in 1787 ; 



f Jan'iary 
\ 1891. 

and "The Learned Pig "visited the town in the same 
year. In 1784, when Johnson was in his native Lichfield 
for the last time. Miss Seward told him of " the wonder- 
ful learned pig, which she had seen at Nottingham, and 
which did all that we have seen exhibited by dogs and 
horses." He had also, while remaining in his old city, 
"three letters on one day about the air-balloon"; and 
shortly after he left, being in Oxford, and considerate of 
the gratification of his faithful negro servant. " he sent 
Francis to see the balloon fly." 

Wonders have ever been in request. " Dogs were made 
to bark and bite, "says the poet; but patient preceptors 
have taught them more, and turned a penny by their 
accomplishments. There were "learned dogs" going 
about the country, as may be seen by Mrs. Delany's 
letters, in 1760. One could dance a hornpipe. Another 
told what o'clock it was, and could spell. The third 
could even speak a word or two ; barked his own name ; 
" his voice, indeed, a little hoarse, but the words tolerably 
distinct." Such clever companions were the attraction 
and astonishment of their little day. The world 
ran after them ; for every generation must have its 
amusements. When Bonaparte was carrying his eagles 
over Europe, and England was apprehensive of inva- 
sion ; when the health of the Sovereign excited uneasiness 
and there were Ministerial difficulties and Parliamentary 
perplexities ; " in the midst of all this," wrote Sir Gilbert 
Elliot ia 1804, "everybody goes to see ' Valentine and 
Orson," and weep over the death of a bear." No little 
excitement, doubtless, there was on the banks of the Tyne 
in 1787, when the intimation was made of Katterfelto's 
coming visit to Newcastle with his Cat, immediately 
preceding in the Newcastle Chronicle the announcement 
that "The Learned Pig" was also on the road thither. 
It was in the month of February that there was 
exhibited in the Long Room of the Bigg Market 
"that most astonishing animal, the learned or scienti- 
fic pig from Charing Cross, and last from Sadler's 
Wells." Its ingenious tutor had "taught a turtle to 
fetch and carry " ; had "overcome the timidity of a hare, 
by making her beat a drum " ; had "perfected six turkey- 
cocks in a regular country dance"; had "taught three 
cats to strike several tunes on the dulcimer with their 
paws, and to imitate the Italian manner of singing" ; and 
now, above all, "he had conquered the natural obstinacy 
and stupidity of a pig, ty teaching him to unite the 
letters of any person's name," and tell "the number of 
persons in the room, the hour and minute by any watch, 
&c., &c." This docile creature had no sooner arrived in 
the Bigg Market, " than the curious of all degrees 
resorted to see him " ; and after the interview, " the most 
penetrating frankly declared that neither the tongue of 
the most florid orator, uor pen of the most ingenious 
writer, could sufficiently describe the wonderful perform- 
ance." Some one having suggested at Lichfield, in 
Johnson's presence, "that great torture must have been 

employed ere the indocility of the animal could have been 
subdued," the doctor, never at a loss in controversy, 
ascertained from Miss Seward that it was three years of 
age, and at once replied : "Then the pig has no cause to 
complain ; he would have been killed the first year if he 
had not been educated; and protracted existence is a pood 
recompense for very considerable degrees of torture. " 

A generation earlier, a "Learned Dog" had been in 
Newcastle, more learned than all the three dogs put 
together seen by Mrs. Delany in 1760. He " read, wrote, 
and cast accounts, answered various questions in Ovid's 
'Metamorphoses,' Geography, Roman, English, and 
Sacred History ; knew the Greek Alphabet, &c. " ; and 
could distinguish all the colours of the rainbow. It was 
in the reign of George the Second that this wondrous 
exhibition was witnessed on the Tyne. But whether, on 
his way from London to Edinburgh i the reign of 
Elizabeth, "Banks's Horse," the "dancing horse" of 
Shakspeare, also paused to display his skill in Newcastle, 
is either not noticed in our annals or we have overlooked 
the record. 

Every year our forefathers had some remarkable amuse . 
ments, some new attractions, by which they were 
strangely interested ; and great, apparently, was the 
excitement produced by the visit to the North, in the 
month of May, 1787, of Dr. Katterfelto. With what 
extent of display and ceremony " the noted philosopher,' 
when "on his way from London to Edinburgh," came 
along Tyne Bridge, we have not been able to discover ; 
but here, in the "Book of Days," is the account of bis 
" turn-out " at the time he visited Durham in 1790 or 
1791: "His travelling equipage consisted of an old 
rumbling coach, drawn by a pair of sorry hacks ; and his 
two black servants wore green liveries with red collars. 
They were sent round the town, blowing trumpets, and 
delivering bills of their master's performances," which 
were as manifold as they were marvellous. It was on 
Tuesday, the 29th of May, 1787 (the day after his arrival 
on the Tyne), that this itinerant philosopher gave his first 
discourse in Newcastle, "at St. John's Lodge, Friar 
Street"; and, "among the polite circle," the room 
received for the occasion the title of "The Temple of 
Instruction." Those who entered its portals paid for the 
course of eight lectures ten shillings. Single lecture, half- 
a-crowu. "Back seats for servants one shilling only." 
At the close of his first lecture, and "for that night 
only," Dr. Katterfelto was to "show many of his occult 

By day and by night "The Temple of Instruction " was 
open to an admiring public. Every noon there was the 
Doctor's Wonderful and Grand Mechanical Exhibition, 
"only two shillings." His Perpetual Motion was visible 
at the same charge. But half-a-crown was the figure for 
admission to his newly-invente,d Solar Microscope. And 
how various the matters treated of at the evening 
lectures ! " Philosophical, Mathematical, Electrical, 

1891. j 



Maguetical, Optical, Physical, Chymical." And over 
and above this wondrous round, we have " Pneumatic, 
Hydraulic, Hydrostatic, and Stynographic Arts," the 
whole illustrated by apparatus which had "cost him 
about 7,000 !" 

"Our learned gentlemen in this town and neighbour- 
hood " are described as bavin? " received the doctor with 
great joy " ; and verses were written on " hearing his 
lectures and his laudable explanation of the various arts 
made use of- by sharpers to obtain illegal fortunes at the 
expense of the credulous, at St. John's Lodge, last Tues- 
day " (that is, on the 29th of May, 1787). The poet's 
eulogy was printed at the time ; and after the lapse of 
more than a century, three or four of his lines may 
be produced again : 

His curious apparatus gives a charm, 
While his experiments keep genius warm ; 
High o'er all mean device he proudly soars, 
And hidden fraud ingeniously explores. 

Among the "curious apparatus" thus renowned in 
song, there was, as we have already shown, his Grand 
Solar Microscope, "whereby were seen the greatest 
wonders of natural history, which beggar all descrip- 
tion " ; and in the forenoons of June 18, 19, and 20, when 
this instrument was to be exhibited, visitors would be 
privileged to witness "above 5,000 live insects in a drop 
of beer the pize of a pin's head, and 40,000 in a small drop 
of clear water," &c., with more than " 500 other curious 
and uncommon objects ; likewise several curious crystal- 
lizations ot salts, which never were seen at Newcastle 
before." But, if cloudy, he would, at the hours men- 
tioned, show "his Grand Perpetual Motion, and his 
various other occult secrets." Moreover, every evening 
during the Race Week, after his philosophical lecture 
there were surprising feats in dexterity of band. " Ex. 
pecting to be very much crowded every day and evening '> 
while the races were in progress, Dr. Katterfelto expressed 
a wish that the public, " the ladies particularly, would 
send their servants one hour before the lecture, to keep 
places for them, in the day-time as well as in the 

Katterfeko's famous " Morocco Black Cat " formed one 
of the prime attractions of the Temple of Instruction in 
Low Friar Street the cat " which won 3,000 in 
London, and had surprised the most of the very first 
nobility in the kingdom." It accompanied its wandering 
owner wherever he went, till in the autumn of 1790 it was 
ruthlessly snatched from among his treasures at Man- 
chester. A paragraph of the 4th of September in that 
year records this "most horrid and daring robbery." 
"Some incorrigible depredators" had "run away with 
the renowned and wonderful Dr. Katterfelto's black cat." 
But either the rare animal had been recovered, or a 
fitting successor had turned up, for in future years puss 
was still in the programme. 

In the year that was marked by the abstraction of the 
cat, Dr. Graham was advertising his intention to come to 

Newcastle. He was to give six lectures in the Assize 
Week of 1790, by which " he would endeavour to lead his 
audience gently and affectionately by the hand along the 
sweet, simple, and obvious paths of great, venerable, 
ever-constant, ever-young, and ever-beautiful Nature, 
and of consequent temporal happiness, up to that ever- 
lasting felicity which we all hope finally to obtain." 
Such are some of the words that were addressed to our 
townsmen by "Dr. Graham, from Edinburgh"; and 
here, as elsewhere, his " earth baths " were exhibited 
before the eyes of wondering crowds. (Sea Monthly 
Chronicle. 1887, page 157). 

In 1798, Katterfelto was again in these Northern parts ; 
and at Sunderland, on the 28th and 29th of August, not 
only ladies bat gentlemen, not only civilians, but 
soldiers were "much alarmed and surprised " by seeing, 
with the help of the Grand Solar Microscope, "above 
90,000 wonderful live insects in a drop of beer, water, 
milk, and vinegar, and most of them as large as eels, and 
some as rats and mice." "Mites in cheese were seen as 
big as cats"; and some poet of the Wear, "a lover of 
arts and sciences, on seeing Dr. Katterfelto's grand ex- 
hibition before a large company of ladies and gentlemen 
at Sunderland," wrote Hnes extempore the same lines, 
by a strange coincidence, which had been printed in 
Newcastle in the year 1787 ! Again we read in the 
Newcastle Chronicle 

His curious apparatus gives a charm, 
While his experiments keep genius warm : 
High o'er all mean device he proudly soars, 
And hidden fraud ingeniously explores. 

From the Wear Katterfelto came to the Tyne. New- 
castle was revisited in September ; and on this occasion 
his arrival was commemorated by a paragraph headed 
"Movements of Great Men." "Mr. Pitt," said the 
writer, "arrived in London, laat week, from Burton 
Pynsent, in good health. And, from Sunderland, a few 
days ago, in this town, that wonderful philosopher, Dr. 
Katterfelto." Among his rarities he brought for ex- 
hibition "a most wonderful diamond beetle"; with also, 
for sale, a variety of miscellaneous wares : "Six different 
kinds of phosphorus " of his own manufacture ; "magnets 
from one shilling to a guinea"; "a most valuable 
tincture for the toothache," two shillings a bottle, that 
"never failed of curing instantly"; a new invented 
hygrometer, of the size of a watch or snuff-box, 
foretelling to all the world changes of weather in a 
quarter of an hour, revealing to travellers the damp- 
ness of a bed, and ascertaining for gardeners the 
proper heat of a hot-house; yet, for half-a-crown, any- 
body might have it. A bottle of new-invented powder, 
to be acquired for the same small sum, would "light a 
pipe or a candle, or fire gunpowder." Two and six were 
favourite figures with Katterfelto. He had a half-crown 
fire-machine, of new contrivance, for discovering in the 
dark the hour of a watch, or lighting a match or candle 
on land or sea; and he also cured, "on very low terms," 




many different complaints. " Sprains, bruises, rheu- 
matic pains," c., yielded to a most valuable tincture, 
costing no more than a crown a bottle; and while he 
remained in Newcastle he "performed many capital 
cures." For a single shilling he showed, on cloudy days, 
his large loadstone of 491bs., his mechanical museum, his 
wonderful diamond buckles ; and with tens of thousands 
of other insects, "a live flea" would loom out in his 
microscope "as big as an ox," and "mites in cheese" 
attain the dimensions of "his black cats." His black 
cats, moreover, were to be " lifted up in the air by his 
string magnet," and he would " magnetize any lady or 
gentleman's knife for a shilling." 

Through the month of October, and into the middle of 
November, Katterfelto was lingering in the shadows of 
St. Nicholas ; and during his prolcngsd stay " the whole 
cry at Newcastle, particularly among the curious and 
learned ladies and gentlemen," was this: "Those that 
have not seen Dr. Katterfelto's solar microscope exhibi- 
tion have seen nothing." Night after night he gave 
lectures on Electricity, the Power of the Four Elements, 
Fixed Air and the Air Pump ; "and after his lectures he 
would also show and discover several of those arts and 
feats that are now exhibited by Jonas, Comas, Boaz, 
and Breslaw," in all of which he was ready to give lessons 
on very low terms. Once more, also, there were " verses 
written extempore " after witnessing the wonders ex- 
hibited by "Dr. Katterfelto, M.D." These lines, open- 
ing as below, throw additional light upon the character of 
his performances : 

His ship beyond description lies. 
When well observed by curious eyes ; 
The guns, no thicker than a straw, 
Go off by philosophic law, 
Without the help of match or fire 
Which all applaud and some admire. 

There was a "fountain playing both tire and water," 
and "a watch and hour-glass that stood still, or fell into 
motion, at his command." 

Sir Ruffia's face, as grim as death, 
Blows out the candle without breath, 
And lone-headed harlequin 
Without match or fire lights it again. 

His famous black cat, I protest. 
Surprised me more than all the rest ; 
And by dexterity of hand, 
He shows how gamesters gain their end. 

There was a lapse of more than ten years between the 
two visits of the great wonder-maker to Newcastle. In 
the interval, the Literary and Philosophical Society had 
been established, and had removed from its quarters in 
St. Nicholas' Churchyard to the Old Assembly Rooms in 
the Groat Market. It was in the society's former rooms 
that Katterfelto received patrons during his stay in 1798 ; 
and ere his departure, those who had neglected their 
privilege who were delaying their visit to the cat and the 
conjuring were admonished to repair their error while 
there was yet an opportunity. " Several hundred persons," 
it was expected, "would repent in a short time in 

Newcastle and the neighbourhood, that they had not seen 
his solar microscope exhibition and large loadstone." 
But some, probably, of the tardy absentees supplied the 
omission at the last moment, and saw, burning in water, 
"the new and most surprising chymical strong light, " 
prepared "last week," and announced on the 10th of 
November, 1798, in the latest of the Katterfelto 
advertisements inserted in the columns of the Newcastle 


|T. JOHN'S LODGE, Low Friar Street, 
where Katterfelto performed his wonders in. 
1787, was erected in 1777 by the members 
of the Masonic order. It contained, says 
Mackenzie, an excellent organ-, and two paintings by 
Bell, one representing St. John, the other a portrait of 
Mr. Francis Peacock, roper, the Grand Master of the 
Lodge. A Greek inscription was placed on the front of 
the building, signifying, "The darkness comprehendeth 
it not." Extravagance and the introduction of politics 
ruined the Lodge ; and Mr. Alderman Blackett, who had 
a mortgage on the hall, sold it and the other property 
of the fraternity for 320. 

The initiation of the project for the establishment of a 
Dispensary as an appendix to the Infirmary, but in no 
way antagonistic to that institution, is due to Dr. Clark, 
a local practitioner, and Mr. Anderson, a philanthropic 
surgeon. At the outset the physicians of the Infirmary 
opposed the proposal ; but when it was explained that the 
medical department was to be open to the whole of the 
resident faculty, all opposition ceased, and arrangements 
were made for carrying out the scheme. Accordingly, a 
meeting of the governors was held on September 29, 1777, 
Mr. John Baker, mayor, being in the chair, when the 
regulations for the management or the new charity were 

The object of the promoters was "to give advice and 
medicine to that numerous class of sufferers whose cases 
excluded them from the Infirmary, but also to extend the 
limits of the healing art." The Dispensary for the first 
four years was located in an entry at the foot of the Side ; 
then it was removed to an entry in Pilgrim Street, below 
the Queen's Head Inn, and known as Dispensary Entry. 
Its career of usefulness having extended, the governor* 
decided upon the purchase of a lease for fifty years of St. 
John's Lodge, Low Friar Street, from the Incorporated 

* Katterfelto, described as a tall thin man, dressed in a black 
ffown and square cap, is said to have been originally a soldier in 
the Prussian service. In one of his advertisements he stated that 
he was a colonel in the "Death's Head" regiment of Hussars. 
Not long before his death, which occurred at Bristol, he was 
committed by the Mayor of Shrewsbury to the House of Correc- 
tion as a vagrant and impostor. 

January 1 
1891. / 



Company of Saddlers, which, with the necessary fittings, 
cost 626 2s. W. The building consisted of "a hall for 
the meetings of the governors, a shop and waiting- 
room for patients, two consulting-rooms for the phy- 
sicians and surgeons, an electrical room, and lodgings 
for the apothecary and his assistant, with a small labora- 
tory behind the building. " 

The building in Low Friar Street in course of time 
became too small to meet the demands of the population 
of a growing district, and it was resolved in 1837 to build 
the present Dispensary in Nelson Street, which was 
opened in August, 1839. 

Our drawing of the old Dispensary seen on page 17, 
is copied from Mackenzie's " History of Newcastle." 
Several changes have been made in the external and in- 
ternal appearance of the place, which now bears the name 
of the Sadler's Wells Inn, -so that its aspect at the 
present time varies somewhat from the original design. 

IJHITLEY, to judge from the derivation of the 
name, which means the white lea or pas- 
ture, was founded by some family of Anglian 
settlers. Whitley-by-the-Sea, as it is now 
called, so as to distinguish it from Whitley Chapel and 
Whitley Castle, also in Northumberland, is referred to in 
ancient documents and maps as : Wyteley, Witelei, 
Hwyteleg, Witelithe, Wheteley, Wytheleye, Whitlaw, 
Whitlathe, and Whitla?. 

The earliest mention of Whitley is found about the year 
1100, when Henry I. conferred it, with other possessions, 
on the Priory of Tynemouth. It is again referred to in 
the charter of Henry II., Richard I., -and John, confirm- 
ing to the priors their possessions and liberties. 

In 1291, Whitley came very prominently before the 
notice of Edward I. and his council, in connexion with an 
event of soms importance in the history of Tynemouth 
Priory which had taken place the previous year. The 
facts are these : Waltr Fitz Nicholas charged John de 
Whitley, Gilbert Audre, and William de Cowpen, with 
robbery and breach of the peace, stating that, at noon of 
the Sunday next before the Feast of S.S. Simon and Jude 
this would be October 22nd, 1290 they had entered 
his house at Whitley, during his absence, broken open the 
door of a chamber with an iron hatchet, and taken 
from a chest which they found there, two over- 
tunics or gowns belonging to a certain woman, one 
ot them green, the other blue, worth two marks ; two 
cloths of Raynes, worth one mark ; forty ells of woven 
linen, to the value of ten shillings; and two napkins and four 
towels, worth together twenty shillings. The defendants 
were cast into the Prior's prison by William Steward, the 
Prior's coroner, and kept there from the Feast of St. 

Martin (Sunday, the 12th Nov., 1290) to the Wednesday 
next before the Feast of St. Nicholas this would be 
Nov. 30th, 1290. On this last named date the Justices of 
the King, William Heron, Richard Knaut, and Robert 
Bertram, came to Tynemouth and demanded that the 
prisoners should be brought before them for trial. This 
the Prior refused to do, on the ground that 
they, the justices, were interfering with his prero- 
gatives. Before the Feast of St. Hilary January 13th, 
1291 th Prior caused his own Court to be summoned, 
and on Sunday, January 15, Walter Fitz Nicholas made 
his appeal against John de Whitley and Gilbert Audre. 
William de Cowpen, it appears, had died in prison. The 
Prior's bailiffs found they had no power to hold the ap- 
peal, and it was quashed. The prisoners, though they 
claimed the right to acquit themselves in the Court of 
King's Bench, were committed again to prison, and re- 
manded from time to time until after Easter, when they 
were set free by the King's writ. The question of the 
legality of the Prior's action was afterwards re- 
ferred to the King in council, at Norham, who deputed 
Gilbert de Thornton and others to consider it. The con- 
clusion they arrived at was that the Prior had exceeded 
his authority in resisting the justices and retaining the 
prisoners. The consequence was that the judicial privi- 
leges which the Priors had enjoyed for nearly a century 
were forfeited, and not restored for nearly eight years. 
The appeal which had originated all these proceedings was 
subsequently tried, when the defendants were acquitted, 
and it was found that Walter Fitz Nicholas, the appellor, 
was maliciously abetted by Brother Martin, the cellarer 
of the Priory, William de Kirkeby, a monk of the same 
house, and others. Bail was given for the Prior to make 
fine with the King ; William Steward, his coroner, was 
fined half-a-mark ; and the appellor 20s. The Prior's fine 
was afterwards compromised by a payment of 20s. 

The next fact in the history of Whitley connects it with 
the Crusades. Pope Nicholas the IV. had granted to 
Edward I. the first-fruits and tenths of all ecclesiastical 
possessions for six years to defray the expenses of an ex- 
pedition to the Holy Land, and so a valuation was made 
of the spiritual and temporal goods of the Priory, on 
March 26th, 1292, when the yearly rents from Whitley 
were returned at 20s., and the tithes at 9 marks. 

About the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
the manor of Whitley was held from the Prior of 
Tynemouth, by a singular feudal fervice called 
the Conveyes, which seems to have originated with 
John da Whitley probably the person charged with rob- 
bery in the time of Master Simon de Walden, the Prior 
in 1301, and during the following 19 years. At Christ- 
mas, all the servants and tenants of the Priory, the 
"keelers," who served in the barges, and other depend- 
ants, with the horses and dogs of the Priory, were to come 
to Whitley. At the outskirts of the village, the Lord of 
the Manor was to meet them and receive them in a fitting 




manner. They were to be hospitably entertained n the 
Feast of the Holy Innocents (Dec. 28th), and the day fol- 
lowing. For most of the company fresh meat, cheese, 
and good ale were to be provided, but the esquires and 
men of their own rank were to have a whole hen between 
every two of them for the second course at supper. The 
horses also were to have half-a-boll of good oats each. 
Whitley must thus have been the scene of much feasting, 
drinking, and merry-making six hundred years ago. As 
horses and dogs were among the guests, it is supposed 
that hunting formed part of the entertainment. 

On the 9th April, 1345, Edward III. granted to Gilbert 
de Whitley a license to crenellate his manor-house at 
Whitley. To crenellate a houso was to place battlements 
upon it, crenelles, or embrasures, being the square 
openings between the merlons. Before this could be 
done, the sanction of the Crown was necessary. The fact 
of the Lord of Whitley building a strong tower on his 
estate at this time is an evidence of the insecurity felt, 
even so far south as this, during the Edwardian wars with 
Scotland. This Gilbert de Whitley was probably the 
same person mentioned in the Sheriff of Northumberland's 
accounts for 1356 as "the Master and Supervisor of the 
King's work in the Castle of Newcastle." The tower 
built at Whitley by Gilbert de Whitley, in 1345, is in- 
cluded in the list of castles and fortalices drawn up in 
1415. At that time it was in the possession of the Prior 
of Tynemouth. 

After the suppression of monasteries, Whitley was held 
under the Crown for a time. By a grant of Edward VI., 
dated the 8th December, 1551, it came into the hands of 
Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who was created Duke of 
Northumberland. It was demised in 1557 to Thomas, 
Earl of Northumberland, for 21 3'ears ; and by virtue of a 
grant made by Queen Elizabeth in 1570 to Sir Henry 
Percy and his son Henry, and afterwards to Thomas, Sir 
Henry's son, for life, it remained in the Percy family until 
1632, when the last of the three grantees died. On the 
16th of May, 1634, the King's Lordship of Tyne- 
mouth Shire, which embraced "five tenements of 
husbandry* in Whitley worth 8 6s. 8d. per annum ; 
a cottage with five butts of arable land, called Our Lady 
Land,' worth 8s. per annum ; a little orchard there, 
worth Is. 4d. per annum ; the tithe of hay of all the town 
aforesaid, valued at 2s. 6d per annum ; the pannage or 
take of swine there, worth 20s. per annum; twenty 
quarters of barley called ' bigge,' and ten quarters of oats 
for the aforesaid five tenements of husbandry in Whitley," 
was granted to William Scriven and William Eden, of 
London, Esquires, to be held at a yearly rental. These 
possessions wer conveyed on the 16th March, 1640, to 
Algernon, tenth Earl of Northumberland. They after- 
wards came into the hands of the Duke of Somerset on 
his marriage in 1682, with Elizabeth, the heiress of 
Joscelyn, the eleventh Earl of Northumberland. They 
subsequently passed by inheritance to her grand-daughter, 

Elizabeth Seymour, who had married Sir Hugh Smithson, 
a Yorkshire baronet, afterwards created Duke of North- 
umberland, and have since been retained by their descen- 

An important event in the history of Whitley would be 
the opening of the colliery there. In 1656 it is supposed 
to have been working and shipping its coals from Culler- 
coats. On November 29th, 1673, the Earl of Essex and 
William Pierpoint, Esquire, leased the coal mines in the 
township and precmts of Whitley to John Dove for 21 
years. The next lessees of the colliery seem to have been 
Nathaniel Blakiston, Henry Hudson, and Abigail Carr, 
who were- working the mines in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. The Hudsons, who now come on the 
scene, were a wealthy Quaker family belonging to New- 
biggin. The Henry Hudson referred to above, by his 
marriage with Sarah, daughter of John Dove, of Whitley, 
gent., allied himself to another wealthy and influential 
Quaker family, which had much property in the district. 
He died on June 17th, 1737. His son, Henry (b. 1720, d. 
1789), in 1772, added the wings to Whitley Hall, which is 
now occupied by Mr. M, W. Lambert. In 1820, the hall 
was sold to the Duke of Northumberland. 

In 1789, a fat ox, belonging to Mr. Edward Hall, of 
Whitley, had immortality conferred upon it, for, on April 
10th of this year, Messrs. Beilby and Bewick published a 
large copper-plate (10| ins. by 7 ins.) of the famous 
animal, drawn and engraved by Thomas Bewick. " The 
Whitley Ox " weighed 187 stones at the Public Weigh 
House on March 21st, 1789. 

In January, 1790, Lady Tyrconnel, the lovely daughter 
of Lord Delaval, narrowly escaped being drowned on 
Whitley sands, at least so it would appear from an entry 
in the Seaton Delaval Cellar Book, which is as follows : 
"January 31st, 1790. 1 Bottle Sherry, 1 Bottle Port, and 
1 Brandy for the Post-boys, etc., to drink, by Lady 
Tyrconnel's order after she got home, when overturned 
upon Whitley sands, and nearly lost." The accident 
probably occurred at the mouth of Briardene Burn, which 
the old road over the links crossed. Whether it was due 
to any of the "high jinks " for which the Delavals were 
famous, is a matter for conjecture. 

In July, 1795, the following regiments were encamped 
at Whitley: The 37th Regiment of Foot, Royal Lanca- 
shire Volunteers, North Yorkshire Militia, and a consi- 
derable park of Artillery, commanded by Lord Mulgrave. 
The camp broke up in October. 

On the 16th of July, 1797, a terrible thunderstorm 
occurred at Whitley. At the camp there the lightning 
set fire to the whins placed as a facing to the sheds of the 
East and West Lothian Cavalry, and, the wind blowing 
briskly, the whele line was almost instantly in a blaze ; three 
of the horses were struck dead at once, and two more nearly 
suffocated. The remainder were saved by the men having 
cut their; collars on the first alarm. The poor animals, 
quite frenzied by the lightning, the thunderpeals, 

1891. / 



and the fire, galloped off in various directions ; several of 
them, between eight and nine o'clock in the evening, came 
foaming through the streets of Newcastle to the great 
danger and terror of the inhabitants. 

During the first quarter of the nineteenth century the 
collieries, the magnesian limestone quarries near Harden, 
and the ironstone mines on the Links, were all being 
actively worked. Considerable quantities of the stone 
were conveyed by waggons on a rail-road to the Lw 
Lights, North Shields, and there shipped for exportation. 
A miner employed at the colliery in 1833 was the father 
of William Crawford, the member of Parliament for Mid- 
Durham, who died July 1st, 1890. On November the 
22nd, 1839, the colliery and lime works were advertised 
"to be let." "Mr. Hugh Taylor of Earsdon"- 
so ran the paragraph " will afford any informa- 
tion and treat for the letting of the whole." In 
1848, the colliery was laid in, the stock being sold by 
auction in May of that year. The colliery seems to have 
been sineularly free from accidents of any magnitude, 
though in 1835, 1836, 1838, 1839, and 1841, several 
casualties and explosions of fire-damp had taken place, 
attended more or less with loss of life. The last man 
killed at the colliery was William Boag, an innkeeper, 
who was in a tub suspended by a rope over the mouth of 
the shaft taking up some wood when the knot in the rope 
slipped and he was precipitated to the bottom. In conse- 
quence of the laying in of the colliery the population of 
the village, which in 1841 was 749, had decreased to 431 
in 1851. 

The Felling Artillery Corps were encamped on Whitley 
Sands in September, 1862. A local song, entitled 
"Whitley Camp," was written on the occasion by Mr. 
Edward Elliott, of Earsdon, in which, after depicting the 
warriors "fierce as untyem'd goats," and "their little 
huts, like sugar loaves, all pointin' te the sky," he de- 
scribes the effect f their practice with the Armstrong 

The greet round shot went plish-for-plash 

Inte the tortured deep ; 
They myed the crabs an' lobsters hop, 

An' the fish cud get ne sleep. 

On the 14th of September, 1869, the Prudhoe Memorial 
Convalescent Home was opened by the Dowager Duchess 
of Northumberland, in the presence of a distinguished 
and fashionable company. The Northumberland Village 
Homes, founded by Mr. James Hall, of Tynemouth, have 
been located at Whitly. The first six homes were opened . 
in 1880, and since then four more have been erected two 
in 1884 at the cost of Mr. and Mrs. Donkin, and two in 
1888 at the cost of Mr. John Hall. 

In 1864, the Church of St. Paul was erected at the cost 
of the Duke of Northumberland, the bells in the tower 
being presented by Sir Charles Mark Palmer, M.P. 

The population of Whitley, which in 1801 was 251, is 
now probably over 3,000. 


Qrftc 23ttrg JHar&ct antf tftc (great 

JlIFTY years ago the Bigg Market, New 
castle, presented an old-world appearance, 
with its quaint shops and quainter hostel- 
ries. As will be seen from our drawing, 
which depicts a number of old houses at the west side 
of this thoroughfare, one of the widest in the town, 
the change, as compared with the present aspect of the 
place, is remarkable. 

The house to the left, with the lamp-post in front 
of it, was the Golden Lion, a noted resort of 
carriers, farmers, and country people who came 
into the town to sell their produce. Mr. Ruther- 
ford, the landlord of the Golden Lion, did not 
occupy the whole of the building, for the room to the 
right of the entrance was used as a barber's shop. The 
premises in the yard behind often served as a mart for 

The next house, the Unicorn, was rather a superior 
hostelry, the landlady being one Rachel Dixon, who was 
respected by everybody. Farmers and carriers were to be 
met with here also in considerable numbers, and there 
was a general aspect of comfort and snugness about the 

The next building, rather more pretentious than any 
other in the sketch, was occupied by a couple of trades- 

Then we come to the Fighting Cocks, an inn of the 
old school, kept by a bluff, hearty Boniface named Roger 
Heron. The entrance was through an archway, and 
although a numerous array of tradesmen's signs met the 
gaze few would have conjectured that in the yard behind 
almost every known craft was at one time carried on. 
Amongst those who were to be found in the yard about 
fifty years ago was a gold-beater named Armstrong, 
whose shop was identified by the gilt arm and mallet 
which was to be seen above the signboard ;*a file-cutter 
named Bambro ; and a shoeing smith named Stephenson, 
father of Mr. Clement Stephenson, veterinary surgeon, 
of Newcastle. A man named Hudson had a foundry 
at the bottom of the yard, which, it may be explained, ex- 
tended as far as the rails of St. John's Church, West 
Grainger Street not having then been made. In the same 
yard might be found plumbers, cabinetmakers, wood- 
turners, joiners, brassfounders, glassblowers, and many 


Immediately in front of the Fighting Cocks Inn, and a 
few yards above the present pant, there was a large 
fountain with troughs for cattle. It will be noticed that 
to the right of the principal entrance to the Golden Lion 
and to the left of the lower front window of the Fighting 
Cocks are mounting or " louping-on" stones for the use of 






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f January 

horsemen. One of these stones is preserved by the 
Society of Antiquaries in the Old Caatle. 

Much of the old Groat Market, shown in our second 
engraving, has long since disappeared. All the quaint 
houses seen on the right-hand side of the picture were 
removed when the present Town Hall was built. More 
lately some of the houses to the left have given place to 
modern edifices. But the conspicuous figure of a horse, 
forming the sign of an inn, still remains. 

The pillars noticed to the right are a portion of what 
was, half a century ago, called the new Corn Market, 
which was built by a company in 1839 at a cost of 
10,000. Mr. Richard Grainger, " who found Newcastle 
crumbling bricks and left it stone," had previously 
offered the Corporation the free and exclusive use of the 
newly-built Central Exchange Art Gallery, on the con- 
dition that it should be used as a corn market. Mr. 
Grainger also promised to rebuild the front elevations of 
the houses in the Groat Market and the Cloth Market in 
the Gothic style of architecture, and remove all the old 
buildings in Middle Street and Union Street lying 
between the two thoroughfares. This offer was, however, 
rejected by the Newcastle Council on October 4-, 1837. 
But the new Corn Market, before twenty years had 
elapsed from the time of the rejection of Grainger's pro- 
posal, had to make way for the new Town Hall buildings, 
the foundation stone of which was laid in August, 1855. 

Our drawings are reproduced from photographs, taken 
some years ago, which have been kindly lent us by Mr. 
W. Parry, photographer, of South Shields. 

SHE oldest fairy tale in the world is believed 
to be one written on papyrus for the edifica- 
tion of the young Egyptian Crown Prince, 
Seti Manephta, the son of Pharaoh Rameses 
Mi-amun, who ruled in Thebes fourteen hundred years 
before Christ, and at whose court Moses was educated. 
This curious papyrus was unfolded by a learned German 
in 1863, and a literal translation of its contents was read 
by him to a Berlin audience in the winter of that year 
thirty-two centuries after it had been written. 

A good-sized library would be required to contain all 
the rich fairy literature that the human imagination has 
created, since the days of Moses and Aaron, Jannes and 
Jambres. Fickle fancy has no more pleasant field to 
revel in, but we must not allow her to roam to a distance 
here. We must stay at home, and speak only of our own 
North-Country Fairies. 

Brand, in his "Antiquities," under the heading "Fairy 
Mythology," has gathered together a mass of interesting 
items, but most of them are drawn from places more or 

less far away. All he says with regard to the "good 
people " in this part of the country is : 

I have made strict inquiries after fairies in the un- 
cultivated wilds of Northumberland, but even there I 
could only meet with a man who said that he had seen 
one that liad seen fairies. Truth is hard to come at in 
most cases. None, I believe, ever came nearer to it than 
I have done. 

Mr. Henderson, in his "Folk-Lore of the Northern 
Counties of England," has likewise but few references to 
the fairies of Northumberland and Durham. He tells us, 
indeed, of the Elf Stone, which " is described as sharp, 
and with many corners and points, so that, whichever 
way it falls, it inflicts a wound on the animal it touches." 
"Popular belief," he adds, "maintains that the elves 
received these stones from old fairies, who wore thorn as 
breast-pins at the fairy court, and that the old fairies 
received them in turn from mermaidens." They are in 
reality flint arrow heads, fashioned by our ancestors in 
what is known as the Stone Age, and now familiar to 
frequenters of local museums, where they may be sen of 
all shapes and sizes. 

We are most of us familiar with those ourious natural 
phenomena called Fairy Rings. Some attribute them to 
tl e growth of fungi, spreading from a centre ; others 
think they are caused by lightning ; but the vulgar 
opinion is that they are spots where the fairies have been 
dancing in a ring by moonlight, and have trodden down 
the grass with their tiny feet. 

Fairies have a perpetual memorial in a remarkable kind 
of small stones in a rounded or spiral form, as if produced 
by the action of a lathe, which are frequently picked up 
after rain or thaw, in the beds of some of the smaller 
Northumbrian streams, such as the Beaumont, and like- 
wise in the Elwin or Allan, whicli falls into the Tweed 
from the North, a little above Melrose. They are com- 
monly known as fairy cups, dishes, cradles, and bonnets, 
according to the particular shape they assume. 

While Friday is the witches' Sabbath, Wednesday ia 
that of the fairies. Every Friday, however, the "good 
people " are declared to divert themselves with combing 
the beards of goats. 

In the olden time, it was not uncommon for the servant 
girl in a farm-house to discover, when she rose with the 
sun or before it, that the floor had been clean swept, 
and every article of furniture put into its proper place, 
by some kind sleight-of-hand fairy during the night. But 
servant girls get no such supernatural nocturnal help 
now, but must do the needful work themselves. 

The fairies were formerly much addicted to stealing the 
most beautiful and witty children they came across, and 
leaving in their places such brats of their own as were 
prodigiously ugly and stupid, mischievously inclined, or 
of a peevish and fretful temper. These elfish imps were 
termed "changelings." Some will have it that the "good 
people " could only exchange these weakly, starveling, 
ill-conditioned elves for the more robust children of 

1891. / 



Christian parents before baptism, and that they could not 
do so even then if a candle was always kept burning 
at night in the room where the infant lay. 

The fairies used to be heard patting their butter on the 
slope of Pensher Hill, when people were passing in the 
dark. A man once heard one of them say, "Mend that 
peel !" Next day, going past again, he found a broken 
peel lying on the ground. So he took it up and mended 
it. The day after that, when going along the road with 
a cart, he saw a piece of bread lying on a stsne at the 
root of the hedge, at the identical place, with nice-look- 
ing fresh-churned butter spread upon it; but he durst 
neither eat it himself nor give it to his horses. The con- 
sequence was, that before he got to the top of the 
" lonnin," both his horses fell down dead. And thus was 
he eoudignly punished for his want of faith in the fairies' 
hjncnir. What is commonly known as Fairy Butter is a 
certain fungous excrescence, sometimes found about the 
roots of old trees. After great rains, and at a particular 
stage of putrefaction, it is reduced to a consistency 
which, together with its 'colour, makes it not unlike 
butter; and hence its name. When met with inside 
houses, it IB reckoned Incky. Why so, we cannot tell. 

There are several round green hills in Durham and 
Northumberland which were formerly supposed to be in- 
habited underground by the fairies. We have met with 
people who said they knew this to be a fact, because 
sometimes in a fine still summer night, they have them- 
selves lain down on these green hills, with their ears 
close to the ground, and have heard piping, fiddling, 
and dancing going on far down in the interior. When 
questioned as to whether ths sounds might not rather 
come from some neighbouring village or gipsy encamp- 
ment, they would reply, " No, it was the fairies ; every- 
body knew it was ; hundreds had heard them." Indeed, 
almost every circular mound in the North must once have 
been thus inhabited, if all tales be true. One such place 
is the site of the old. fortress of the Conyers family, at 
Bishopfcon, called the Castle Hill. Another is a remark- 
able tumulus between Eppleton and Hetton, consisting 
entirely of field stones gathered together. At the top of 
this is a little hollow, called the Fairy's Cradle, and 
there the fairies formerly used to dance to the music 
made on a peculiarly sweet-toned pipe by a supernatural 
minstrel. Ritson speaks of some fairy hills at Billing- 
ham, and Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe tells us of a very 
famous one at Middleton-io-Teesdale. called the Tower 
Hill, close to Pounties Lane (vulgo County Lane, 
originally Pont Tees Lane). A person informed Mr. 
Longstaffe that his grandmother frequently asserted that 
she had seen the fairies go from that hill to the 
Tees to wash themselves and to wash their clothes 
also. Moreover, she once found a fairy, like unto 
a miniature girl, dressed in green, and with 
brilliant red eyes, composedly sitting on a small 
cheese-like stone near her house. She took this 

strange creature into the kitchen and set it by 
the fire, and gave .it some bread and butter, with sugar on 
it, which it ate, but it cried so bitterly that she was 
obliged to carry it back to where she found it. She, 
however, kept the elfish stone, and it may be in existence 
until this day. The old woman preserved it most reli- 
giously, not suffering it to be touched, and always had it 
under the table in the pantry, for what purpose is not 

Ritson deduces " Ferry Hill " from " Fairy Kill. " At 
Hartlepool there are Fairy Coves, while the upper 
valley of the Wear abounds with Fairy Caves. Near 
Marsden, in one of the limestone caverns with which that 
neighbourhood abounds, is "the Fairy's Kettle," a 
circular hole in the rock, about five feet deep, filled with 
pellucid salt water, the sea covering the place at spring 
tides, and occasionally leaving a few little fishes in it, to 
swim gaily about in a fairy-like fashion, as in an 
aquarium of Nature's own forming. 

While the foul fiend used to appear in the shape of a 
black dog, and his poor deluded hags, the witches, in that 
of a hare, the fairies were wont at times to assume that of 
a cat. The following tale is told confirmatory of this : 
A Stamdrop farmer was crossing a bridge at night, when 
a cat jumped out, stood right before him, looked him in 
the face earnestly, and at last, opening its mouth like 
Balaam's ass, said in articulate vernacular North-Country 
speech : 

Johnny Reed ! Johnny Reed ! 

Tell Madam Mumfort 
'At Mally Dixon's deed. 

The farmer came home and told his wife what he had 
seen and heard, when up sprang their old black cat, which 
had been sitting cosily beside the fire, and, exclaiming, 
" Is she? Then aa mun off '." bolted out at the door and 
disappeared for ever. It was supposed she was a fairy in 
disguise, and that she had gone to attend the funeral of a 
relative, through whose death she might Rave come in for 
some legacy. 

Chathill, near Alnwick, boasted of a large Fairy Ring, 
round which the children used to dance. But if they ran 
round it more than nine times, some evil, it was thought, 
was sure to befal them. So they would go the appointed 
number, but never more. 

Henhole, on the north side of Cheviot, is a chasm in the 
midst of green slopes and heathy solitudes, so deep and 
narrow that the rays of the sun never enter, and where a 
small patch of snow, called a "snow egg, "is frequently 
to be seen at midsummer. Some hunters were one day 
chasing a roe, when they heard issuing from the depths of 
the ravine the sweetest music they had ever heard. For- 
getting the roe, which bounded away unheeded, they 
were impelled to enter to see who the musicians were, 
but they could never again find their way out Only one 
who had been left behind, owing to his being worse 





mounted than the rest, hesitated when he came to the 
brink of the " hole," and came back to tell the tale. 

A widow and her son. a wilful little fellow, in or near 
Rothley, in the parish of Hartburn, famed in the days of 
Border "raids," were sitting alone in their solitary 
cottage, one winter evening, when the lad refused to go 
to bed, because, as he averred, he was not sleepy. His 
mother told him that, if he would not go, the fairies 
would come to take him away. He laughed, however, 
and sat still by the fire, while his mother retired to rest. 
Soon a beautiful little figure, about the size of a child's 
doll, came down the wide chimney and alighted on the 
hearth. " What do they ca' thoo ?" asked the astonished 
boy. " My Ainsell," was the reply, "and what do they 
ca' thoo?" "My Ainsell," retorted he, and no more 
questions were asked. Shortly they began to play 
together, like brother and sister. At length the fire grew 
dim. The boy took up the poker to stir it, but in doing 
so a hot cinder accidentally fell on the foot of his strange 
playmate. The girl set up a terrific roar, and the boy 
flung down the tongs and bolted off to bed. Immediately 
the voice of the fairy mother was heard, asking " Who's 
done it?" "Oh! it was my ainsell," screamed the girl. 
"Why, then," said the mother, "what's all the noise 
aboot ? Thor's nyen te blame. " 

A cottager and his wife at Netherwitton, on the banks 
of the Font, were one day visited by a fairy and his 
spouse, with their young child, which they wished to 
leave in their charge. They agreed to retain it for a 
certain period, after which it was to be taken back. The 
fairy woman gave them a box of ointment with which to 
anoint tho child's eyes ; but they were noc on any account 
themselves to use it, or some misfortune would befal 
them. For a long time they carefully avoided letting the 
least particle stick to their fingers ; but, one day when his 
wife was out, curiosity overcame prudence in the man's 
mind, and he anointed his eyes with the forbidden stuff, 
without any noticeable effect. Some short time after, 
however, when walking through Longhorsley Fair, he 
met the male fairy and accosted him. The elf started 
back in amazement, but, instantly guessing the truth, 
came forward and blew in the cottager's eyes. The effect 
was instantaneous. The poor man was struck stone 
blind. And the fairy child was never more seen. 

A farmer, riding home at midnight past Fawdon Hill, 
was surprised to hear the sound of music and jollity in so 
lonely a place. On coming nearer, he became aware of a 
door open in the hill side, and through it saw a large 
company of strange-looking dwarfed people seated at a 
splendid banquet. One of the attendants, perceiving the 
stranger, came forward and offered him a cup full of 
liquor, which he accepted ; but, instead of drinking the 
contents to his entertainers' health, he prudently spilt 
them on the ground, .and, putting spurs to his horse, fled 
incontinently. The swiftness of the beast enabled him to 
bafHe his pursuers, so that he bore away the empty vessel, 

which was afterwards found to be made of some unknown 
substance, possibly selenium. This is a very old story, 
first told by a monkish chronicler, named William of 
Newbury, who died in 1208, and who is said by his 
translator, the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, to have been " in 
criticism in advance of his age, and freer from prejudice 
than might reasonably have been expected." William 
concludes his narrative by telling his readers that the 
identical fairy cup, having come into the possession of 
King Henry I., was presented by that monarch to 
Alexander I., King of Scots, who had married Sybilla, 
one of his numerous illegitimate daughters. 

Once upon a time a particularly clever midwife, well 
known as " the howdie " for many miles round, flourished 
somewhere about Elsdon. A messenger on horseback 
came and called her out of bed one night, and told her 
that she must instantly rise and go with him to the place 
where he had hastily come from, a good distance off, 
where a lady, whose friends could afford to pay her hand- 
somely, was in sore want of her attendance. She must, 
however, submit to be blindfolded, as the expected event 
was to be kept a secret. The man gave her something in 
hand by way of earnest, and she consented to mount 
behind him on a pillion. Then fast, fast away they rode. 
Arrived at tbeir destination, the howdie was introduced 
into the room wherein the lady lay, and the bandage was 
removed from her eyes. It was a very neat and comfort- 
able place, but a place she had never been in before. 
After she had successfully performed her office, and the 
relieved mother was as well as could be expected, the man 
got from an old crone who was sitting in the room a box 
of ointment, with which she was tuld she must anoint the 
baby, but to be careful not to let it touch her own 
person. She accordingly did as she was bid, having no 
mind to try any such experiments on herself, as she did 
not know of what the stuff consisted. But, feeling an 
itching in her eye, she put up her hand unconsciously, 
and now saw everything in a different light. Instead of 
a cosy room, it was a wood she was in. There was a 
hollow moss-grown trunk instead of a fireplace. Glow- 
worms supplied the place of lamps, and the lady was 
evidently a fairy woman. But though mightily aston- 
ished, the howdie retained her self-possession, finished 
her task, was again blindfolded, got mounted behind her 
mysterious conductor, and returned safely home, with a 
good heavy purse of fairy money in her pocket. One 
market-day soon after, she saw the old crone who had 
handed her the box, and likewise been her pay-mistress, 
gliding from one basket to another, among the farmers, 
and hinds' wives, passing a little wooden scraper along 
the rolls of butter, and carefully collecting the particles 
thus purloined into a vessel hung bv her side. After a 
mutual but silent recognition, the old lady inquired, 
" What eye do you see me with ?" " With the left eye, " 
was the innocent answer. " Well, then, take that !'" 
cried the crone, as she startled her with a sudden, sharp 

January 1 
1891. / 



puff. From that moment the poor hbwdie was a one-eyed 

Another version of the story is that it was a certain 
country doctor who received the eye salve from his elfin 
conductor, and that, after he had anointed his eyes with 
it, he saw a splendid portico in the side of a steep hill, 
to which he was taken by his guide. He entered, and 
found himself in a gorgeously furnished hall, fit for a 
royal residence. On coming out, after performing his 
office, another box was put into his hands, and he was 
told to rub his eyes with its contents. He rubbed only 
one eye, however, and with it saw the hill in its natural 
shape, palace and portico having vanished. Thinking 
to cheat his conductor, he feigned to rub the other eye 
also, and then galloped off home. But, afterwards, see- 
ing the fairy husband stealing corn in Morpeth Market, 
he accosted him, with the same melancholy result, losing 
for ever the sight of both eyes. 

It was with tales like these that our grandmothers and 
great-grandmothers entertained their hopeful offspring. 

W. B. 

Arctic & Antarctic 

F the two circumpolar oceans, the Arctic and 
the Antarctic, some of the most daring and 
successful explorers have been North- 
Country men. The discoverer of Hudson's 
Bay was, there is reason to believe, a native of this part 
of the country. Old family traditions of the name con- 
firm the alleged fact, which cannot, however, be histori- 
cally established, owing to Henry Hudson's birthplace 
and early life not having been deemed worthy of record. 

We need do little more than allude to Captain Cook, 
whose father was an Ednam man, who was himself 
born at Marton, near Middlesbrough, and who served his 
apprenticeship to the sea on board a Newcastle collier, 
belonging, it is true, to Whitby owners. Cook's dis- 
coveries ranged from latitude 71 dees. 10 mins. south, to 
70 degs. 41 mins. north, and he occupies the foremost 
place among modern explorers. Captain Weddell, who 
reached latitude 74 degs. 15 mins. south, in January, 1823, 
was also, if we are not misinformed, a North-Country 
man ; and we may confidently claim old Willy Scoresby, 
born at Cropton, in the North Riding, and his even more 
distinguished son, Dr. William Scoresby, who, in their 
voyage to Greenland in 1806 (the father filling the place of 
captain, the son that of chief mate), sailed in the high 
latitude (by observation) of 81 degs. 12 mins. 42 sees., 
little more than five hundred nautical miles from the pole 
This fact, as it had been previously unexampled, long re- 
mained unsurpassed in the annals of polar navigation 
for though Parry, in his voyage of 1827, succeeded in 
reaching a higher parallel (82 degs. 45 mins.) by the joint 
aid of boats and sledges, yet his ship had been unable to 

advance beyond 79 degs. 55 mins. It was not till the 
year 1871 that the American ship Polaris, commanded by 
Captain Hall, reached a higher latitude than the 
Scoresbys (84 degs. 16 mins.). 

Captain F. R. M. Crozier, of the Terror, Sir John 
Franklin's comrade in his last melancholy voyage, was, 
we believe, a Ramsgate man, though his family connec- 
tions lay in Blyt'u or Shields, if we are not misinformed. 
He was chosen as Franklin's lieutenant, on account of his 
being an experienced Arctic and Antarctic navigator, 
who had accompanied Sir James Clark Ross to the South 
Polar regions, and it was he who assumed the command 
after Sir John's death, and endeavoured as a forlorn hope, 
but in vain, to reach the Great Fish River with the 
survivors of the expedition, one hundred and five in num- 
ber all doomed, with himself, to perish in the trackless 
frozen wilderness. His name is perpetuated in Crozier 
Channel, leading out of Banks Strait, northward, and in 
Cape Crazier, on the dreary western shore of King 
William Land. Lieutenant Fairholm, who also perished 
with Franklin, was a Berwickshire man, born, we believe, 
at Greenkuowe, near Gordon, his paternal estate. On* 
of the crew of the Erebus or Terror, we forget which, was 
John Handford, son of James Handford, of Sunderland. 
Lady Franklin got his father and mother into an alms- 
house in London. Rear-Admiral Swinburne, a much 
esteemed friend of Sir John Franklin, and one of the 
earliest supporters of the final expedition sent in search of 
him (McClintock's), was a scion of one of our oldest and 
most respected Northumbrian families. 

Captain John Balleny, who discovered Sabrina Land 
in 1839 a tract of the southern circumpolar continent, 
long known as Terra Australis Incognita sailed origin- 
ally, we have been told, from Berwick-on-Tweed. 

Captain (Admiral) Collinson, who passed three winters 
in the icev and worked his ship, the Enterprise, right 
along the North American coast, from Behring's Strait to 
Cambridge Bay and back, across sixty degrees of longi- 
tude, in 1850, 1851, and 1852, was born in Gateshead. 
His father, the Rev. John Collinson, was rector of thafi 
parish from 1810 to 1840, and afterwards rector of 
Boidon, where he died in 1857. Captain Collinson 
penetrated the furthest eastward from Behring's Strait 
that any v<jssel has yet reached ; and he named the 
point at which he was obliged by the ice to turn to the 
west again, on his homeward route, Gateshead Island. 
In the British Museum, among the Arctic Expedition 
Relics, is a portrait of the Esquimaux dog "Daddy," 
brought home by the captain to Boidon Rectory, where it 
died. A very beautiful flag, given to Captain McClintock 
by Lady Franklin, on his departure on the search expedi- 
tion, bearing her ladyship's name in white letters upon a 
red ground, and margined with white embroidery, was 
worked by the sisters of Captain Collinson. It was 
hoisted on the occasion of McClintock's having at length 
completed the sole object of his voyage acquired 



/ January 


possession of the Franklin Records, picked up by Lieu- 
tenant Hobson on the shore of King William Land. 

One of the most intrepid of our Arctic explorers was 
Captain Christopher Middleton, supposed to have been 
born at Newtcn Bewley, near Billingham, South Dur- 
ham, about the beginning of the last century. There is a 
detailed biography of him in Brewster's " History of 
Stockton." We there learn that Middleton was bred to 
the sea, and was engaged for some time in the fur trade, 
in one of the Hudson's Bay Company's vessels. Recom- 
mended by a.Mr. Dobbs, who was impressed with a 
conviction that a passage might be found from the 
Atlantic into the great Western Ocean, by an opening 
not far distant from the course annually taken by the 
Company's ships, he received from the Admiralty the 
command of the Furnace for the purposes of discovery, 
and had also put under his orders the Discovery junk, 
which was commanded by Mr. William Moor, also 
a, Billingham man. They left England in the summer 
of 1741, wintered in Churchill River, and, as soon as the 
ice allowed next year, began to sail up Sir Thomas 
Roe's Welcome, through which they hoped to be able 
to make their way westward. Their attention was soon 
attracted by an inlet or river, which they called the 
Wager, six or eight miles in breath, opening in the right 
direction. They Bailed up it a little way, but ere long 
found, to their mortification, that it would not afford 
them the passage they sought, because the tide of 
flood constantly came from the eastward, or in at its 
mouth. Some twenty miles further north they came to 
another opening, thirteen leagues in width, and doubled a 
cape or headland, from which the trending of the 
land gave them the greatest joy, all believing that this 
would prove the extreme north-east point of America. 
Middleton, therefore, gave it the name of Cape Hope. 
But when the fog cleared away the next day they 
experienced a sad reverse ; for they found the land to 
extend westward of north, making a deep bay ; and 
standing on towards the bottom of that they plainly saw 
they could not proceed above six or eight miles further, 
the bay being land-locked. Under these disappointing 
circumstance*, Middleton gave it the name of Repulse 
Bay. He now tried to find an outlet from the Welcome 
on the eastern side, but in this also he was unsuccessful. 
Landing, and walking twelve or fifteen miles, he 
ascended a very high mountain, from which he obtained 
a full view of a strait, eighteen or twenty leagues in 
length, and seven in breadth, but completely frozen from 
side to side, and seemingly as impermeable as a solid 
rock. This hard and fast locked and sealed waterway, 
which retains on the chart the name of the Frozen Strait, 
leads out of the Welcome back into Hudson's Strait, as 
Middleton, from the set of the tide, concluded it did. 

On coming home with this account of what he 
had seen and done, he was very much blamed for 
not having prosecuted his search further. It was more 

than insinuated that he had been bribed by the directors 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, whose trusted servant he 
had been, with the sum of five thousand pounds, in order 
to stifle inquiry and prevent discovery ; for the influx of 
private traders into these seas might have led to their 
profitable monopoly being broken up a thing to be pre- 
veuted by any means short of murder. This Frozen 
Strait, it was said, was all a chimera ; indeed, some of 
his petty officers swore it was. Middleton strenuously 
denied the bribe, and maintained the correctness of his 
representations. But his patron Dobbs refused to believe 
him, and the Lords of the Admiralty, after hearing all 
parties, were dissatisfied with his explanations. Captains 
Parry and Lyon, long afterwards, substantially verified 
his account, which varied from theirs only in such 
minutiie as may be accounted for by the use ot imperfect 
nautical instruments. This confirmation of his state- 
ments came, of course, too late, except to clear 
his character for veracity long after his death, which 
took place in 1770. Brewster says that " neither 
emolument nor honour graced his latter end," and 
that, "dejected probably in spirits, he retired from 
public employment, and, having married his ser- 
vant, he had a large family, aud, it is said, died 
poor." We learn from the "Annual Register," however, 
that he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
received a medal "for his curious observations in the 
discovery of the North-West Passage in 1740." His latter 
years were spent at Norton, where he died. The follow- 
ing is the entry of his burial, 1770 :" Feb.' 15, Christ. 
Middleton, master and commander in the Royal Navy." 
Some of his papers and journals, it appears, came into 
the possession of the parish clerk at Norton, who gave 
them to a young sailor of the name of Robinson, who 
was shipwrecked and lost his life on the coast of Jutland, 
and the papers, we conclude, were lost with him. 
Middleton's correspondence with the Hudson's Bay 
Company is still extant, we believe, in manuscript, in the 
company's archives. His "Narrative" was published in 
London shortly after his return. 

As Middleton's failure did not shake the general 
opinion respecting the possibility of the North-West 
Passage through Hudson's Strait, a reward of 20,000 
was offered by Parliament for the discovery ; and a new- 
expedition under the direction of private persons, with 
Mr. Dobbs's assistance, was fitted out for the purpose. 
Captain Moor, who had been Middleton's associate, was 
appointed to the command. As he seems to have been 
but a poor scholar, though doubtless a good seaman, a 
Mr. Henry Ellis was sent out with him, engaged by the 
committee of management, to write a narrative of the 
voyage. The expedition consisted of two vessels the 
Dobbs galley, of 180 tons, and the California, of 140 tons, 
the latter commanded by Captain Francis Smith. 
Having sailed on the 20th of May, 1746, they made the 
land on the 21st of August, on the west side of the 

1891. / 



Welcome. Five days afterwards, the Dobbs grounded at 
the entrance to Port Nelson, about seven miles from York 
Fort, but she was got off without material damage. The 
governor of the fort had no mind to promote their 
designs, and some time was wasted in disputes with him. 
It was then judged to be too late in the season to attempt 
explorations that year, so they sailed up Hayes or Nelson 
River and moored in a creek, about two miles above the 
fort, where they wintered. They resumed the search, or, 
more correctly speaking, commenced it, next year, on the 
24th of June. But all they did was to sail up Wager 
Strait, where they were again disappointed in not find- 
ing a passsage, and then cursorily examining another 
strait to the northward, which appears to have been 
either Middleton's Frozen Strait or the entrance to 
Repulse Bay, and where they had no better success. "A 
difference of opinions," says Brewster, "prevailed be- 
tween the commanders and among the officers as to the 
propriety of proceeding to the examination of the bay, 
consistent with their instructions. The greater part 
were evidently indisposed towards any further research, 
urging the advanced season of the year, though it was 
only the 7th of August. After this, nothing was done or 
attempted. After a council surely an inglorious council 
they determined to bear up for England." On the 29th 
they reached the westward entrance of Hudson's Strait, 
and arrived in Yarmouth Roads on the 14th of October, 
1747, having been absent one year, four months, and 
seventeen days. After this really fruitless voyage, 
Captain Moor, adds the historian of Stockton, ''soon 
retired from the service ; prudently cast anchor in his 
own neighbourhood of Greatham, where he married 
Mary, sister of Ralph Bradley, Esq., of Stockton, in 
1757, where he continued to reside, and died at that place 
in 1765." 

A more noteworthy local name connected with North- 
West Passage exploration is that of Captain William 
Christopher, a native of Norton, who sailed from Fort 
Churchill in the summer of 1761, in the sloop Churchill, 
belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, the directors of 
which had, in the intervals since Moor's luckless attempt, 
risen above the narrow prejudices of their predecessors, 
and resolved to make some amends for the obstructions 
thrown in the way of former voyagers. Christopher 
made his way up Cbesterneld Inlet, through which a 
passage had, from Ellis's account of it, been generally 
expected ; but finding the water turn brackish, which 
showed that he was not in a strait, but in a river, he 
returned. The ensuing summer he was ordered to repeat 
the voyage in the same ship, and Mr. Norton, in a cutter, 
was appointed to attend him. This time they ascended 
the Chesterfield Inlet again, and found it to end in a 
large fresh water lake, completely land-locked and fed by 
small rivulsts, at the distance of about one hundred and 
seventy miles from the sea. Several other inlets were 
afterwards examined, from latitude 62 degrees to the 

south point of Main ; but none of them offered the pass- 
age searched for, the deepest not running above three 
or four miles inland. So the result of these explorations 
was only negative. Captain Christopher settled with his 
family at Stockton, in comfortable circumstances, after 
having left the company's service; and he died, in the 60th 
year of his age, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he bad gone 
for medical advice. His remains were interred at Norton. 
Turning to the southern hemisphere, we find that one 
of the most important discoveries ill high latitudes in 
that part of the world was made by a Blyth man, Mr. 
William Smith, commander of the brig William, of 
JBiyth. He was on a voyage from Buenos Ayres to 
Valparaiso, in the year 1819, when, on the 19th of 
February, having stretched far to the south, he sighted 
land in lat. 62 deg. 40 min., and near the longitude of 62 
W., about two leagues off. Hard gales, with flying 
showers of snow and fields of ice a combination of 
adverse circumstances prevented at that time an ex- 
ploration of the coast; and on the brig's return to the 
Kiver Plate in the following month of May similar cir- 
cumstances prevented further discovery. But, on a 
subsequent voyage from Monte Video to Valparaiso, in 
October of the same year, the William again made 
the land, in lat. 62 deg. 30 min. S. and long. 60. deg. W., 
by chronometer bearing distance about three leagues. 
Captain Smith ran along the coast, which seemed to be 
that of a continent, fringed with islands a good way, and 
effected a landing at several points. He found the 
country barren and covered with snow, but seals and 
spermaceti whales were in abundance. He named it 
New South Shetland. It is now known to be an ex- 
tensive archipelago, partly if not wholly volcanic, and 
almost without a vestige of vegetation, but with several 
good harbours. Ever since its discovery it has been the 
great seat of the seal, sea-elephant, and whale fisheries 
in those seas. One ship'i crew has been known to catch 
as many as twelve thousand seals in one season along its 
shores ; and the number taken off the islands, durimj the 
years 1821 and 1822, chiefly by American vessels, is com- 
puted by Captain Weddell at 320.000. Blyth Bay, in 
Desolation Island, is that in which the William first 
came to anchor, and Smith's Island, named after her 
commander, is the westernmost of the group. It is the 
highest and most forbidding of the whole, rising to more 
than two thousand feet above the sea level, and covered 
with eternal snow, except only where the surface is too 
precipitous to let it lie. The black dismal rocks contrast 
painfully with the glaring white, and give a very weird 
aspect to the scene, which is like nothing that meets the 
eye in more temperate regions. Captain Smith thought 
he saw pino and fir trees growing in many places, as he 
ran in a westward direction along the coasts for two or 
three hundred miles ; and he reported that the country 
had upon the whole the appearance of the coast of Nor- 
way ; but no subsequent voyager has seen any trees on 




any part of New South Shetland, or the lands adjacent, 
not oven grass or shrubs. The only vegetation, ap- 
parently, consists of moss and lichens. But the riches of 
the sea make up in some measure for the poverty of the 
land. W. B. 

Hawfcl* Knuittf 

JHE city of York, in its inner and outward 
aspect, spans the centuries so completely 
that it would be difficult to find a better 
compendium in stone of British history. 
Here we have tangible memories of Britons, Romans, 

Saxons, Danes, and Normans aye, and even of those 
hapless Jews who, after attaining wealth and power, 
perished so tragically in the revengeful outbreak of the 
twelfth century. 

But before we touch that lurid page, let us recall other 
incidents in York's story that are infinitely more 
pleasurable. We shall not quibble over the names suc- 
cessively borne by the city; but it seems indisputable that 
the Romans first gave it importance under the title of 
Eboracum, and that the Danes anticipated the modern 
appellation of "York" by dubbing it Jorvik the initial 
letter having the sound of "y." The beautiful Minster, 
which is so commanding a feature in the vale of York, can 
claim connection with those remote times, for Con- 
stantino the Great, proclaimed Roman Emperor here 

From Harpr' Magazine. 

, 1889, by Hirptr 4 Brothen. 


January 1 
1891. f 



about A.D. 306, is believed to have given, on the very 
spot where the sacred edifice now stands, his gracious 
permission for the first preaching of Christianity in the 
city. On this spot, too, Paulinus baptised the North- 
umbrian monarch Edwin ; and if we descend into the 
crypt of the present-day Minster we may view the 
remains of Edwin's first church, or at least of the original 
building reared by Archbishops Thomas and Rogers. 
Saxon crypts, however, as in Hexham Abbey, are not 
inspiring regions, and the decidedly "elevating" in- 
fluence of a climb to the top of the central tower of the 
Minster is much more to be recommended. Here the eye 
roves over a goodly prospect of the broad -acred county; and 
on a fine summer or autumn day one is not, even at this 
lapse of time, inclined to dispute the Chevalier Bunsen's 
opinion that we see before us " the most beautiful and 
most romantic vale in the world, the vale of Normandy 
excepted." The description seems all the more faithful 
when we remember that Normandy retains its sweet 
simplicity, while York, on the other hand, is familiar 
with the screams of locomotives, and boasts of 
having the largest railway station in the United King- 

Circled by its white walls, however, there is in York 
city much that is quaint, and picturesque, and rich in 
historic associations. The modern spirit of research has 
laid bare the remains of Roman walls, villas, and palaces, 
with many curious evidences of military aud domestic 
pursuits, as well as samples of architectural ornamenta- 
tion and personal adornment. The clustering streets, 
with their strange nomenclature, such as the Shambles, 
tell their own story, helped out here and there by grim 
turrets and frowning gateways. Micklegate Bar, at the 

head of one of the principal streets, is eloquent with its 
embattled turrets and stone warders, which frequently 

From Umi-sk's iuoizi>. Copyright, loaf, 


had for company in the "good old days" the heads of 
those who gave offence and had not wit or luck enough 
to escape the penalty. A ghastly procession has walked 


ftw llura'i Xiurax 

Copyright, 1889, by Harper 4 Brother.. 




I 1891. 

these battlements ! Then, in contrast with the trim 
wails of the Castle, there is the ancient tower of the 
Cliffords, with its savour of William the Conqueror, 
while over the 1'oss lies the glcoiny keep at Fishergate,. 
and not far ahead is Walmgate, celebrated as being the 

only "bar" that remains 
in England with barbi- 
can complete. Walm- 
gate is indeed a mine of 
memories, possessing in 
its forbidding front and 
jealous, spiteful port- 
cullis the clue to the 
right reading of many a 
page of history. 

But Jewbury, close 
by, now stirs up recol- 
lections of the part 
played in York by the 
forerunners of the 
Rothschilds, and re- 
kindles the interest in 
the Israelites of " Ivan- 
hoe." The Norther n 
capital was soon fixed 
upon by the Jews as a 
favourable centre, and 
here, William of Newburgh assures us, they attained 


From Harpr'i Magazine.-- Copyright. 
1889, by Harper 4 Brothera. 



"the luxury and the pomp of kings." But, while they 
grew fat upon usury, the Crusadere. who had sought their 
aid, with many others groaning under extortions, felt the 
strain too great to bear, and forthwith resolved tp wipe 
out their bonds with the sword. Five hundred Hebrews 
took refuge in the Castle, and here they were besieged by 
the populace clamouring for the blood of the " Jewish 
dogs." Not thus, however, were they to die. An aged 
rabbi, perceiving their desperate straits, counselled a, 
"free surrender of life to Him that gave it," whereupon 
the Jews hid or destroyed all their wealth, set fire to the 
Castle, and plunged their daggers first into the hearts of 
their women and children and then into their own bosoms. 
Not without a shudder, therefore, do we think of what 
befell the dwellers in Jewbury. 

Monk Bar, which receives its name from the general 
who played a part in the Restoration of the Stuart 
dynasty, is considered to be the most perfect of the feudal 
type of such remains in the country. In this respect, 
therefore, both as regards Walmgate and Monk Bar, 
York is of special interest to the antiquary. But one 
need not pause at the corbelled and embattled turrets, or 
tha rudely sculptured defenders who, standing in the act, 
have not yet made up their minds to hurl their missiles of 
rock. A rich field lies around, and, turn where one will, 
there is ample food for study and reflection. Go to the 
Mansion House, for instance, and there look upon the 
sword of state presented by the Emperor Sigismund, and 

Fr3m Harper'* Magazine. 

Copyright, 18S9, bj Harper 4 Brother., 

1891. / 



upon the cap of maintenance given by Richard II. when 
he made William de Selby the first Lord Mayor of York, 
the cap to be worn as faithfully observed to this day 
by the mayoral sword-bearer in all presences on all state 
occasions. " My Lord Mayor " keeps up considerable 
pomp, and within his own jurisdiction takes social 
precedence of all except the sovereign and heir-apparent ; 
yet the office has pone a-begging more than once, some of 
the elected having paid a monelary consideration to 


escape from serving. Surely the manifold associations of 
the Guildhall, gathered with the roll of centuries, and 
crystallized in the stained glass windows and fine oak 
carvings, ought to invest with dignity and lustre the 
duties of " My Lord Mayor " I 

Next to the abodes of civic power we might place 
that curious relic, the King's Manor House, which 
carries us back to the time of the Tudors and the 
Stuarts, for this was the scene of royal receptions, and 
here Charles II. held Parliament. Now, 
I as a school for the blind, it is the county 
! memorial of William Wilberforce, and 
I Puritans may eay it thus serves a better 
I purpose. Another spot sweet to the 
antiquary is the Merchants' Hall, in 
Fossgate, which at one stroke, so ripe is 
this memorial of the past, takes three 
centuries off the world's record. One 
might almost expect to encounter on the 
step one of those worthy old souls 
whose excellent motto is sculptured over 
the entrance with the arms of the Cor- 
poration : Dieu nous donnc bonne ad- 

But all this while we have been sen- 
sible of the influence of the towering 
Minster an influence that must be felt 
rather than described. Churches and 
charities there are in plenty, and the 
student may rejoice in chance specimens 
of Gothic and Norman architecture, or 
go into raptures over the remains of St. 
Mary's Abbey, dating from the Con- 
quest, and celebrated for its rich and 
powerful monks. But the glory of York 
is its Minster. Built in the form of a 
cross, it seems the embodiment of peace 
and sanctity, while its grand proportions 
and stately spires fill the mind of the 
beholder with a sense of awe. Fresh 
beauties appear at every point, and no 
one can weary of contemplating the 
delicate tracery of this exquisite piece of 
cathedral architecture. The heart burns 
at the mere thought that Jonathan 
Martin, in a mad freak, sought to 
fire this marvellous edifice, and one is 
thankful that the design of the incen- 
diary was frustrated. Carved on the 
top of one of the pinnacles, it may be 
noted, is an antique figure which bears 
the quaint appellation of "The Fiddler of 
York." The interior of the Minster is iu 
keeping with the exterior. Let the visitor 
enter, and he will realise the full power of 
this "sermon in stone." As he stanJs 

by Hwpr A Brothers. 





beneath the central tower, and gazes in admiration at the 
works of art that chastely adorn this monument of man's 
faith, he is sensible of a sacred influence around him, 
and it only requires the rare melody of the choir at even- 
song to make all that is spiritual in his nature vibrate in 
harmony with the magnificent conception which fills the 
Minster and dominates the city. 

3Sffrringt0tT irt 

pORGE WALDRON, alias Harrington, was 
a famous pickpocket towards the end of the 
last century. But Harrington was much 
more than a common thief. His educa- 
tional advantages placed him head and shoulders above 
the ordinary criminal level, while his superior manners 
and gift of speech showed that, if it had been his fortune 
to have commenced life under more favourable conditions, 
he would have achieved a respectable position in society. 
But his adverse circumstances and false start in life 
were entirely due to his own misconduct. 

Waldron was born at Maynooth, County Kildare, in 
1755. When he had entered his sixteenth year, he at- 
tracted the attention of a dignitary of the Church of 
Ireland, who placed him in a grammar school in Dublin, 
the object being to prepare him for the University. In 
an evil moment, he quarrelled with a school-fellow, older 
and stronger than himself. Getting the worst of the 
fight which ensued, he stabbed his comrade with a pen- 
knife. The youth was subjected to discipline for this 
offence; but this, instead of having a deterrent effect, 
only increased his feeling for revenge. After robbing 
the schoolmaster, he escaped from the school-house, and 
wandered aimlessly about the country. 
While at Drogheda, he joined a company of strolling 

players, with whom he remained for a time. The 
manager of the troupe, who had previously been con- 
victed for fraud and was at the time in fear of capture, 
was young Waldron's counsellor and friend. It was at 
this man's suggestion that the young fellow assumed the 
name of Barrington. Owing to a tolerably pleasing 
address, he soon made his name as an actor ; but, fearing 
that success in the profession would expose him to the 
attentions of his friends, he relinquished what might 
have been an honourable career. Acting on the advice 
of his evil counsellor, he adopted another profession 
that of a "gentleman pickpocket." 

After relieving many Irish gentlemen of their watches 
and trinkets, he transferred his operations to London. 
Ranelagh Gardens were then in the full flood of popularity 
the resort of the rank and fashion of the time. Here 
he managed to pick the pockets of the Duke of Leinster 
and Sir William Draper of considerable sums. In 1775 
we find him at Bath, where, pretending to be a gentle- 
man of fortune, he had no doubt many opportunities of 
replenishing his exchequer. On his return to London, he 
went to Court on the Queen's birthday, disguised as a 
clergyman, and not only picked several pockets, but found 
means to purloin a diamond order that adorned the breast 
of a nobleman. But perhaps the most daring of his 
ventures was the attempt to rob the Russian Prince 
Orloff .of a gold snuff-box, set with brilliants, and valued 
at 30,000. Following the prince to Covent Garden 
Theatre, he contrived to secure the treasure, but was 
caught in the act by Orloff himself. For this offence 
Barrington was prosecuted ; but he presented so plausible 
a defence that liberation followed. 

Trouble, however, overtook the audacious thief in 1777, 
in which year, being convicted of theft, he was sent to the 
hulks for three years. But fortune did not yet desert 
him, for, owing to his good conduct in prison, he was 
liberated at the termination of the first year. 
Six months afterwards he was again convicted of theft, 


January 1 
1891. / 



and again sentenced to the hulks, this time for a period of 
five years: Once more good luck attended him. Having 
nearly wrecked his constitution by an attempt to destroy 
his life, his pitiable condition excited the compassion of a 
gentleman of rank, a visitor to the hulks, who obtained 
for him n free pardon on condition that he quitted the 
kingdom. The condition was, of course, accepted, and, 
being provided with money by his benefactor, he de- 
parted for Dublin. 

Within a very short time afterwards he resumed his old 
practices. Apprehended on a charge of stealing the 
watch and money of a nobleman at a theatre, he made so 
effective a defence in court that he was discharged. We 
next find him in Edinburgh, and subsequently in London 
again. Arrested for violating the condition of release, he 
was imprisoned for the remainder of his term in Newgate. 
Soon after the expiration of his captivity, he was charged 
with stealing the watch of Mr. Haviland Le Mesurier, at 
Drury Lane Theatre, but eluded the vigilance of the con- 
stable, and so escaped once more. 

Harrington wandered about the country in various dis- 
guises, and eventually turned up in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
The circumstances of his arrest there are detailed in the 
following extract from the Newcastle Chronicle of July 5, 

On Friday evening, the 27th ult., as the Rev. Mr. 
Warilow, of this town, was going into the boxes of the 
theatre, a man genteely dressed came up to him, and at- 
tempted to take the watch out of his pocket; but having 
pulled it in an oblique direction, it stuck fast, and Mr. 
Warilow, perceiving his intention, laid hold of his arm ; 
he, however, immediately got it disengaged, and walked 
up into the green boxes, where he stood looking on the 
stage till Mr. W. went to him and accused him of the 
attempt, which he denied with great firmness and 
hauteur, and affected to be much insulted by the sus 
picion ; he then walked down stairs, and into the oppo- 
site green box, but, seeing Mr. W. determined not 
to leave him, he went again down stairs, and walked 
carelessly out of the theatre, when Mr. W., having pro- 
cured a constable, he was apprehended in the passage 
leading to the Flesh Market. He underwent an imme- 
diate examination before Mr. Alderman Rudman, and, 
being unwilling to give a satisfactory account of himself, 
he was committed to the custody of a sergeant-at-mace 
till next morning, when lie was again examined before the 
Court of Aldermen ; he there said his name was Jones, 
but, that circumstance being doubted, a sailor was 
brought into court, who made oath that he knew 
him to be the renowned pickpocket Harrington ; 
he was thereupon committed to Newgate, and in- 
telligence sent off to the Public Office in Bow 
Street, an advertisement having been published 
from thence in February last, charging him with 
having picked the pocket of Haviland Le Mesurier, 
Esq., of a purse containing twenty-three guineas and a 
half, and offering a reward of five guineas on his commit- 
ment. On hearing of his apprehension, the lady who 
travels with him, and calls herself his wife, immediately 
set off, in their one-horse chaise, towards the south, but 
returned again the same evening, in a different convey- 
ance, to the Old Queen's Head, in Pilgrim Street, where 
she was discovered by one of the sergeants, who con- 
ducted her before a magistrate, to undergo an exami- 
tion. She said her name was Johnson, and that 
her father was a waiter at a tavern in York ; but 
no information could be gained from her that could lead 
to a discovery of any malpractices of herself or her hus- 
band. She still remains in the custody of a serjeant-at- 
mace ; but, being far advanced in pregnancy, if no hopes 

remain of gaining any criminating matter from her 
evidence, humanity would seem to plead much for her 
enlargement. Notwithstanding Mr. Harrington's dex- 
terity, it appears that he has been rather unsuccessful 
here, as we do not find that any losses have been sustained 
from the exercise of his art, though it is imagined he was 
the person who attempted to pick the pockets of his Grace 
the Duke of Northumberland and two other gentlemen in 
the theatre. Mr. Harrington, should this be really him, 
is a man of genteel appearance and address, about five 
feet ten or eleven inches high, slender make, of a dark 
complexion, and has sharp, piercing eyes; he was dressed 
in a drab coat and round hat. Some of the Bow Street 
people are daily expected to arrive here, to convey him to 

A fortnight later the ingenious thief was still in 
custody, as appears from the following paragraph 
extracted from the Newcastle Chronicle of July 19 : 

The supposed Mr. Barrington still remains in custody 
here, Sir Sampson Wright not having yet thought proper 
to despatch messengers to convey him to London. He at 
first, indeed, desired he might be despatched by sea, but 
that method was, we imagine, deemed too insecure to be 
adopted. He has been visited in Newgate by a great 
number of gentlemen, whom he receives in the most polite 
manner. We could, however, have wished that some- 
what more delicacy had been observed in conducting that 
business ; it must be grating to him, and we cannot con- 
ceive how anyone can derive pleasure from such a visit. 

Another extract from the same source, dated July 26, 
1788, gives particulars of the prisoner's removal : 

It having appeared by the certificate of Henry Colling- 
wood Selby, Esq., Clerk of the Peace for the county ot 
Middlesex, and by the affidavit of John Townsend, that 
George Barrington stands indicted at the general sessions 
of the peace for the county of Middlesex for felony he was 
removed from hence by habeas corpus on Wednesday last 
to take his trial thereon. He was conveyed in the mail- 
coach in the custody of a sergeant-at-mace and Mr. 
Townsend, one of the Bow Street officers. 

John Townsend was of course the celebrated "Bow 
Street runner, " of whom many exciting stories are told 
in the criminal annals of the country. But the special 
charge on which Mr. Townsend's captive was taken to 
London seems to have tailed on account of the absence at 
the trial of a material witness. 

In the Newcastle Chronicle for September 13, 1788, we find 
an intimation to the effect that Barrington's trial at the 
Old Bailey Sessions would commence on the following 
Wednesday, when he would be charged with stealing the 
watch of Mr. Le Mesurier. The prisoner secured the 
services of an eminent lawyer, who, in the absence of 
material evidence, was instrumental in securing his dis- 
charge from custody. 

Barrington's career as a pickpocket may be said to have 
come to an end in September, 1798, when, being found 
guilty of again picking pockets, he was sentenced to trans- 
portation for seven years. During the voyage in the con- 
vict ship to Botany Bay, he assisted in quelling a 
mutiny, for which service he was duly rewarded. 
The captain of the ship gave so excellent an 
account of his conduct to the Governor of Port 
Jackson that that official at once appointed him 
superintendent of convicts at Paramatta. Subsequently 
he was appointed high constable of the same place, in 



{ Jtt i n 8 9! 8ry 

which situation he is said to have won the respect of his 
superiors. Barrington died in 1804, it is supposed from 
mental imbecility induced by remorse for his wasted life. 



goljti tokoe. 


J|HE catalogue of Newcastle song-writers, be- 
ginning with Henry Robson, and followed 
in succession by Thompson, Mitford, Gil- 
christ, Robson, Corvan, and Ridley con- 
tains the names of no more pathetic and homely lyrist 
than that of Joe Wilson. A man of blameless life, 
not possessing the robust frame which sometimes lends 
itself to stirring and robust song, he passed quietly 
and respected through a life of only thirty-four years, 
dying in February, 1875, and leaving a vacancy which has 
not yet been filled. The song we publish, together with 
"The Row Upon the Stairs," "The Gallowgate Lad," 
"Dinnet Clash the Door," besides many other of his 
homely domestic ditties, will live and be sung as long as 
the Tyne runs to the sea. The tune is a well-known Irish 
comic melody, to which is sung " The Whistling Thief." 
It should be added that Messrs. Thos. and George Allan, 
of Newcastle, have lately published a handsome and 
complete edition of Wilson's songs, that the song given 
below has been chosen by Mr. Ralph Hedley as the 
subject for an oil painting, and that this painting has 
been reproduced in colours as a presentation plate for the 
Christmas Supplement of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, 

sure aw'll not stop lanp; ; 

ol ten deun'd for 


"Cum, Geordy, hand the bairn, 

Aw's sure aw'll not stop lang ; 
Aw'd tyek the jewel mesel, 

But really aw's not strang. 
Thors floor and coals te get, 

The hoose-turns thor not deun ; 
So haud the bairn for fairs, 

Ye've often deund for fun ?" 

Then Geordy held the bairn, 

But sair agyen his will ; 
The poor bit thing wes gud, 

But Geordy had ne skill : 
He haddint its nnitlior's ways, 

He sat byeth stiff an' nuin ; 
Before five minutes wes past, 

He wished its muthor wad cum. 

His wife had scarcely gyen 

The bairn began to squall, 
Wi' hikin't up an' (loon, 

He'd let the poor thing fall. 
It waddent had its tung, 

Tho' sum aud teun he'd hum 
Like " Jack an' Jill went up a hill '' 

Aw wish yor muthor wad cum. 

"What weary toil," says he, 

" This nursin' bairns mun be ; 
A bit ont's well eneuf, 

Ay, quite eneuf for me. 
Te keep a cryin' bairn 

It may be grand te sum ; 
A day's wark's not as bad 

Aw wish yor nuuhor wad cum. 

"Men seldum giv a thowt 

Te what thor wives endure ; 
Aw thowt she'd nowt te de 

But clean the house, aw's sure; 
Or myek me dinner an' tea 

It's'startin' te chow its thum ; 
The poor thing wants its tit 

Aw wish yor muthor wad cuir. 

What a selfish world this is ! 

Thor's nowt mair se than man ; 
He laffs at wummin's toil, 

And winnet nurse his awn 
It's startin' te cry agyen, 

Aw see tuts throo its gum : 
Maw little bit pet, dinnct fret 

Aw wish yor muthor wad cum. 

" But kindness dis a vast, 

It's ne use gettin' vext ; 
It winnet please the bairn, 

Or ease a mind perplext 
At last, it's eyen te sleep, 

Me wi|e 'ill not say aw's nuin ; 
She'll think aw's a real gud nurse 

Aw wish yor muthor wad cum. 

hoose-turns thor not 


January \ 
1891. / 




j]R. WELFORD, referring to Sir John Delaval, 
Bart., of Sea ton Lodge, quotes from Spear- 
man's MSS. that Sir John's daughter, having 
been married to John Rogers, of Denton, "died within 
the year, as was said, by a posset given by Sir John's 
mistress, Mrs. Poole, and Mr. Rogers went distracted.' 1 
(See Monthly Chronicle, 1890, page 251.) Till some 
proof be given, this "fairy tale" should be withdrawn 
from local history, for in this, as in other of his state- 
ments about the Delavals, Spearman, when compared 
with facts, appears to have erred. Mr. Rogers was son 
and heir of John Rogers, of Newcastle, by Elizabeth, 
the fifth daughter of Benjamin Ellison, merchant- 
adventurer, of the same town, and, previous to 
his marriage with Sir John's daughter, he and his 
widowed mother joined in conveying on November 5, 
1713, certain lands in Rouchester. West Denton, 
North Seaton, Scotchwood, Benwell, Jarrow, lands 
"called Whitefield, in possession of Robert Awde 
{sic) and Richard Batty," lands at Hindley, 
in the Bywell parishes, lands at Low Sugley and 
Lemmgton Green, in the parish of Newburn, &c., 
to certain trustees to wit, Grey Neville of Billing- 
bare, Bucks, and Edward Delavall of Dissington, North- 
umberland. That Mrs. Rogers did not "die within 
the year," or even seven years, will be seen from 
a paragraph in a letter from James Mewburn to 
Admiral George Delaval. Mewburn resided at New- 
castle, and was evidently the manager for the estate 
of Seaton, which was taken over by Admiral 
Delaval from Sir John Delaval, Bart. All the build- 
ing accounts of the hall, and the estate rentals, 
are in his very fine clerk - like handwriting, 
giving the most minute particulars, and balanced to a 
farthing. Mr. Etty, mentioned by Mewburn, was prob- 
ably an assistant to Sir John Vanburgh, and made occa- 
sional visits to the works at Delaval Hall. Mewburu's 
letter, being of interest, is given in full : 

Newcastle, 10th December, 1720. 

Honoured Sr., Both Your Hon'rs of the 1st and 6th 
Instant, I Reed., and now thinks Sr. John Van Brugh 
will Keep his Xtmas at Castle Howard, haveing noe 
Letter from him. Mr. Etty will most certainly come to 
Seaton along with Sr. John, and though I had rather 
take to a small fault at any time then make many words, 
yett I Cannot bear, when any wrong is put upon mee, so 
if Mr. Etty offer to doe any such things, Your Honr. may 
be assured I shall speak my mind freely. 

Mr. Etty's Letter which your Honr. is pleased to 
Inclose mee, Speaks enough to" the Carrying on the work 
to perfection. I shall take care of the Lettr. Sr. John 
Delavall and all bis i'amily is altogether at the Lodge, 
and Madm. Rogers, Sr. John's Daughter, is bearing them 
Company, and Mr. Rogers is often there too, and Madm. 
Rogers is to stay till Mrs. Pool's Birthday, as I am told. 
Mr. Etty has been in Some of his Ares, when he writ the 
Dirfction for your Honr. 

The Draines are all Cast and wee have Level! Enough, 
and most Covered and Secured, so that noe wett canu 

stand any where about the House. Mr. Etty takes the 
Ordering and Manageing of the draines to himselfe (as I 
perceive by his Letter), but must begs his pardon a Little 
in that Matter, for Your Brother Knows and forty 
more, that they were well advanced before he came to 

Wee have abundance of wett weather, which is bring- 
ing downe every day some old walls, which wee are 
obliged to Repair Immediately to keep the Houseing from 

The Groyning, which Mr. Etty mentions in his Letter, 
I think is a terme of Art, which is Arching of the 
Passage, as I apprehend him. 

The New Stair Case mentioned in Etty's Letter, is 
that draught of the Stare Case which Sir John Van 
Brugh sent Your Honr. after Your departure from 
Seaton, and Your Honr. sent mee. Mr. Etty see it at 
Seaton and propose it for the East Stare Case, that is for 
the East Tower. When any thing of Substance goes from 
hence for Your Honr. shall send your linnen, and Beanes 
too if Your Honr. pleases, and likewise all those things 
from Madm. Shaftoe when they come to hand, and Your 
Honr's. Pillow too, if Your Honr. pleases, but my wife 
knows not what method to use to gett it cleaned. 
As for the Sault Your Honr. mentions, it was quite 
jrone out of my thoughts, but if any such can be 
gott shall speak to Mr. Nicholson and Engage him in 
that affair. 

This day gone seven nights, I mentioned to Your 
Honr. that the Gardeners was Supplying the Dead Trees 
in the West Avenue, and at night when I gott hon.e they 
told mee there was only three dead trees in all that West 
Avenue and Circle, the other which seemed dead at Topp 
was Growing severall foot above Ground, and this 
weather I hope will doe much good to all the planta- 
tions. There is near two hundred Elmes planted this 
week, wee are now Obliged to plant the large Elmes in 
the Nurserys, all the dead ones being renewed, save only 
the Scape hill in the Lumperwill field before the North 
door, which wee leave till further orders. There is 
about 300 limes to plant and many of them must be 
planted in the Nursery too. What the Gardeners say 
about pruneing seems very reasonable, and ought to be 

Shall Direct the Young men now with me to Obsene 
Your Honour's Directions about pruneing the Young 
Elmes in the East Nursery. 

Shall wait of Sr. John at the Lodge, and doe Your 
Honrs. Commands. Shall Observe to plant the Broad 
Leafed Elmes with their Lead ing shouts [shoots] on, and 
shall plant the Largest Branches in Cuttings of the 
Willows, but pray does Your Honr. please to have the 
roots of any of the Willows removed, and planted else- 
where ? 

I am Glad the Corne is gott into the Priver [stack 
yard ?] 

I doe not Remembr of any full answer given Your 
Honr. Concerning the door between the two Great Base- 
ments to the North, and Last Setterday was snort about 
it, and since have Examined the plans, and doe find the 
stairs being placed there, and the sole of the Door levell 
with the flower [floor] within, and halfe pace without, 
and a window of Each side, very plaine : so what mistake 
is here I Cannot tell but it is Certaine that a door Intined 
[intended] in the plan to goe up the Stepps between the 
North Basements into the Hall : and as for the door 
under (which is already made) that comes into the 
Duch, is placed for Conveniency of Receiving Vessells 
into the Cellar, and will not be seen when the 
stepps are made ; tho steps will rise from the North 
only and not up at the tnds too, as they are now 

I hope your Honr. will be pleased to accept of my 
wishing you joy of your new Honr. which 1 hope is Con- 
firmed upon Your Honr. by this time, and pray be pleased 
to excuse my not doing it "earlyer, for doe begg lieve to 
assure your Honr. that none doe wish or desire Your 
Honr. 's welfare and happyness more than my self e, and 
doe Likewise begg Your Honr. will be pleased to advise 
mee how to Direct to Your Honr. in propper Expressions 
due to Your Honr. ; for it is ueiiher my duty nor my desire 



f January 
I 1691. 

to be any way short in shewing my due obedience to Your 
Honr. and all things else that is becoming or due from 
Your Honr. 'a most duty full 

and obedient humble servant, 


Inclosed a Lettr. of Sr. John Vanbrughs which I found 
this week have taken a Copy of it. 

If Mr. Rogers "went distracted" within the year, he 
got over the supposed calamity, for at the county elec- 
tion, in February, 1722, we find him residing at New- 
castle, and capable ot recording his vote for his freehold 
at East Denton, which vote he gave to Ralph Jennison, 
the unsuccessful candidate. 


William 33*U &tatt 

MAN of exalted and varied genius was the 
poet-artist who, on November 22, 1890, sank 
to his rest at the seat of Miss Boyd, Penkill 
Castle, Girvan, a home enriched by noble 
frescoes from his hand. William Bell Scott, whoso death 
is a loss tq the world of art and letters, found in Miss 
Boyd a true and devoted friend, who not only cheered his 
declining years, but tended with loving care his aged wife. 
Rare memories therefore cling to Penkill Castle, rendered 
sweeter from the fact that there also the artist's friend 
and kindred spirit, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, wrote some 
of his subtlest poems. 

Mr. Scott, the son of an Edinburgh engraver, and the 
younger brother and biographer of David Scott, F.S.A., 
gave early evidence that he possessed the family talent. 
Born in Edinburgh on September 12th, 1811, he was 
educated at the High School there. His first instruction 
in art was imparted by his father and his brother. On 
coming to London in 1831, he studied the antique 
zealously at the British Museum. Returning to Edin- 
burgh, he put forth his earliest poems in Tail's Magazine, 
and in the Edinburgh University Souvenir for 1854. 
Finally, he left Edinburgh for London about 1836. 
His first contribution to a London Gallery was "The 
Jester," which was exhibited at Suffolk Street in 1840 ; 
while his first picture in the Academy was sent in 1842, 
under the title of " Chaucer, John of Gaunt, and their 
Wives." Mr. Scott also sent various works to the British 
Institution, beginning with " Bell Ringers and Cavaliers 
celebrating the Entrance of Charles II. into London," 
which was shown in 1841. This was followed by " The 
Old English Ballad Singer," 1842; "Comfort the 
Afflicted," 1845; "The School, Newcastle-upon-Tyne," 
1846, and five later productions. 

Scott's most ambitious effort was due to that impulse 
which, in 1842 and 1843, stirred the artistic world to its 
depths, and resulted in the Cartoon Competition in West- 
minster Hall. To this he sent a drawing of life-size 
figures, measuring 11 ft by 9 ft., and representing, in a 

dramatic fashion, " The Northern Britons surprising the 
Roman Wall." It obtained no premium, but brought its 
young author under the notice of some of the more intelli- 
gent and influential leaders of opinion. Scott did not 
tempt fortune again at Westminster, but, profiting by the 
feeling excited in his favour among artists, accepted the 
offer of a considerable appointment in the School of 
Design, which was then being developed with Govern- 
ment aid. Soon after this (that is, in 1843) we find him in 
charge of the most important Government school of art in 
the North of England, that of Newcastle-upon-Tyne a 
post which he occupied until about 1858, when changes in 
what had become the Art Department caused him to 
abandon his appointment and remove to London, without 
ceasing to be connected with South Kensington. 

In 1846 Mr. Scott published his only long poem, "The 
Year of the World, a Philosophical Poem on Redemp- 
tion from the Fall." Shortly afterwards appeared his 
"Memoir of David Scott," "Antiquarian Gleanings in 


the North of England," and "Ornamental Designs for 
Silver and Gold Work," with an essay on ornamental 
design. Under the title of " Chorea Sancti Viti, or Steps 
in the Life of Prince Legion," he published in 1851 a 
series of allegorical etchings ; and in 1854 appeared the 
volume best known as " Poems by a Painter." 

For five years afterwards Scott was employed in paint- 
ing eight large pictures illustrating the principal events of 
Northumbrian history, at Wallington Hall, the seat of 
Sir Walter Trevelyan, Bart. ; and in 1863-4 the com- 
plement of his work was executed in the form of 
eighteen oil paintings on canvas for the spandrels of 
the arches in the saloon containing the Border subjects. 
The interest in this magnificent set of paintings does 
not depend upon the workmanship or the subjects 
alone. All the objects introduced are relics which still 
exist in Northumbrian houses, and many of the figures 
were portraits of living Northumbrian characters. The 
learned author of the history of the Roman Wall occu- 
pies a prominent place among the figures on that ram- 

January 1 



part, the late Eev. Cooper Abbes figures as St. Cuth- 
bert, and Mr. W. H. Charlton, the late proprietor of 
Hesleyside, is exhibited as the astonished recipient of 
the Charlton spur. The pictures occur in the following 
order : 1, the building of the Roman Wall ; 2, a scene on 
the Farne Islands, King Egfrid and Bishop Trumwine 
urging St. Cuthbert to accept the bishopric of Hexham ; 

3, the Danes invading Northumberland at Tynemouth ; 

4, the death of Bede at Jarrow ; 5, the Border Chieftain 
shown the emptiness of the larder by the spur in the dish 
which is brought in place of dinner ; 6. Bernard Gilpin 
preventing a Border feud; 7, Grace Darling's act of 
heroism ; 8, Newcastle in the 19th century. A picture 
by Mr. Scott, representing the building of the "New 
Castle upon Tyne " adorns the walls of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society. In 1868 he also completed a series 
of mural paintings illustrating " The King's Quhair " on 
the spiral staircase of Penkill Castle, 

In 1869 Scott brought out "Albert Diirer, his Life 


and Works," a critical bioeraphy, containing admirable 
etchings by the author. Other works from his pen which 
may simply be mentioned are "Half-hour Lectures 
on the History and Practice of the Fine and 
Ornamental Arts," "William Blake, Etchings from his 
Work," with descriptive text, and " The Little Masters" 
(of Germany), a valuable contribution to English art 

literature. In 1882 he added to the rest of his acquire- 
ments the title of architect by building a hall at Penkill 
Castle, and in the same year he published a fresh volume 
of poetry, entitled " The Poet's Harvest Home." 

We present two portraits of Mr. Scott one, taken 
from a photograph by Mr. C. K. Reed, showing him aa 
he was about the time when he first settled in Newcastle, 
and the other not many years before his death. 



G. W. Bulman, M. A., writes as follows on this subject 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for November : 

Encrinite stems are among the most common fossils of 
the carboniferous limestone. They constitute a large por- 
tion of its bulk. Locally they are known as St. Cuth- 
bert's beads. On a little rock off Holy Island, on the 
Northumbrian coast, says the old legend, the Saint 
laboriously forged them on his anvil : 

On a rock, by Lindisfarne, 
St. Cuthbert sits and toils to frame 
The sea-born beads that bear his name. 

Here we are presented with the work of St. Cuth- 
bert ; further down the coast, near tho classic town 
of Whitby, we encounter the deeds of St. Hilda. 
The ammonites occurring in the lias there are the 
relics of snakes, of which 

Kach one 

Was changed into a coil of stone 
When holy Hilda prav'd. 

Thus even in the domains of the geologist is found 
the work of the weaver of legends. 

L., Newcastle. 


One of the best cries I remember was that of 
" Grozers," and this reminds me of an amusing 
anecdote which came under my own notice. A 
young girl living in Milburn Place, North Shields, 
had been to the New Quay (the market place in 
those days), and when going along the Front was 
asked by a woman whether there were any goose- 
berries in the market. She replied, "No, ma'am; 
but thor's plenty o' grozers." To my ears the crying 
of "Grozers" was at all times most melodious, and 
even at this long distance of time I can picture to 
myself the form and appearance of "Mary the 
Maid," as, with basket on her head, she perambulated 
the streets of "canny aad Shields," crying in 
stentorian, but not unmelodiotis, voice : 

Lairge ripe gro - zers, caller gro - zers. 

I must take exception, however, to both Mr. Greenwell's 
and Mr. Haswell's rendering of boiled crabs. I do not 
remember ever hearing it " Fine boiled crabs, " as given 




by Mr. Greenwell, nor as "Fine boiled crabs, new boiled 
crabs, " aa given by Mr. Haswell (see Monthly Chronicle, 
1890, pages 379 and 473). To me it was always 

New boiled orabs, new boiled crabs. 

The " Borgondy peors " in my young days was converted 
into "Fine mahogeney peors," and cried to the follow- 

Fine ma - hog - en - ey pe - ors. 
Plums also came in for a good melodious cry, which was 
as follows : 

Lairjje ripe honey plums, ripe honey plums. 
While scallions came in with a shrill 

four bunches a penny. 

Heor'syour scallions 1 

four bunches a f P enny ' 

Black puddings were also treated to a good cry, and no 
doubt many will remember the clean old woman who sat 
at the end of the New Quay, just in front of the Pipe- 
maker's Stairs, and cried 

A fine black pudding, ninny, a fatten and a gooden, hiuny. 
Mr. Greenwell's " Caller harren " is not familiar to me ; 
the Cullercoats women's cry was as follows, and I may 
remark that in crying herring they never told the price : 



f 3 ra 

*}} <s 


: i 


i 1 

Caller hern fresh hern caller hern. 

The Shields women cried as follows, and who does not 
remember "Highland Bet " and her lusty daughters ? 

Caller hern fresh hern caller hern here's yer 

noble hern four a penny four a penny heor. 

The cry of the coal carter as given by Mr. Haswell is also 
unfamiliar to me. It was as follows : 

Coals a pen' - north. 

I think Mr. Haswell must be alluding to the unmelodious 
voice of poor old Tommy Kell, but then Tommy was like 

nobody but himself. There are many more cries familiar 
to me, from the 

New boiled she 

of poor old Marget to the 


-- o 

Fine broon ware, fine broon ware, 

of Mally Kelsey. One singular thing in connection with 
these cries is that in Antwerp one hears the women cry- 
ing their wares in exactly similar tones. 

W. D., Lowestoft. 

One of the most beautiful of street calls, lingering on 
the summer air like a breath from scented orchards, was 
that given below 

Ye buy hon-ey plums. Ye buy hon-ey plums. 
The market garden as well as the orchard had its 
songster. She came jogging along, arms akimbo, a well- 
laden basket cleverly balanced on her " weeze," and sing- 
ing as she went 

Red dish and seal - lions two bun - ches 



pen - ny two bun ches a pen ny. 

The Cullercoats fish-wife with a creel-full of crabs had, 
and has still, I believe, a very effective call 


New boiled crabs. New boiled crabs. 

I can recall only one more of the many cries which once 
upon a time re-echoed in Shields streets and lanes that 
with which the " rubbin'-stone " vendor used to warn her 
customers. Here it is in all its native simplicity 

rub - bin' stone. 
D. C., Edinburgh. 


Perhaps the following anecdote of the Poet Close may 
be of interest to your readers : 

Somti years ago, five gentlemen arrived at Windermere 
by a late train and put up at the Royal Hotel. They 
had read about the celebrated Lake Poet in 1'unch and 
the newspapers ; and, having upon inquiry learned that 
the eccentric old gentleman was then at Bowriess, they 
purposed to make themselves merry at his expense. 
Accordingly, a waiter was sent to the poet's lodgings with 
the request that he would return with the messenger to 

January X 
1S91. / 



the Royal Hotel, where some gentlemen wished to see 
him. The poet was smoking his pipe in front of the fire, 
preparatory to retiring for the night, but, having always 
an "eye to business," was nothing loth to accompany the 

" How many gentlemen ?" he asked. 

"Five," was the reply. 

"Then " said he, " they will want five sets of my books. 

He immediately proceeded to put up five sets of his 
books to take with him. 

On arrival at the hotel, he was introduced to the gentle- 
men, and said he supposed, as they had specially sent for 
him, they would want to buy his books, and he had, 
therefore", brought each of them a set. The gentlemen 
looked at each other somewhat taken aback ; but one of 
them, quickly recovering, answered : 

" Quite right, Mr. Close. How much?" f> 

The poet replied : "Ten shillings each set, gentlemen. 

The books quickly changed hands, the poet smilingly 
pocketing the five half sovereigns. He was then invited 
to drink with them. The gentlemen now, looking forward 
to their coming enjoyment, called the waiter to bring 
a bottle of port, and one of sherry. Mr. Close was asked 
what he would take. 

"Gentlemen," said the poet, as the wine was placed on 
the table, "you have surely not ordered those for me at 
this time of night V" 

"Oh, yes, certainly, we have," was the reply. 

The poet, taking up a bottle in each hand, said, 
"Well, gentlemen, it is very kind of you," and he put 
the bottles into his coat pockets. "My wife," said he, 
"is partial to sherry, and / like port. So I thank you 
very kindly, gentlemen. Good evening." 

Before another word could be said, the poet had gone, 
leaving the would-be jokers looking at each other in blank 

" Done, by Jove !" was the general exclamation. 

F. N. R., Barrow-m-Furnesa. 

Broomshields Hall, the seat of the Greenwell family, is 
a neat modern mansion a little to the south-west of the 
village of Satley, four miles from Lanchester, in the 
County of Durham. It occupies a pleasant position, over- 
looking a well wooded gill or dene, through which flows 
the Pan Burn, a truly sylvan streamlet, one of the 
tributaries of the Browney, the Wear's greatest affluent. 

The Greenwell family, of Norman origin, is second to 
none in the county of Durham in antiquity, and is one of 
the few now remaining in England who retain in their 
male line the estates which gave them a name. The 
earliest mention of the branch of the family (for it had 
numbers of scions scattered over West Durham) at this 
estate is in the reign of Henry VIII. (1488), when Peter 
Greenwell resided at Bromesheles ; and from that date, 
now more than four centuries ago, the family have held 
the patrimony. 

Thomas Greenwell, born 1736, died 1817, married in 
1774 Eleanor, daughter and heiress of John Maddison, 
Esq., of Hole House, near Alansford, county of Durham, 
whose ancestors had held that estate from 1595. Besides 
an only son, he left three daughters Eleanor, Mary, and 
Elizabeth who never married, but resided at Broom- 
shields Cottage, near the hall, and died in extreme old 
age at the ages of 96, 86, and 89 years respectively. 

John Greenwell, son and heir, born 1785, was for more 
than fifty years an active magistrate for the county. He 

married Elizabeth Greenwell of the Ford, near Lan- 
chester, the daughter of a remote kinsman, and aunt of 
Dora Greenwell, the Durham poetess. He died in 1869, 
and was buried at Lanchester. A beautiful stained 
window erected to his memory is in the south wall of 
Satley Church. Thomas Greenwell, the only surviving 
son and heir, born 1821, graduated M.A. at St. John's 
College, Oxford, was in his year sixth wrangler, and was 
called to the bar in 1847. He married Georgina, daughter 
of Mr. Bridges, London, by whom he had a numerous 
issue. He died 1874, and was buried at Satley. 

The estate is now the patrimony of his eldest son, Mr. 
F. W. Greenwell, formerly editor of a popular periodical, 
author of "Dissertations on the Apocalypse," &c., and 
now residing in Florida, U.S. 

Broomshields, in the time of Bishop Hatfield's Survey, 
1377-1380, was a township by itself, and was divided into 
several parcels. These portions have since become amal- 
gamated with the adjoining townships. The arms of the 
Greenwell family is one of the grandest in the North of 
England Or, two bars azure between three ducal crowns 
g u l es . J. W. FAWCETT. 


A lad from the neighbourhood of Choppington came to 
Newcastle, and bought a topcoat. Getting intoxicated, 
he pawned the coat the same day. The next morning, 
when his mother asked him where the ticket was, he 
said : "Wey, thoo sees, aa we* feered aa wad loss't, se 
aa eav't tiv a publican for a glass o' yell !" 


An old woman who resides at Byker was asked where 
her daughter Mary was living. "Oh," was the leply, 
"at Windsor Crescent." "Wey," was the observation, 
"aa thowt she'd got a plyece as norsemaid in Victoria 
Square!" "Yor reet, and aa's wrang," said the old 
lady ; " aa knaa'd it wes yen o' them streets whor the 
Queen lives 1" 


A miner entered a drapery establishment at Seaham 
Harbour one day. He was accosted by the master of the 
establishment as to what he could serve him with, when 
the customer asked to see some "lang stockin's." After 
having had about a dozen pairs to inspect, he said that 
" nyen o' them wad de for him." " Well, how's that my 
good man ? These are long enough." " That's aall reet, 
mistor, but aa want a pair o' bow-legged yens !" 


According to a famous old story, one Patrick Long had 
occasion to remove from Blaydon to Paradise. On the 
day of his removal the river was much swollen from recent 
rains ; the haughs, in fact, about the different parts of the 





river being completely covered with water. A few 
months after this Patrick found himself in the Assize 
Court, and in the course of his examination was asked his 
name. "Patrick Long," was the reply. "Where do you 
live?" "Paradise." "Where?" said the Judge, half 
inclined to be severe. "Paradise, sor." "Aye, and how 
long have you lived there ?" " Ivvor since the flood," was 
the reply. Here the judge was about to administer a 
rebuke, when a local solicitor, interposing, explained the 


A couple of pit lads were on board ship during a storm. 
Snugly seated in the cabin, one of them asked the other 
who had just been on deck "What kind o' weather 
is't?" "Eh! man," was the reply, "it's a sair neet at 
bank ! " 


In a public-house in the neighbourhood of Blaydon, the 
conversation turned upon the earth revolving, when an 
old man said, "Aa'll nivvor believe the warld gnns 
round. Aa've hard it mony a time, but nebody '11 ivvor 
persuade me that." One of the company drew au 
imitation of the globe, and proceeded to explain, when 
the old gentleman stopped him. "It's ne use," said he, 
" it's ne use thoo trying ta shove that down ma throat. 
Aa've had far aader yens than thoo at ma, and it's aa'll 
been neuse." "Well, but," replied the other, "listen." 
"Na, na," continued our old friend, "aa can prove that 
aa's reet. Aa've wrowt in the pits sin aa was nine year 
aad ; aa've gin in both forst and back shift ; and aa've 
gan into the hoose all hoors of the neet ; and the Black- 
hill cinder yovens wis aalways opposite wor back door !" 

On the 12th of November, 1890, Mr. Alderman Thomas 
Hedley, J.P., died suddenly at his residence in Fenham 

Terrace, Newcastle. 
Born at Harnham, in 
Northumberland, on the 
22nd of April, 1809, the 
deceased gentleman was 
in the 82nd year of his 
age. Mr. Hedley was the 
founder of the firm uf 
Thomas Hedley and 



facturers, New Road. 

He entered the Town 
Council as one of the 
representatives of East 
All Saints' Ward on 
the 1st of November, 
1853, and he had held 
the position of alder- 
man since the 13th Of 

November, 1866. In 1860-61, he served as Sheriff, and 
in 1863-64-, he filled the office of Mayor. Mr. Hedley 
was also prominently associated with several local com- 
mercial undertakings. The chief of these was the New- 
castle and Gateshead Gas Company, of which for nearly 
twenty years he had been chairman. 

The same day, the remains of Mr. Featherstone 
Martindale, a Weardale poet, who had died on the 8th, 
were interred at Westgate. 

Mr. George Greenwell, a leading tradesman and magis- 
trate of Durham, died in that city on the Kth of Novem- 
ber, in the seventieth year of his age. 

On the 15th of November, Mr. Ambrose Walker, J.P., 
died at Stafford House, South Stockton. The deceased, 
who was proprietor of the pottery at South Stockton 
before its transfer to a limited liability company, was 
about 60 years of age. 

On the same day, died Mr. Thomas Charles Johnson 
Sowerby, late ef Snow Hall, Gainsfurd, aged 53. He was 
a magistrate for North Yorkshire, and was a well-known 
athlete and gentleman jockey. 

The death was announced on the 17th of November, oi 
the Very Rev. George Curry, of Dodding Green, near 
Kendal, for some time connected with the Roman 
Catholic Missions at Bishop Auckland and Button 
Henry, in the county of Durham. He was in his 74-th 

On the 17th of November, Jesmond Cemetery received 
the remains of Mr. Michael Ewbank, who sixty years ago 
was a well-known figure on the Quayside of Newcastle, 
where he carried on the busingss of a shipbroker. He 
was brother of Mr. John Wilson Ewbank, the painter, 
and was a native of Gateshead. It is nearly a generation 
since the deceased retired from business and settled at 
Murpeth, where in his ninetieth year he died. 

Mr. George Angus, founder of the firm of George 
Angus and Co., leather merchants, sometime ago con- 
verted into a limited liability undertaking, with branches 
in Newcastle, Liverpool, London, and Cardiff, died on the 
18th of November, at his residence, Low Gosforth Hall, 
near Newcastle. Mr. Angus, who was 69 years of age, 
was a prominent member of the local Baptist body, and 
had for a short time a seat in the Newcastle Town Coun- 
cil. The deceased gentleman left bequests to a number 
of local charitable ins titutions, to the amount of upwards 
of 2,000. 

The Rev. Canon Kearney, a well known Roman 
Catholic clergyman, also died on the 18th of November, 
at Darlington, aged 70. He commenced his clerical life 
in Newcastle in 1847, but in 1349 was transferred to The 
Brooms, Leadgate, with which he retained his connection 
to the last. 

Mr. William Waggott, who in his youth was an 
active Chartist, died at Sunderland, his age being 76 

On the 20th of November, Mr. William Laine, of 
Carlton Villa, Benton, died at the advanced age of 86 

Mr. Henry Greenwell, J.P., formerly Registrar of 
the Durham County Court, died on the 23rd of 

On the 23rd of November, the remains of Mr. Thomas 
Taylor, tyler to the Fawcett Lodge of Freemasons, and 
formerly a shipmaster, were interred in the cemetery at 

1891. / 



Seaham Harbour. The deceased had been a resident in 
that town for nearly sixty years. 

Mr. Robert Vint, long connected, as part proprietor, 
with the Sunderland Herald, and one of the founders of 
the Sunderland Water Company, died at the Cedars, 
Sunderland, on the 23rd of November. The deceased, 
who was a native of Blyth, and was at one time a chemist t 
was in the 83rd year of his age. 

Dr. Edwin Douglas, a medical gentleman in practice at 
Jlorpeth, died suddenly in that town on the 25th of 

Mr. George Edward Watson, coroner for North North- 
umberland, and the holder of a number of other public 
offices, died at Alnwick on the 28th of November, at the 
age ot 54 years. 

On the same day, at the advanced age of 95, Mr. John 
Nesbitt, farmer, one of the oldest teetotallers in the 
country, died at Paxton South Mains, near Berwick-on- 

Mr. Joshua Coke Monkhouse, late estate agent at 
Egglestone, in Teesdale, and father of Mr. Monkhouse, 
of the firm of Monkhouse and Goddard, accountants, died 
at Barnard Castle, on the 30th of November, at the age 
of 76 years. 

On the 2nd of December, news was received of the 
death of Hardcastle Bey (brother of Dr. Hardcastle, 
surgeon to the Newcastle Gaol), at his residence in 
Alexandria, Egypt. The deceased was a son of the late 
Dr. Hardcastle, of Newcastle, who was married to a sister 
of the late Mr. R. P. Philipson. Mr. Hardcastle was one 
of the railway engineering pupils sent out by Robert 
Stephenson, the great engineer, to superintend the laying 
down of the first railway in Egypt, and was afterwards 
appointed chief engineer. His services under the 
Egyptian Government lasted forty years. Latterly, Mr. 
Hardcastle took up another sphere of work, transferring 
his abilities from the railway to the department of ports 
and lighthouses, filling the position of Deputy Controller 
General. He witnessed the bombardment of Alexandria 
by the fleet under Admiral Seymour (now Lord Alcester); 
and for services rendered during that period, as well as 
for former good work, he received the rank of Bey, the 
highest under the Turkish empire. Hardcastle Bey was 
over 60 years of age. 

. Mr. Thomas Hallam, Borough Accountant, Middles- 
brough, died after an exceedingly short illness on the 4th 
of December, at the age of 57. 

On the same day, Mr. Charles Marvin, journalist, 
author, and lecturer, died at his residence in London, ac 
the age of 36. The deceased, among other literary work, 
had, as the result of a special mission to Russia, contri- 
buted a series of able articles to the Newcastle Daily 
Chronicle on the Central Asian question. They were 
afterwards published in book form under the title of 
"The Russian Advance Towards India." 

On the 8th of December, the death was announced, at 
the age of 103 years, of Patrick Quin, at Cowpen Quay, 
Blyth. The deceased, who was a native of Ireland, had 
been thrice married, and at the time of his death had 30 
children, and between 80 and 90 grandchildren. 

The same evening, the Countess of Ravensworth died 
somewhat suddenly at Ravensworth Castle. The deceased 
lady was a daughter of the late Captain Orlando 

Gunning Sutton, R.N., and was married to the Earl of 
Ravensworth in 1852. 

At the age of 77, Mr. George Hutchinson, one of the 
earliest managers at the Elswick works of Sir W. G. 
Armstrong and Co., Newcastle, died on the 9th of 

On the 9th of December, the remains of Sergeant 
David Jackson, late of the 3rd Battalion Northumber- 
land Fusiliers, who had been engaged in active service in 
the Crimean and other campaigns, were interred in 
Alnwick Cemetery. 

^lort|)=CIountr3i entrances. 

NOVEMBER, 1890. 

10. A swallow was seen at Blaydon Burn. 

11. Mr. John Bryson, of Blyth, was presented with a 
solid gold albert and medal for his heroic service at 
Warkworth, in saving some of the excursionists from a 
watery grave. 

12. A monument to perpetuate the memory of Dr. 
Carlo Pallotti, late Italian Vice-Consul in Newcastle, was 
unveiled in Jesmond Cemetery. 

Foundation stones were laid for a new Congregational 
Church in Sorley Street, Sunderland. 

Mr. Hunter resigned his position as superintendent 
registrar of births, deaths, and marriages in Newcastle, 
and Mr. Morison Johnston was afterwards appointed by 
the Newcastle Guardians to the vacant office. 

15. An alarming explosion occurred at the Middles- 
brough Corporation Gasworks. A considerable portion of 
the works was blown to atoms, and the engineman, 
named William Ogden, was killed and buried in the 
debris. The town was in a state of darkness for two 
nights owing to the accident. 

16. According to annual custom, the new Mayor (Mr. 
J. Baxter Ellis) of Newcastle, attended by the members 
and officials of the Corporation, attended service at St. 
Nicholas' Cathedral. The sermon in St. Nicholas was 
preached by the Bishop of Newcastle; and the collections, 
on behalf of the medical charities, amounted to 144 3s. 
4d. The day was similarly observed in other Northern 

Mr. Henry Arthur Jones, dramatic author, lectured 
in the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, under the auspices of 
the Tyneside Sunday Lectfire Society, his subject being, 
"On Being Rightly Amused at the Theatre." 

17. A boiler explosion occurred at Palmer's shipyard, 
Jarrow, whereby George Scanlon was killed, and George 
Porthouse and Robert Johnson were severely scalded. 

The Bishop of Durham presided at the annual meet- 
ing of the Newcastle and Gateshead Branch of the Peace 
Society, in the Town Hall, Gateshead. 

. By a majority of 31 to 18, the Newcastle City Council 
resolved to purchase Byker Bridge for the sum of 

18. The mutilated dead body of a German workman. 




named Philip Kirschtnann, 37 years of ago, was found in A 
pond at South Bank, near Middlesbrough ; and on the 
following day a coroner's jury returned a verdict of wilful 
murder against some person or persons unknown. 

As the result of a poll it was found that, in response 
to the offer by Mr. T. Wrightson, J.P., to erect a handsome 
building for Free Library purposes, the owners and rate- 
payerscf South Stockton had resolved, bya large majority, 
to adopt the Public Libraries Act. 

19. The Durham colliery owners resolved to advance 
the wages of their workmen by 5 per cent, from the 29th 
of December, 1890, and the 5th of January, 1891. The 
men accepted this arrangement. 

Mr. W. B. Wilkinson, J.P., was elected chairman, 
and Mr. Edward Leadbittor deputy-chairman, of the 
Newcastle and Gateshead Gas Company. 

A little boy, between three and four years of age, son 
of George Ougbton, miner, was accidentally drowned in 
the river Wear, at Bishop Auckland, near the spot where, 
only a year previously, a brother of the deceased had met 
with the same fate. 

Dr. Lunn, a leading member of the Wesleyan body, 
preached in the Wesley Hall, Beaumont Street, New- 

The bronze medal of the Royal Humane Society was 
awarded to Joseph Craig, son of the Ouseburn hero, for a 
gallant feat of life saving, performed in the river Tyne at 
Newcastle on the 23rd of September. The medal was 
formally presented by Mr. Alderman W. D. Stephens in 
the Central Hall, Newcastle, on the 6th of December. 

20. George Sterling, formerly assistant-overseer of 
Elswick township, Newcastle, was brought from London, 
where he had been arrested ; and on the following morning 
he was remanded by the Newcastle magistrates on a charge 
of having made certain false entries in a banker's pass- 
book belonging to the overseers. 

21. Senor Sarasate, the celebrated Spanish violinist, 
gave a performance in Newcastle. 

22. A concert in aid of the proposed memorial to 
William Shield was held at Swalwell, of which village the 
celebrated musician and composer was a native. 

Mr. R. B. Cunninghame Graham, M.P., addressed 
meetings at Backworth, and on the following evening he 
presided at a meeting held under the auspices of the 
Socialist Sunday Lecture Society. 

A woman named Jane Gibson, 63 years of age, was 
accidentally killed at the Teams, on the North Eastern 
railway, her head being literally severed from her body. 

Arrangements were concluded whereby Washington 
Hall, in the county of Durham, the property and once 
the residence of Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, was placed by 
that gentleman at the disposal of the committee of the 
Gosforth Home for Waifs and Strays. 

23. At the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, under the 
auspices of the Tyneaide Sunday Lecture Socictv, a 
lecture was delivered by Mr. Oakey Hall, late Mayor of 
New York, under the title of "American Views in an 
English Mirror." 

The Rev. C. P. Sherman preached a farewell sermon 
as curate of St. Paul's Church, Newcastle, previous to his 
removal to St. John Lee, near Hexham. He was inducted 
into his new charge on the following day. 

Mrs. Walker, wife of a farm labourer near Consett, 
gave birth to three children, all boys. 

2+. Mr. Thomas Burgess Winter, optician, was elected 
an alderman of Newcastle. 

It was announced that Mr. Stephen Scott, of HLXITO- 
gate, formerly of Newcastle, had given the sum of 1,000 
to the Newcastle College of Medicine for the purpose of 
founding a scholarship to promote the study of hernia 
and allied complaints. 

During a gale, Thomas Stephenson and David 
Young, two pilots, were drowned by the upsetting of 
their boat off the mouth of the Tyne. 

25. The Rev. Father Wood, who for seven years had 
been pastor of St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Church 
Newcastle, was presented with an address and a purse of 
gold, on the occasion of his departure for Tow Law. 

Mr. J. B. Radcliffe, a member of the staff of the New- 
castle Daily Journal, was presented with an address and 
a cheque for 315, with a diamond bracelet worth 105 
for Mrs. Radcliffe. 

A verdict of wilful murder against some person or 
persons unknown was re- 
turned by the coroner's 
jury in the case of 
Richard William For- 
syth, the young man 
who had met with his 
death so mysteriously 
in Gateshead. (See 
Monthly Chronicle, 1890, 
page 575.) 

26. Acomplimentary 
dinner was given in the 
CouncilChamber, Gates- 
head, to Mr. Alderman 
John Lucas by his col- 
leagues and friends, in 
recognition of his ser- 
vices as Mayor of tins 
borough during the two 
municipal years 1888-89 
and 1889-90. 

27. Mr. Ii.icb.ard Welford, author of "Men of Mark 
Twixt Tyne and Tweed,' 1 was elected a director of the 
Tyne Steam Shipping Company. 

A man named Edward Walls gave himself up to the 
police authorities at Sunderland, stating that he had 
stabbed a man called Dennis O'Neill in Low Friar Street, 
Newcastle. The police officials in that city, on being 
apprised of the circumstance, proceeded to a marine store 
shop in the thoroughfare in question, and found the body 
lying beneath two bales of paper. The coroner's jury 
returned a verdict of wilful murder against Wallu ; and 
he was afterwards committed for trial by the magistrates 
on the same charge. 

28. Mr. Arthur Grant, M.A., in connection with the 
Cambridge and Durham Universities Extension move- 
ment, delivered in the Nelson Street Lecture Hall, 
Newcastle, the first of a series of popular free lectures oil 
the French Revolution. 

Three persons were injured by the bursting of a hot 
water pipe used for heating in the fuse department of the 
ordnance works at Elswick ; and one of the number, 
James Tulip, 16 years of age, died on the following day. 

The Lord Bishop of Newcastle appointed the Rev. 
James Henderson, Clerk in Holy Orders, M.A., Rector 
of Wallsend, and the Rev. Henry Frederick Long, Clerk 
in Holy Orders, M.A., Vicar of Bamburgh, to be 
Honorary Canons of the Cathedral Church of St. Nicholas. 


January \ 
1891. f 


30. Mr. Wedmore, art critic of the Standard, was the 
Sunday evening lecturer at the Tync Theatre, Newcastle, 
his subject being "The Life and Work of Turner." 


1. A new Constitutional Club, built at a cost of 
6,500, was opened at Sunderland. 

The Empire Variety Theatre, a new place of enter- 
tainment in connection with the Royal Scotch Arms, 
Newgate Street, Newcastle, was opened to the public for 
the first time. 

The Rev. E. B. Hicks, B.A., was presented with a 
purse of gold on the occasion of his leaving Newcastle for 

A fine specimen of the white-tailed eagle was shot at 
Eshott, Northumberland. It measured 7 feet 6 inches 
from tip to tip, 39 inches in length, and weighed 10 pounds 
6 ounces. 

At Durham Assizes, the bill against George Spencely 
for the manslaughter of Joseph Cooper, at Coundon, was 
thrown out by the Grand Jury ; and William Stavely, 
who was convicted on the 4th, was sentenced to two 
months' hard labour. (See page 573). 

2. Mr. T. Burt, M.P., was entertained to dinner by 
the members of the Eighty Club in London. 

3. Mr. T. Eustace Hill, M.B., Health Department, 
Birmingham, was appointed Medical Officer of Health 
for South Shields. 

Mr. Albert Grey despatched from Longhoughton 
Station, to Palatswie, in South Africa, on behalf of the 
South African Company, three bulls as a present to the 
principal chief of that part of the interior of the African 

Miss L. E. Pease, daughter of Sir J. W. Pease, M.P., 
of Hutton Hall, was married to Mr. Gerald Buxton. 
eldest son of Mr. Edward North Buxton, late chairman 
of the London School Board. 

4. It was announced, sad to say, that beautiful speci. 
mens of the red-throated diver and young skua had been 
shot on the Northumberland coast. 

A local committee was appointed at a meeting in the 
Newcastle Council Chamber to aid the National Associa. 
tion for the discovery of the best and most economical 
means of preventing black smoke from factories. 

At a meeting of the committee of the Newcastle 
Royal Infirmary, a special vote of thanks was accorded to 
Dr. John Rutherford for his very valuable gift of lymph 
which he had received from Dr. Koch, of Berlin, for the 
treatment of consumption. On the 9th, four patients 
were inoculated with the liquid at the Infirmary, in the 
presence of a large number of local medical gentlemen 
and students. There were three cases of tuberculosis and 
oue of lupus. 

At Durham Assizes, a man named John Forster 
pleaded guilty to the manslaughter of Elizabeth Forster, 
at Gateshead, on September 2nd, and was sentenced tu 
nine months' hard labour. 

5. A new Salvation Army Temple in Westgate Road, 
Newcastle, capable of accommodating 2,800 persons, was 
opened by " General " Booth, who in the evening 
addressed a large assemblage in the same place on his 
social amelioration scheme, entitled "Darkest England, 
and the Way Out." The chair was occupied by Mr. 
Aid. W. D. Stephens, and subscriptions to a considerable 
amount were announced. 

6. A branch of the National Home Reading Union 
was formed for Newcastle and Gateshead. 

Miss Alice Simpkin, a young violinist, played with 
much success at the People's Concerts, Newcastle. The 
accomplished little lady began her musical career on 
Tyneside, but is now a pupil of Herr Hollander at the 

Guildhall School of Music in London. Miss Simpkin 
is an early member of Uncle Toby's Dicky Bird Society. 
Moreover, she composed the music for a Dickv Bird song 
that appeared in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle on 
October 25th. 

7. The weekly lecture in the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, 
under the auspices of the Tyneside Sunday Lecture 
Society, was delivered by Dr. Andrew Wilson, editor of 
Health, his subject being, "Is Evolution a Fact?" 

8. The Natural History Museum, Barras Bridge, 
Newcastle, after having been fitted in every part with the 
electric light, was opened to visitors, for the first time, 
between the hours of seven and nine in the evening. 

Mr. and Mrs. William Ritson, of Woodley Field, 
Hexham, celebrated their golden wedding. 

The Carl Rosa Opera Company commenced a series 
of twelve nights and two morning performances at the 
Tyne Theatre, Newcastle. 

9. At the York Assizes, Robert Kitching, aged 34, 
market gardener, was found guilty of the murder of 
Police-Sergeant Weedy, at Leeming, near Bedale, on ths 
19th of September. The jury recommended him to 
mercy. Sentence of death was passed in the usual form. 

A portrait of Thomas Haswell, for nearly fifty years 
the head-master of the Royal Jubilee Schools, North 
Shields, was unveiled in the Public Library of that town, 
and a medal in honour of Mr. Haswell was presented 
to the dux of the schools. 

10. Operations were commenced at six of the salt pans 
recently laid down near the North Ormesby toll bar, 

A fire, causing a considerable amount of damage. 



{ *89J 


broke out in the drying shed of Messrs. Gray's extensive 
shipyard, East Hartlepool Docks. 

(general Occurrences. 


11. The British cruiser Serpent was wrecked off Cape 
Buck, on the north-west coast of Spain. Of the crew of 
176 only three were saved. 

A collision occurred on the Great Western Railway 
near Taunton. Ten people were killed and many others 
injured. Among the killed were two North-Countrymen 
Joseph Reed and John Edward Morris who were re- 
turning from South Africa. 

14. An extraordinary edition was published of the 
German Medical Weekly, which contained an article by 
Dr. Koch on his discovery of a cure for tuberculosis. 

John Reginald Birchall was hanged at Woodstock, 
Canada, for the murder of Mr. Ben well. 

15. The body of a school teacher. Elizabeth Holt, 
which was discovered near Bolton, bore unmistakable 
evidence that the girl had been brutally murdered. A 
man named Macdonald confessed that he had done the 

The election for Lord Rector of Glasgow resulted as 
follows : Mr. Arthur J. Balfour, 948 ; Lord Aberdeen, 

Mr. Goschen, Chancellor of the Exchequer, was 
elected Lord Rector of Edinburgh, with 1,378 votes ; Sir 
Charles Russell, the other candidate, obtained 805 votes. 

An action was brought by Captain O'Shea for 
divorce against his wife, Mrs. O'Shea, on the grounds of 
her adultery with Mr. Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader 
of the Irish Parliamentary party, a decree nisi being 
granted by Mr. Justice Butt. No defence was made by 
Mr. Parnell ; but Mrs. O'Shea made counter allegations 
against her husband of connivance and adultery with her 
sister, Mrs. Steele, which were proved to have no founda- 
tion whatever. 

16. Death of Mr. Shirley Hibberd, a well-known 

General Seliverskoff, of the Russian army, was found 
shot at the Hotel de Bade, Paris. The murder was 
supposed to have been perpetrated by a Pole, named 

19. Lady Rosebery died at Dalmeny Park. She was 
the daughter and heiress of the late Baron Meyer de 

The trial of Irish members of Parliament and others 
for conspiracy, which was begun at Tipperary on Septem- 
ber 25th, was brought to a conclusion. Messrs. John 
Dillon, William O'Brien, Patrick O'Brien, and John 
Gullinane were each sentenced to six months' imprison- 
ment, while others were sentenced to four months' 

21. A fierce south-easterly gale prevailed off the coast 
of Norway, an entire fishing fleet was destroyed, and 
hundreds of lives were lost. 

23. The King of the Netherlands, William III., died 
at the Castle of Loo. His Majesty was born on February 
19th, 1817, and succeeded to the throne on March 17tb, 

Mr. W. Beckett, member for the Bassetlaw Division 
of Nottinghamshire, was killed on the railway at Wira- 

25. Parliament reassembled after the autumn vaca- 
tion. A meeting of the Irish party was held in 
one of the committee rooms of the House of Com- 
mons, when Mr. Parnell was received with enthusiasm, 
and was unanimously re-elected chairman of the party. 
The same afternoon Mr. John Morley communicated to 
Mr. Parnell the contents of a letter he had received from 
Mr. Gladstone, to the effect that, if Mr. Parnell did not 
retire from the leadership of the Irish party, he (Mr. 
Gladstone) would renounce public life. The following day 
another meeting of the Irish party was held, when Mr. 
Parnell declined to retire, though a majority of his sup- 
porters were against him. Three days later Mr. Parnell 
issued a manifesto to the Irish people, in which he made 
some remarkable disclosures, the principal of which was 
an account of a private interview which he had with Mr. 
Gladstone at Hawarden. The accuracy of this version of 
the interview was afterwards denied by Mr. Gladstone. 
Mr. Parnell subsequently offered to retire if Mr. Glad- 
stone would give a guarantee that any Home Rule Bill 
passed by the Liberals would yield to the Irish Parliament 
the control over the police, the land, and the judiciary. 
But Mr. Gladstone declined to say or do anything in the 
matter while Mr. Parnell remained leader of the Irish 
party On the 6th December, about fifty of the Irish 
members who were opposed to Mr. Parnell severed them- 
selves from the remaining section, and formed an indepen- 
dent party with Mr. Justin McCarthy as chairman. Mr. 
Parnell proceeded to Dublin on the 9th, and was there 
received with extraordinary enthusiasm. Among the 
exciting scenes which followed were the seizure of the 
office of United Ireland by the Parnellites, the recapture 
of the premises by the anti-Parnellites, and the final 
ejection of the old staff of the paper. 


3. The body of Lord Cantelupe, who was drowned in 
Belfast Lough on November 7th, was found near the 
scene of the disaster. 

Death of Lord Cottesloe, who was Chief'Secretary 
for Ireland during the last years of Sir Robert Peel's 
Administration, and Secretary tor War in 1844-5. He 
was chairman of the Board of Customs until 1873, and 
was raised to the peerage in 1874. His lordship, who 
was 92 years of age, claimed to have been present at the 
reading of the Budget for fifty years in succession. 

Mary Eleanor Wheeler, charged with the murder of 
Mrs. Hogg and her child at Hampstead, was sentenced to 

4. Death of Mr. Charles Marvin, author, lecturer, and 
journalist, aged 36. (See Monthly Chronicle, 1889, page 

5. Death of Baron Huddleston, one of the last of the 
Barons of the old Exchequer Court abolished by the 
Judicature Act. 

9. Six children were drowned at Tipton, South Staf- 
fordshire, through the breaking of the ice on a colliery 

Printed by WALTEB SCOTT, Felling-on-Tyne. 





VOL. V. No. 48. 

FEBRUARY, 1891. 

PRICK 60. 

JTtucr jlfftiiblr JKBCearlfal* 

HT a distance of rather over a mile south- 
west of Walsingham, in the pleasant Wear 
Valley, in the county of Durham, there 
nestles on the immediate southern bank of 
the river Wear, Holbeck House, the ancient home of the 
Craggs family. This secluded building is situated on the 
margin of the tiny stream of Hole Beck, whose crystal 
water renders the spot more picturesque as it ripples 
through a ferny glen with wooded banks. 

The old house, with the surrounding lands, is now the 
property of Colonel H. J. Wilkinson. Here, in Holbeck 
House, were deposited in 1875 by the owner of the 
estate, Colonel Wilkinson, some interesting memorials of 
its ancient owners. These memorials are three engravings 
which at one time belonged to the Craggs family, and 
the following note is attached to the pictures: "I 
desire these engravings may be left where I have placed 
them at Holbeck House, the birth-place of James 
Craggs, Sen., and the ancient home of the Craggs family. 
They were presented by some of the family to Mr. 
Chapman of Wolsingham, on whose death they were 
sold by auction, and purchased by Mr. Josh. Nicholson, 
parish clerk, from whom I bought them in 18,74. They 
are now in their original frames and glasses, and I wish 
them to remain so. H. J. WILKINSON, late Major 9th 
Regiment, Curragb, 1875," One is the portrait of the 
Right Hon, James Craggs, Secretary of State, &c. The 
engraving is dated 1720, and is by Virtue from the 
original portrait painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller. The 
second portrait is that of the Secretary's father, James 
Craggs, Sen., Postmaster-General of Great Britain, and 
appears to have been engraved by Virtue in 1728 from 
a painting by Kneller in 1709. The third picture 
represents Edward Eliot, of Port Eliot, Cornwall, his 

wife Elizabeth, second daughter and co-heiress of James 
Craggs, Sen., and their two children, James and Eliza- 

When Anthony Craegs, the grandfather of the Secre- 
tary of State, lived at Holbeck, the rector of the adjoin- 
ing parish of Stanhope was the Rev. Ferdinando 

Moorcroft, one time master of Greatham Hospital, who 
was collated to Stanhope in 1608. He was rector of 
Heighington from 1625 to 1639, but appears in the mean- 
time to have retained the rectory of Stanhope up to the 
time of his death in 1641. In the Stanhope register we 




find "Ann Moorecroft, daughter to Mr. Ffardenando 
Moorecroft of Stanhop, person, was bap. 28th Oct. 1628. 
Her godfather was Mr. Anthony Maxton [rector of 
Wolsingham] ; her godmothers, Mrs. Ann Maddison and 
Mrs. Mary Phillopson." This Ann was grandmother to 
Secretary Craprgs, having married, June 22, 1654, at 
Heighington, Anthony Craggs of Wolsingham, a repre- 
sentative of an old family. 

Anthony and Ann Craggs had issue, James, who 
bcame Postmaster-General; Ann, born in 1661, who 
married Mr. George Robinson, London, died in 1726, 
and was buried at Charlton, Kent; and ' Ferdinando who 
died unmarried at the old home at Holbeck in the year 
1749, at the age of 78 years. 

James Craggs, son of Anthony, was born at Holbeck, 
and was baptised at Wolsingham Church, June 10, 1657. 
He married Elizabeth, sister of Brigadier Michael 
Richards, Surveyor-General of the Ordnance to George I. 
A manuscript accompanying the engravings above men- 
tioned gives the following particulars of Anthony's son 
and grandson : "Mr. Craggs was member of Parliament 
for Grampound from 1702 to 1713. He held several im- 
portant and lucrative positions under Government in the 
reigns of Queen Anne and her successor, George I. 
He died of a broken heart, March 16, 1721, one month 
after his son, to whom he was deeply attached, and on 
whom he built his hopes for the ennoblement of his 
family. The aspersion cast upon them both by the 
sufferers in the South Sea Bubble tended no doubt in a 
great measure to his sad end." 

The elder Craggs was buried at Charlton in the county 
of Kent, where there is a tablet erected by his daughters 
to his memory bearing the following inscription : 
"Here lies the body of James Craggs, late of Lon- 
don, Esq., one of His Majesty's Postmasters-General. 
He was the son of Mr. Anthony Craggs of Holbeck, in 
the parish of Wolsingham, in the County Palatine of 
Durham, and died the 16th of March, 1720-21. He had 
issue one son and three daughters, viz., the Right Hon. 
James Craggs, Esq., one of the Principal Secretaries of 
State to his present Majesty, who died one month before 
his said father, and three daughters who survived him ; 
Ann, who married John Newsham of Chadshunt, in the 
county of Warwick, Esq. ; Elizabeth, who married 
Edward Eliot, of Port Eliot, in the county of Cornwall ; 
and Margaret, who married Samuel Trefusis, Esq., of 
Trefusis, in the county of Cornwall; which three 
daughters, in duty, erected this monument to the pious 
memory of the best of fathers. " 

Ann was thrice married, her last husband being Robert 
Nugent, Esq., created Earl Nugent; Elizabeth's hus- 
band, Edward Eliot, Esq., was grandson of Nicholas 
Eliot, fifth son of Sir John Eliot, the patriot; and 
Margaret married lastly Sir John Hinde Cotton, Bart., 
and died without issue. 

"Burke's Peerage," after stating that Elizabeth 

married as above, mentions that Elizabeth's husband, 
Edward Eliot, died in 1722, and was succeeded by his 
only son, James Eliot, who died unmarried in 1742, when 
the property reverted to his uncle, Richard Eliot, M.P., 
Keceiver-General to the Prince of Wales. Richard Eliot 
married, according to the same authority, in 1726, 
Harriot, daughter of the Right Hon. James Craggs, 
Secretary of State, by whom he had issue, amongst others, 
Edward, his son and heir, who was afterwards M.P. for 
Cornwall. He assumed by sign-manual the additional 
surname of Craggs, and in 1784 was elevated to the peer- 
age by the title of Baron Eliot, of St. Germans, county 
Cornwall. His lordship was succeeded by his third son, 
John, who was created Earl of St. Germans in 1815, 
with remainder, in default of male issue, to his 
brother William who succeeded him. William married 
Lady Georgiana Augusta Leveson-Gower, the fourth 
daughter of Granville, first Marquis of Stafford, and 
was succeeded by his eldest son, the distinguished Earl 
of St. Germans, who was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland 
in 1852. 

John Hamilton, second son of James, seventh Earl' of 
Abercorn, married, according to Burke, Harriot, daughter 
of Secretary Craggs and widow of Richard Eliot, M.P. 
Their son John James, ninth Earl of Abercorn, was 
created in 1790 Marquis of Abercorn, and his grandson 
was created Puke of Abercorn. 

James Craggs, the younger, was engaged in various 
foreign courts, was in 1717 made Secretary of War, 
and in the following year one of the Secretaries of State 
to his Majesty George I. In 1720 his friend Pope thus 
wrote of him : 

A soul as full of worth as void of pride, 
Which nothing seeks to show, or needs to hide, 
Which nor to guilt nor fear its caution owes. 
And boasts a warmth that from no passion flows. 
A face untaught to feign ; a judging eye, 
That darts severe upon a rising lie, 
And strikes a blush through frontless flattery. 
All this thou wert ; and being this before. 
Know, kings and fortunes cannot make thee more. 
Then scorn to gain a friend by servile ways, 
Nor wish to lose a foe these virtues raise ; 
But, candid, free, sincere, as you began, 
Proceed a Minister, but still a man. 
Be not (exalted to whate'er degree) 
Ashamed of any friend, not ev'n of me : 
The patriot's plain, but untrod, path pursue ; 
If not, 'tis I must be ashamed of you. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu said of him : "He had great 
vivacity, a happy memory, and flowing elocution ; he was 
brave and generous, and had an appearance of open- 
heartedness in his manners that gained him a universal 
goodwill, if not a universal esteem." Craggs was the 
patron of the poet Pope, who wrote some of his Homer's 
" Iliad " and " Odyssey " on the backs of letters received 
from the Secretary of State, who was styled by Gay as 
" bold, generous Craggs, whose heart was ne'er disguised." 
Addison, just before his death, bequeathed to him his 
works, which, however, Craggs did not live to receive. 

February \ 
1891. / 



Tickell, in the dedication of his edition of Addison's 
works, which appeared in 1721, writes as follows : 
These works divine which on his death-bed laid, 
To thee, O Craggs, the expiring sage conveyed ; 
Great but ill-omened monument of fame, 
Nor he survived to give nor thpu to claim. 
Swift after him thy social spirit flies, 
And close to his how soon they coffin lies. 
Blest pair ! whose union future bards shall tell 
On future tongues, each other boast farewell, 
Farewell whom joined in fame, in friendship tried, 
No chance could sever, nor the grave divide. 

James Craggs died Feb. 16, 1720, aged 35 years, and was 
buried in Westminster, where his epitaph exists ; the con- 
cluding lines in Pope's epistle to Addison in 1715 were 
added to the inscription. 





Statesman, yet friend to Truth ! of soul sincere, 
In action faithful, and in honour clear ! 
Who broke no promise, served no private end, 
Who gain'd no title, and who lost no friend ; 
Ennobled by himself, by all approved, 
Praised, wept and honour'd by the muse he loved. 

The portrait which appears on page 49 is that of the 
elder Craggs the Postmaster-General. It is copied from 
an engraving of a picture by Zincka in the Marquis of 
Buckingham's collection at Stowe, which engraving was 
published in 1807. WILLIAM MORLEY EGGLESTONE. 


James Craggs, the elder, joined with his father in 
cutting off the entail and selling the whole of the small 
iamily property. He afterwards made his way to 
London, finding employment in various capacities. 
Some assort he began life as a country barber. This, if 
not strictly true, is quite possible, for his earlier occupa- 
tions were not of the very highest character, and this 
part of his career is surrounded with considerable ob- 

The Duke of Norfolk promoted him to the post of 
steward in 1684. He next formed one of the Duke of 
Marlborough's household, in which, by assiduity and 
shrewd administrative ability, he contrived to attract the 
attention of her Grace "The Viceroy, " who soon in- 
stalled him as the manager of her business affairs. On 
the 4th of March, 1695, Craggs, who was at this time 
engaged in business as an army clothier, refused to sub- 
mit his books to the inspection of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to examine the public accounts of the kingdom. 
Three days afterwards he was compelled to appear 
before the Commons. He was then sent to the Tower as 
an obstructive to the official inquiry into the regulations 
of the public income (vide " Parl. Hist, vol. v., cola. 
892-5). In 1702, Craggs through Queen Sarah's influence 
was elected as one of the members for the borough 
of Grampound, of which he remained representative 
until Anne's fourth Parliament was dissolved in August, 

1713. It was in 1715 that he was appointed joint Post- 
master-General with Charles, fourth Lord Cornwallis. 

Craggs was deeply involved in the transactions of the 
South Sea Company, though not an actual director at the 
time the crash came. At the beginning of 1721, the 
House of Commons appointed a secret committee of 
inquiry, before which Oaggs was examined. From their 
third report, which did not reach the consideration of the 
House until after Craggs's death, it was found that no 
less than 40,000 of South Sea Stock had been paid for 
out of the cash of the company for his use and 
benefit, 30,000 of which sum had actually been 
transferred to him. Shortly after this discovery, the 
Commons passed an Act by which all the property 
acquired by Craggs since 1st Dec., 1719, was confiscated 
for the relief of those who had suffered by the collapse of 
the famous (or infamous) bubble. One of the recitals of 
the Act (7 Geo. I., c. 28) sets out that "James Craggs the 
elder, esquire, was a notorious accomplice and con- 
federate with the. said Robert Knight, and some of the 
late directors of the South Sea Company, in carrying 
out their corrupt and scandalous practices ; and did by 
his wicked influence and for his own exorbitant gain 
promote and encourage the pernicious execution of the 
late South Sea scheme." 

To a character of great energy and eminent financial 
ability, Craggs added the remarkable "talent of reading 
men, and by a peculiar way of gaining on the minds of 
those he dealt with." Few scruples troubled his mind. 
Lord Sunderland, while in attendance on the king at 
Hanover, had entrusted his interests to the care of 
Craggs. Walpole and his party got possession of a 
scandal very much against Lord Sunderland ; in fact, 
a tale difficult to counteract by common means. Old 
Craggs, therefore, at once sent to Sir Robert Walpole 
requesting to see him, acknowledged the truth of the 
story, but informed him that any attempt to make the 
least use of it would send him (Craggs) on the instant 
to the Lord Mayor, before whom he would make oath 
that he (Walpole) had held a long conversation with the 
Pretender. Walpole, enraged, declared it was a gross 
falsehood. Craggs replied that possibly it might be, but 
ha would swear to it and accompany it with such cir- 
cumstances as would make it be believed beyond dis- 
proof, and added that Walpole knew he was able and 
capable of it. ("Life of William, Earl of Sbelburne," 
1875, 1, 40-1.) 

James Craggs, the younger, was born April 9th, 
1686, in the city of Westminster. Before completing 
his education at a school in Chelsea, he was sent 
to travel on the Continent, where, after spending 
some time at the Hanoverian Court, he gained the 
favour of the Elector through the influence of the Coun- 
tess of Platen. He next visited the Court of Turin, and 
was afterwards appointed resident to the King of 
Spain at Barcelona. At the commencment of the cam- 



\ 1891. 

paign of 1709 he was in Flanders. In September he 
was returned to the House of Commons for the borough 
of Tregony, and on the day before the Queen's death he 
was despatched by the Council to Herrenhausen to inform 
the future king of the measures which had been taken 
to secure his succession to the throne. Some months after 
this journey, be was rewarded with the post of cofferer to 
the Prince of Wales. At the general election in January, 
1715, Craggs was again returned for Tregony, and on 
April 13, 1717, he was appointed Secretary of War in the 
place of William Pulteney, afterwards Earl of Bath. 
Upon Addison's retirement, Craggs succeeded him as one 
of the principal Secretaries of State, with the charge of 
the Southern Department. 

Cragg's political career was wonderfully rapid. His 
remarkable mastery of detail and readiness in debate 
enabled him quite to hold his own against Walpole and 
others in the House of Commons. According to Old- 
mixon, Addison " was pleased to say of his successor that 
he was as fit a man for the part as any in the kingdom ; 
and that he never knew any man who had a greater 
genius for business, whether in Parliament or out of Par- 
liament, than young Mr. Craggs, as," continued he, "will 
appear by his conduct." 

Unluckily this high commendation was doomed to be 
belied, owing to Cragg's implication in the affairs of the 
Pouth Sea Company. There was, however, but scant 
evidence against him in the seven reports of the secret 
committee, and the most that can be laid to this charge 
is that, at his suggestion, the Duchess of Kendal and 
other ladies were bribed with presents of stock in order 
to facilitate the passing of the company's bill through 
Parliament. C. H. STEPHENSON. 


" James Craggs," says Macaulay's History of England, 
" had begun life as a barber. He had then been a 
footman. His abilities, eminently vigorous, though not 
improved by education, had raised him in the world, and 
he was now entering upon a career which was destined 
to end, after many years of prosperity, in unutterable 
misery and despair. He had become an army clothier. 
He was examined as to his dealings with colonels of 
regiments, and, as he obstinately refused to produce 
his books, he was sent to the Tower." 

The reference the historian thus makes to the elder 
Craggs appears in that part of Macaulay's History which 
deals with the events of 1695. Twenty-seven years later, 
when that marvellous instance of infatuation, the South 
Sea Bubble, came to the surface, James Craggs found 
himself again in trouble. He was accused of receiving 
shares in the company to the amount ot 659,000. " On 
the very day," says Cassell's "History of England," 
"that one of the reports respecting the South Sea Bubble 
was being read in the House of Commons, James Craggs, 
Secretary of State, died. His complaint was small-pox, 
but the state of mind caused by this exposure is supposed 

to have rendered the malady fatal. His father, who 
was Postmaster-General, was so shamefully involved in 
the same dishonest proceedings that he took poison." 

A story is told of William Whiston, the translator of 
" Josephus," to this effect : A party, in which Addison, 
Pope, Walpole, and Craggs were included, was debating 
whether a Secretary of State could be an honest man, and 
Whiston was asked for his opinion. Craggs said " it 
might do for a fortnight, but not longer" ; when, with 
much simplicity, Whiston inquired, "Mr. Secretary, did 
you ever try it for a fortnight ?" HERODOTUS. 


mr tfte STgtrc. 

[UNNING back through the files of the New- 
castle Chronicle for a century, we come upon 
numerous examples of the conflicts between 
labour and capital engaged in maritime 
affairs. These, in the old days, were called "sticks," 
but latterly have passed under the more general name 
of "strikes." 


A temporary combination of the seventy coalowners 
who then practically monopolised the mining trade of 
the district resulted in raising the price of coal delivered 
on board in the river a shilling a chaldron. This does 
not appear a very serious matter ; but in order to under- 
stand its bearings, it is only necessary to state that four 
or five years previously an export duty had been placed 
upon coal, and this had brought up the price to such a 
point that both Germany and Scotland could almost 
compete with England in the markets of Holland and 
Scandinavia. So unprofitable had the carrying of coal 
become that in Sunderland, which had formerly boasted 
of turning out twenty ships a year, there had been only 
one new ship launched in 1774-. At this juncture the 
shilling rise was announced, and at once the shipowners 
of the two ports resolved, first, that they would load no 
coal at the advanced rates, and, next, that they would 
maintain their seamen in the meanwhile on condition 
that they would not abandon their ships. The Bailors 
were quite willing to stand by their employers; but, as 
they were to get only their rations, they naturally desired 
to terminate the strike as soon as possible. A few ship- 
owners stood aloof from the combination, and the sailors 
adopted rather strong measures to prevent them from 
getting their ships to sea. Something of this kind had 
evidently been counted on by the coalowners, for almost 
immediately after they had determined to demand the 
extra shilling they applied for the reinforcement of the 
military in Newcastle. Three companies of the 31st 
Regiment were accordingly withdrawn from Tynemouth 
Castle, and billetted upon publicans in Newcastle. After 
a fortnight of occasional disturbance, two or three troops 

1891. / 



of the North British Dragoons were drafted off from 
Durham ; and such was the excitement that when the 
dragoons arrived on Gateshead Fell they loaded their 
muskets, fully expecting to see Newcastle in flames. The 
sailors, under the inspirine orders or sanction of their 
employers, struck the topmasts and unrigged several of 
what may be called the non-union ships in the London 
trade. One shipowner applied to the magistrates of 
Newcastle for assistance to get his ship out to sea ; and 
Mr. Alderman Blackett went down the river, took with 
him the water bailiff and several constables, and, having 
gone on board, got the ship safely over the bar, although 
the banks were crowded with excited sailors. This bold 
feat appears to have broken the back of the strike. At 
all events, the number of those who deserted the cause 
rapidly increased, and by about the end of the month 
of March all was once more quiet. 


In the early part of this year there was great commotion 
among the Tyne seamen in consequence of the activity 
of the press-gang. Two serious occurrences served to show 
the hatred with which Tyne sailors regarded the iniqui- 
tous press system. The tales are somewhat variously told, 
but substantially they are as follows : On the 12th 
Feburary, in the evening, the impressed men on board 
the tender Speedwell or the Union rose on the crew, and 
took possession of the ship. The other tenders in the 
harbour opened fire on the sloop, as also did the guns in 
Clifford's Fort, but in spite of all she got safely to sea. 
On arriving at Scarborough seventeen of the pressed men 
went ashore and escaped. A fortnight later a more 
formidable demonstration was organised. The collier 
sailors combined to prevent the other tenders from sailing. 
Lieutenant Okes, of the special service, having got wind 
of the plot, manned his cutter and one or two other 
boat?, and then proceeded in search of the offenders. 
Coming up with one ship's boat, containing 20 men, he 
forthwith impressed them for his Majesty's service ; but, 
in the meantime, great numbers of sailors had to go on 
board the marked ships, and from the forecastle they 
pelted the obnoxious officer with billets of wood and cob- 
coal. The lieutenant aimed at them with his blunderbuss, 
but without effect. Then, according to the evidence he 
gave subsequently, his weapon went off by accident, 
wounding one man fatally. But the whole story of the 
press-gang will have to be told later. 


Writing to Lord (then Captain) Nelson, from Morpeth, 
in the year 1792, under date 14th November, Lord 
Collingwood alludes to the insurrectionary spirit of the 
Tyne seamen as follows : "There are great commotions 
in our neighbourhood at present. The seamen at Shields 
have embarked themselves, to the number of 1,200 or 
1,400, with a view to compel the owners of the coal ships 
to advance their wages ; and, as is generally the case 
when they consider themselves the strongest party, their 

demand has been exorbitant. Application has been made 
to Government for such assistance as the remedy of this 
evil might require. They have sent the Drake and 
Martin sloops to join the Racehorse, which was here 
before, and some troops of dragoons, whose presence, I 
hope, will dispose the Johnnies to peace, without their 
having occasion to act. But the times are turbulent, and 
the enthusiasm for liberty is raging even to madness." 

Throughout the greater part of this year there were 
disturbances on the Tyne. Severe measures were taken 
on both sides. In many cases the sailors took the 
command out ot the hands of the masters. At length, 
when about fourscore of the ringleaders had been pressed, 
the excitement subsided. 


The next great disturbance on the river was chiefly 
confined to the keelmen, but both on the Tyne and the 
Wear the seamen were agitating for an advance of wages 
from 2 10s. to 3 a circumstance which tended to 
aggravate the public excitement in connection with the 
demands of the keelmen. On October 14, the disturb- 
ances culminated in a serious riot. The Mayor of New- 
castle (Mr. Archibald Reed) had proceeded down the 
river with the civil power, aided by the boats of his 
Majesty's ships, with a view of opening the navigation of 
the river (which had been interrupted for some time by 
the proceedings of the keelmen), and had gone on shore 
at North Shields. After the Mayor and the other 
gentlemen who accompanied him had retired to the 
Northumberland Arms Inn, the mob made an attack, 
with paving-stones and other missiles, upon the Speedwell 
steam packet ; several of the peace officers and the cox- 
swain of the packet were severely hurt ; the marines 
then fired in protection of themselves and those in the 
steamboat, when unfortunately one man, named Joseph 
Cleckson, was shot upon the New Quay. This so 
exasperated the mob that they turned their fury upon 
the inn, with threats of vengeance against the Mayor, 
and exclaiming that they wculd have blood for blood. 
By the application of some iron pipes, they soon de- 
molished the doors and windows of the inn, and liberated 
a man who had been taken into custody when in the 
act of throwing stones. By the spirited exertions of Mr. 
Donkin, the high constable of the district, they were held 
some time in check, and opportunity was thus afforded the 
Mayor and other gentlemen to escape by the back part of 
the inn. From the fury with which they were actuated, 
there was too much reason to fear that they would have 
carried their threats into execution; and so eager were 
they to attain their object, that they searched almost 
every part of the house. They also sought to wreak their 
vengeance on the officers in the steamboat, but these had 
fortunately escaped in boats over to the south side of the 
river. The mob continued in the streets in the most 
tumultuous state till a late hour; but the arrival of a 



f February 
I 1891. 

party of the 6th Dragoon Guards from the barracks at 
Newcastle somewhat quieted the fears of the inhabitants. 
The town continued agitated for several days.. The in- 
quest on Joseph Cleckson lasted five days, and resulted 
in a verdict of "Justifiable homicide." On the verdict 
becoming known the keelmen were again terribly excited. 
Mr. Coppin, one of the jury, was shot at in his own 
house the same evening, but the thickness of the shutters 
saved him. Mr. Fenwick also was attacked in a similar 
manner under a mistake, as it was his brother who acted 
as foreman to the jury on the inquest. Mr. Hall, 
another of the jury, was also molested. The inhabitants 
were in the greatest alarm. They entered into a sub- 
scription and offered a reward of 300 guineas for the con- 
viction of the perpetrators of these outrages. The streets 
were for several successive nights patrolled by cavalry, 
constables, and infantry. Government sent a ship of 
war. The keelmen, however, having gained a part of 
their objects, returned to work on Friday, the 22nd 


The high wages for the London voyage during the early 
part of this year were the result of long- continued 
pressure on the part of the seamen of the port ; but no 
sooner did it become known in London, Hull, and other 
ports than large numbers of men came down to the Tyne 
in search of employment. The labour market was soon 
over supplied, and those who had come thus far north in 
the hope of getting 4 a voyage were induced to 
offer their services under the current rates. This led to a 
serious breach of the peace on the 22nd of July in South 
Shields Market Place. On tbe 26th the ship Atlas 
was boarded, and a demand made for her articles in 
order to show whether the men on board had accepted the 
lower wages. This was peremptorily refused. The 
boarders then took measures to stop the vessel from going 
to sea. Assistance having been obtained from H.M.S. 
Orestes, fourteen of the disaffected were arrested. 
Having been examined before the magistrates at New- 
castle, they were liberated on bail to come up at the next 
Sessions to answer a charge of riot. But so far as the 
newspaper report of the following October Session goes, 
there is reason to conclude that they wers never called 
upon to appear. 


This year opened amidst almost unprecedented agita- 
tion among seamen, partly in consequence of several 
highly obnoxious clauses in the Mercantile Shipping Act. 
The actual strike, however, proceeded upon a demand for 
a rise of wages from 4 to 4 10s. per London voyage, 
and 3 per month foreign. Sunderland and the two 
Shields towns acted together in the business with great 
fidelity. Hartlepool also threw in its lo: with the discon- 
tented. Many meetings were held, both at Shields and 
Sunderland, the seamen from one port marching in pro- 
cession with banners and music to meet and confer with 

their brethren in another port. On Saturday, the 24th 
January, there could not be fewer than 17,000 in proces- 
sion to or from Sunderland Moor. The employers soon 
pave way ; but they could not induce the sailors to sign 
articles at tbe new shipping offices. A petition, signed 
by a thousand sailors, was forwarded to the Board of 
Trade requesting the abolition of seamen's register 
tickets, an abrogation of the orders respecting shipping 
offices and the government of crews on ship-board ; also 
notably praying for the establishment of nautical schools 
in every principal port. The more obnoxious features of 
the new arrangements under the Shipping Act having 
been either cancelled or satisfactorily explained, the men 
went aboard the ships, and since that day there have been 
no strikes of any serious importance among the Tyne 

af tfte 


jjETHOLM, in Roxburghshire, lies on the 
Beaumont, a tributary of the Till, about 
four miles from the English Border. It con- 
sists of two hamlets, named Town Yetholm 
and Kirk Yetholm respectively.* A row of houses in the 
latter, which lies on the south side of the water, and 
about a quarter of a mile from Town Yetholm, which is 
on the north side of the stream, is entirely occupied by 
gipsies. They belong to several distinct families, the 
chief names being Faa, Young, Douglas, and Blythe. 
The latter do not seem to be of the same race as the three 
former. The Douglases, Youngs, and Faas are generally 
dark-complexioned, with black hair, while the Blythes 
are mostly light-haired and of fair complexion. Tradi- 
tion has it that the settlement of the gipsies at Yetholm 
came about in consequence of one of the tribe having 
saved the life of Captain Bennett, proprietor of the 
barony, at the siege of Namur. 


The habits, manners, and customs of the Yetholm 
gipsies have been greatly modified of late years. Our 
account of their affairs, therefore, rather is what they 
were than what they are. Fifty years ago they mostly 
remained at home in winter, or only made short excur- 
sions to the neighbouring villages; but in summer they 
shut up their houses, and travelled about in different 
directions in Northumberland, North Durham, and the 
Border Counties of Scotland. 


Mellerstain Entries, in the parish of Earlstoun, in Ber- 
wickshire, extending for three-quarters of a mile between 

The engraving of Kirk Yetholm, on priffe 55, is copied from 
sketches by Jlr. J. Gillies Brown. 

1891. / 



Mellerstain Home Farm and the farm of Rachelfield, and 
close to the limits of the county, had been from time 
immemorial, down to the late Earl of Haddington's time, 
a constant place of summer resort for the gipsies. From 
about Whitsuntide till after Michaelmas every year it 
was seldom that there were not several gipsy camps esta- 
blished in "the Entries." We have seen as many as 
sixty carts "lowsed"at one time by the roadside close 
to Rachelfield, near an old ruin called "the Boggle's 
House," properly Whitside House, said to have been 
used as an hospital for the neighbourhood during the 
virulence of the Plague, long, long ago. Twenty carts 
were a usual sight, and two, three, four, or five, common 
all the summer. The motley assemblage of wild-looking 
men and perhaps still wilder-looking women, ragged little 
urchins ferocious bull-dogs, skye terriers, dandle din- 
monts, lurchers, and greyhounds a score or two of 
horses and donkeys, old and young, the horses hoppled, 
the asses free, but sometimes with the panniers on, with a 
child in one and a counterweight in the other, ready for 
starting formed a picture too strangely vivid to be ever 


The men during the day were either absolutely idle 
lying smoking or asleep in front of their tents, or engaged 
in besom making, pitcher making, fishine-tackle making, 
or some other light and easy industry. The manufacture 
of horn spoons, which was the ostensible employment of 
some of them half a century since, is now, we believe, 

unknown. Night, which Montgomery calls "the time 
for rest," is the real working day of the normal male 
gipsy, unsophisticated and unconverted. It is chiefly 
devoted to poaching and kindred avocations, for which 
reason the country people used to call the men " night 


One often hears of the predatory habits of the gipsies ; 
but it would be very unfair to stigmatise them as indis- 
criminate thieves and robbers. Indeed, they made it a 
principle not to steal from those farmers on or near 
whose grounds they encamped. A tenant of Rachelfield, 
during his twenty-one years' lease, had never once occa- 
sion to complain of them. It is even said that the gipsies 
were in many respects farmers' friends. For one thing, 
they kept down the game. But for them the rabbits 
would have totally consumed the crops on some fields in 
dry seasons. And even the potatoes and turnips, so great 
a temptation to rural trespassers, were generally safe 
from their ravages. If they stole any at all, they did it 
with rare discretion, so that what they took was never 


The gipsies were held to be of a particularly vindictive 
disposition towards those whom they imagined to have 
injured them. This trait of character is common, how- 
ever, to all isolated tribes of men. In the South of Scot- 
land, the "tinklers," as the farmers called them, were a 
formidable set, down till a comparatively recent date. 

*% ^^ 




1 189] . 

Many a husbandman would.wink at their petty depreda- 
tions and trespasses, for fear that, if he set the parish 
constable after them, they might burn down his onstead. 


Here is the picture of a gipsy queen, Mary Yorkston, 
taken by Mr. Linton from the mouth of an aged and very 
respectable gentleman, the late Mr. David Stoddart, at 
Bankhead, near Queensferry, who had often seen her 
in his youth : 

She was fully six feet in stature, stout made in her 
person, with very strongly-marked and harsh features, 
and had, altogether, a very imposing aspect and manner. 
She wore a large black beaver hat, tied down over her 
ears with a handkerchief, knotted below her chin, in the 
gipsy fashion. Her upper garment was a dark blue short 
cloak, somewhat after the Spanish fashion, made of 
substantial woollen cloth, approaching to superfine in 
quality. The greater part of her other apparel was made 
of dark blue camlet cloth, with petticoats so short that 
they scarcely reached to the calves of her well-set legs. 
Her stockings were of dark blue worsted, flowered and 
ornamented at the ankles with scarlet thread, and in her 
shoes she displayed large, massive silver buckles. The 
whole of her habiliments were very substantial, with not 
a rag or rent to be seen about her person. Her outer 
petticoats were folded up round her haunches, for a lap, 
with a large pocket dangling at each side ; and below her 
cloak she carried, between her shoulders, a email flat 
pack, or pad, which contained her most valuable articles. 
About her person she generally kept a large clasp-knife, 
with a long, broad blade, resembling a dagger or carving- 
knife, and carried in her hand a long pole or pike-staff, 
that reached about a foot above her head. 

Many stories are told of this woman, who went under the 
appellations of "my lady "and "the duchess," and who 
presided, like a sibyl, at the celebration of marriages and 
divorces, and was, in fact, the Deborah of her tribe. She 
had very little of the milk of human kindness about her, 
as the following incident will show : Chancing, on one 
occasion, to meet a shepherd's wife among the wild hills 
in the parish of Stobo, in Peebleshire, she stripped her of 
the whole of her clothes. The shepherd was horrified at 
beholding his better half, an hour afterwards, approach- 
ing their secluded domicile in the simple costume of 

Mother Eve before the fall. There would have been no 
use in pursuing the thief, however, and the couple were 
fain to put up quietly with their loss. Another time, at 
a market in the south of Scotland, where Mary Yorkston 
was present with her gang, a farmer lost hia purse 
containing a considerable sum of money. He immediately 
went to " the duchess," soliciting her influence to recover 
his property. As he had of ten* given her quarters, she, 
without the least hesitation, took him along with her 
to the place in the fair where her husband kept his 
temporary depot, or rather office, to receive the findings 
of his satellites. Matthew Baillie, for that was the man's 
name, had assurance that all was right when he saw his 
spouse in the farmer's company ; and, upon the matter 
being explained, he instantly produced, and spread out 
before the applicant, from twenty to thirty purses, 
desiring him to pick out his own from amongst them. 
The countryman soon recognised his own, and grasped at 
it without ceremony. "Hold on," said Baillie, "let us 
count its contents first." The gipsy chief then, with the 
greatest coolness, as if he had been an honest banker or 
money-changer, counted over the money in the purse, 
when not a farthing was wanting. "There is your purse, 
sir," continued he; "you see what it is when honest 
folks meet!" 


The Scottish gipsies were extremely civil and obliging to 
their neighbours. This trait is well illustrated in the 
following anecdote, which appeared in an early number of 

Blackwood's Magazine : 

The late Mr. Leek, minister of Yetholm, happened to be 
riding home one evening from a visit in Northumberland, 
when, finding himself likely to be benighted, for the sake 
of a near cut he struck into a wild, solitary track, or 
drove-road, across the fields by a place called the Staw. 
In one of the derne places through which this path led 
him, there stood an old deserted shepherd's house, 
which of course was reputed to be haunted. The minister, 
though little apt to be alarmed by such reports, was, how- 
ever, somewhat startled on observing, as he approached 

February 1 
1891. / 



closer to the cottage, a "grim visage" staring out past a 
window claith, or sort of curtain, which had been fastened 
up to supply the place of a door, and also several 
"dusky figures" skulking among the bourtree-bushes 
that had once sheltered the shepherd's garden. Without 
leaving him any time for speculation, however, the knight 
of the curtain bolted forth upon him. and, seizing his 
horse by the bridle, demanded his money. Mr. Leek, 
though it was now dark, at once recognised the gruff voice 
and the great black burly head of his next-door neigh- 
bourgh, Gleed-Neckit Will, the gipsy chief. " Dear me, 
William," said the minister, in his usual quiet manner, 
" can this be you ? Ye're surely no serious wi' me? Ye 
wadna sae far wrang your character for a good neighbour 
for the bit trifle I ha'e to gi'e, William ? " " Lord saif us, 
Mr. Leek !" said Will, quitting the reins and lifting his 
hat with great respect, " whae wad hae thought o' meeting 
you out our here-away ? Ye needna gripe for ony siller to 
me I wadna touch a plack o' your gear, nor a hair o' your 
head, for a' the gowd o' Tividale. I ken ye'll no do ua 
an ill turn for this mistak and I'll e'en see ye safe 
through the eirie Staw it's no reckoned a very canny bit, 
mair ways nor ane ; but 111 wat yell no be feared for 
the dead, and I'll tak care o' the living." Will ac- 
cordingly gave his reverend friend a safe convoy through 
the haunted pass, and, notwithstanding his ugly mistake, 
continued ever after an inoffensive and obliging neighbour 
to the minister, who, on his part, observed a prudent and 
inviolable secrecy on the subject of this rencounter during 
the lifetime of Gleed-Neckit Will. W. B. 


j|OTHERSTONE is a quaint little place, and 
pretty. There is a pleasant sort of air about 
it that it is impossible to describe ; you must 
be there to experience it for yourself. It is 
said to be St. Cuthbert's town ; that is the derivation of 
the word due to the fact that legend makes it one of the 
places where the restless body of the saint halted for a time 
from its wanderings. But most people have forgotten that. 
Now, the little town is celebrated chiefly for two things 
its cheeses and its Quakers. Formerly it used to be in- 

habited almost entirely by members of the Society of 
Friends, and even now a goodly number of the Cother- 
stonites are adherents of that sect. And the Cotherstone 
cheese, some of it is hardly inferior to Stilton. It is made 
by all the housewives at the surrounding farm-houses, and 

then it goes forth to the world to make the name of 
Cotherstone famous. For there is not much else to rest 
the fame of Cotherstone on. Stay ! There is the scenery of 
the district, but that needs no praise from me. Who has 
not heard of Balderdale, which is entered just to the south 





of Cotherstone, where the Balder joins the Tees? On a 
mound above the junction of these two rivers is all 
that remains of Cotherstone Castle. This was a keep- 
tower of the Fitz-Hughs, and is believed to be "Pen- 
dragon's lonely mound " in " Rokeby." " We rode next, 
if you remember, to Cotherstone, an ancient village of the 
Fitz-Hughs on the Tees, whence I showed you a rock 
rising over the crown of the wood, still called Pendragon 
Castle." So wrote Morritt to Scott. Balderdale some- 
what resembles Deepdale, though it is perhaps scarcely 
so picturesque. Balder Grange stands on the right 
bank of the stream, and a little nearer the Tees is 
Woden Croft. This is now a farm-house, but it was 
long a school of some reputation. Here Richard Cobden 
received some part of his education. Nearly opposite 
Woden's Croft is the base of the Plague Cross, at 
which, during the infection, a market was held for 
Barnard Castle. 

But now let us leave the Cotherstone country, and soar 
through the air, not so disastrously, it is to be hoped, as 
Icarus, to another cheese town, which will occur to every 
one's mind on the mention of Cotherstone Stilton. 
Somehow Cotherstone always reminds one of Stilton, not 
that the places are similar in any way, but it may be 
because the two cheeses are not unlike. 

Stilton cheese ! I remember a friend of mine who once 
journeyed all the way down to Huntingdonshire to see 
the Stilton cheese made at Stilton. When he got there 
he was grievously disappointed, for he found that the 
cheese is not made there, 'but far away in Lsicestershire ; 
at any rate, Leicestershire is where it is made chiefly, 
though I believe a very small quantity is still made at 
Stilton itself, more for the sake of form than anything 
else. The quaint little Huntingdon village on the 
high north road, however, is none the less interesting, 
though our cherished illusion concerning its cheeses 
may be shattered. Stilton is supposed to be a place 
of considerable antiquity ; indeed, it is not quite cer- 
tain that it may not go so far back in point of pedigree 
as the Ermine Street, the Roman road on which it stands. 
For there are Roman remains still extant near the place, 
so that it is possible the Romans may have had a habita- 
tion there. The pretty square-towered church is a feature, 
too, of Stilton which carries us far back into the past, to 
the days when mediaeval Stilton flourished, and when 
perhaps the most interesting building in the village. The 
Bell, an hostelry that has been famous for long genera- 
tions, was in its youth. At The Bell, Cowper Thornhill 
first sold the Stilton cheese that was brought from 
Leicester, where the original article was made by Mrs. 
Paulet, of Wymondham, near Melton Mowbray. 

But Stilton cheese soon gained universal fame, and has 
not unfrequently been called the English Parmesan. 
Cowper or Cooper Thornhill, the landlord of The Bell, 
was consigned to immortality in a poem called "The 
Stilton Hero," and was famed as a rider, it being 

recorded of him that "he rode three times to London in 
eleven hours," and that he won the cup at Kiuibolton 
with a mare which he accidentally took on to the course 
after a journey of twelve miles. 

I cannot conclude without giving the following refer- 
ence to Stilton translated from the pages of Drunken 
Barnaby : 

Thence to Stilton slowly paced, 

With no bloom nor blossom graced ; 

With no plums nor apples stored, 

But bald, like an old man's forehead ; 

Yet, with inns so well provided, 

Guests are pleased when they have tried it. 



HTtoi>*t ftgne 

JUch.itr.u- eSEHfori). 

j|HE Forsters of Northumberland were at one 
time as numerous as the Fenwicks, the 
Carrs, or the Greys. Settled at an early 
period of English history in the manor of 
Adderstone, or Etherstone, near Belford, they proved to 
be a most prolific race. One member of the family left 
twenty-two sons behind him, and it is not at all difficult 
to believe that, in a few generations, they overran the 
eastern seaboard of the county. Public interest in the 
family begins with Sir Thomas Forster, Knight, who in 
the reign of Henry VIII. was Marshal of Berwick, made 
his will (still preserved at Durham) in 1526, and died 
soon after. By his marriage with a daughter of Robert, 
Lord Ogle, he had amongst other children Thomas 
Forster, of Adderstone, Sheriff of Northumberland in 
1564 and 1572, and Sir John Forster, Knight, Warden 
of the Marches for seven-and-thirty years, Governor of 
Berwick, grantee from the Crown of Bamborough Castle, 
and the owner of the abbey lands of Blanchland, From 
these two brothers the Forsters of Adderstone and the 
Forsters of Bamborough and Blanchland descended, and 
from their respective families came, for the most part, 
the Forsters whe figure conspicuously in local history. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century these two 
main lines of the opulent family of Forster were amalga- 
mated by marriage. Thomas Forster, of Adderstone, the 
representative of the older .branch, chose for his wife 
Frances, eldest daughter of Sir William Forster of Baiu- 
borough and Blanchland (an honorary freeman of New- 
castle), representative of the younger branch of the 
family. Sir William, like some of his ancestors, was 
blessed with numerous offspring, whose good fortune it 
was to make the name of Forster known beyond the 

February 1 
1S91. / 



limits of their native county. Dorothy, one of his 
daughters, married Bishop Crewe. William, his eldest 
son, entered upon a long parliamentary career. Chosen 
by the electors of Northumberland to represent them 
in the Convention Parliament, which placed the Prince 
of Orange on the English throne, he was returned to 
each successive Parliament that met between that date 
and his death in 1700. His successor was his brother, 
Fertiinando, murdered in Newcastle under well-known 

Ytionias ForsTer. 

circumstances, shortly after election, by John Fenwick, 
of Rock. With the death of Ferdinando, the male heirs 
of the Forsters of Bamborough ceased. Thomas Forster, 
of Adderstone, the brother-in-law, took their place in 
Parliament, while his son Thomas became co-heir with 
Lady Crewe of the family wealth. 

Baptised at Bamborough on the 29th March, 1683, 
Thomas Forster, jun., was trained with a view to par- 
liamentary honours. When he was twenty-five years old, 
his father retired from the representation of the county 
in his favour. He was returned to the third Parliament 
of Queen Anne, on the 27th May, 1708, and seeking re- 
election in the two following Parliaments of that Queen, 
and in the first summoned by George I., he was success- 
ful in retaining his seat. His parliamentary record 
during that time is, unfortunately, a blank. It is not 
known whether he took the oath of allegiance to the 
Hanoverian dynasty. His name is not in Cosin's list of 
those who refused. But if he did take the oath, he was 
not long faithful to it. Parliament met on the 17th 
March, 1715, and on the 21st September the king sent a 
message to the Commons declaring that he had just cause 
to suspect "Mr. Thomas Forster, junior," and five other 

members, of a design to support an intended invasion of 
the kingdom in the interest of the Pretender, and desiring 
the approval of the House to an order which he had 
given for apprehending them as conspirators against his 
person and Government. A rebellion had broken out 
amone; the adherents of the Stuarts in Scotland, under 
the Earl of Mar, and Thomas Forster was believed, and 
truly believed, to be in active sympathy with them. 

Full details of the progress of the rebellion, and of the 
part which Mr. Forster took in it, have already appeared 
in these columns. (See Monthly Chronicle, 1890, pp, 1 
and 49.) Forster was "General" of the expedition, and 
being hopelessly beaten at Preston, in November, was 
taken prisoner, conveyed to London, and committed to 
Newgate. Expelled from his seat in Parliament by 
resolution of the House, ho lay in prison awaiting his 
trial till April, 1716, when his sister Dorothy (Walter 
Besant's Dorothy Forster) is said to have effected his 
liberation. Riding to London disguised as a servant, 
behind an Adderstone blacksmith named Purdy (so runs 
the legend), this brave young lady procured, upon a 
piece of clay, an impression of the key of the strong 
room in which her brother was confined. A false key 
was easily smuggled into the prisoner's hands, and near 
midnight on the 10th April he achieved his freedom. 
The escape was so well concerted that, as soon as he was 
out of the prison, horses were in readiness to take him to 
a vessel lying off the Essex coast, in which, within 
twenty-four hours after leaving Newgate, he safely 
arrived in Calais. The Government offered a reward of a 
thousand pounds for his capture, describing him as "of 
Middle Stature, inclining to be Fat ; well shaped, except 
that he stoops in the shoulders ; fair complexion'd, his 
Mouth wide, his Nose pretty large, his eyes gray, and 
speaks the Northern Dialect." This proving ineffectual, 
the House of Commons, on the 24th of May, ordered a 
bill to be prepared attainting him of high treason, and a 
month later, having passed through all its stages, the bill 
received the sanction of the House of Lords. 

Under ordinary circumstances, the Crown would have 
reaped a rich harvest by the attainder of Forster, as it 
did by the attainder of the Earl of Derwentwater. But 
Forster had nothing left to forfeit. Historians, one after 
the other, tell us that his estates were confiscated, and 
that Lord Crewe, his brother-in-law, purchased them ol 
the Crown Commissioners and devoted them to charitable 
uses. This is an error which the late William Dickson, 
of Alnwick, Clerk of the Peace for Northumberland, cor- 
rected long ago. In the "Proceedings of the Berwick- 
shire Naturalists' Club," vol. vi. (1872), is a paper written 
by him which shows upon undoubted evidence that 
Thomas Forster surrendered to Bishop Crewe, long before 
the rebellion broke out, all his interest in the estates of 
his family. Thus : 

Sir William Forster and his sons, William and Ferdi- 
nando, had run through all these fine estates by reckless 



\ 1891. 

extravagance, and that in a very short space of time. 
Law proceedings began about 1701, and all the estates 
were sold before 1709 was out ; thus proving conclusively 
that the estates were never forfeited by the rebellion, but 
sold in due course of law to pay debts by order of the 
Court of Chancery ; and that when the rebel general 
committed the act of treason by joining m the rebellion, 
all his lands had been sold six years before to pay his 
debts, and he had not an acre left to bless himself with at 
the time he joined the Pretender in 1715. 

To deceive the Government, aud avoid the risk of 
capture, it was reported soon after his escape that Forster 
had died abroad, and to complete the deception a mock 
funeral was prepared, and a coffin full of sawdust was 
placed in the family vault at Bamborough with due 
solemnity. When he died in reality (at Boulogne, 
September, 1738, having survived his escape for two-and- 
twenty years), his body was secretly brought to Bam- 
borough and privately deposited beside the dummy. 

Scorge, /randjs, anb |o$eph, .fowler, 


Among the numerous persons bearing the name of 
Forster who have occupied clerical or municipal office in 
Newcastle, three rose to the high position of chief magis- 
trate. Francis Forster was Mayor in 1769-1770 and 
1779-80 ; Joseph Forster, his son, occupied the post in 
1801-2, 1808-9, and 1818-19 ; George Forster filled the 
same office in 1811-12, 1820-21, and 1825-26. Now, a man 
who has been Mayor of Newcastle twice is presumably a 
"man of mark" in the town; but he who is appointed 
to that dignity thrice is undoubtedly so. The three 
Forsters, therefore, with eight mayoralties among them, 
clearly belong to our series. 


About George Forster little is known. His connection 
with the historical family of that name is not traceable ; 
probably it did not exist. He was a respectable linen 
draper (a partner in the firm of Gibson and Forster, linen 
drapers and mercers in the Wool Market, Newcastle), 
who, in March, 1802, upon the death of William Rais- 
beck, was elected one of the Common Council, and in 
July, 1810, upon the resignation of William Cramlington 
and the refusal of Isaac Cookson, senior, to accept the 
office, was appointed an alderman. Having laid aside 
the yard wand to don the alderman's gown, he was raised 
the following year to the chief magistracy. During his 
second mayoralty, in 1820, the coronation of George IV. 
was celebrated in Newcastle, when oxen were roasted in 
the streets, and the public pants ran wine and beer, and 
the townspeople indulged in orgies which reflected little 
credit upon them, and less upon the authorities who 
encouraged them. Upon this occasion the Mayor was 
invested for the first time with the gold chain and medal- 
lion which still adorn the breast of our chief magistrate. 
His third mayoralty was uneventful, though the great 
election in Northumberland made it a stirring time for 

the district. Alderman Forster died at his house in the 
Forth on the 16th May, 1836, aged 71. 

Francis Forster, it is supposed, was a descendant of the 
Adderstone Forsters, through a branch of the family 
which settled at Buston, near Warkworth, with collaterals 
at Newton-by-the-Sea, near Embleton. His upbringing 
is not recorded, but we know that he carried on business 
as a merchant in Newcastle, and acquired property at 
Seaton Burn, where he resided. In 1761, he joined 
Thomas Doubleday, merchant; Lancelot Stout, hatter; 
Jonathan Ormston, gen tinman ; George Westgarth, dyer; 
and Peregrine Tyzack, gentleman, all of Newcastle, in 
the purchase of premises and a wharf situate in Hillgate, 
Gateshead, which a dozen years before had been con- 
verted into a sugar house by James Orton, of Newcastle, 
sugar baker. He was the head of the firm of Forster, 
Bankin, and Atkinson, who owned the sugar house in the 
Close, a partner in the Commercial Bank, a merchant of 
great enterprise, and, before he died, a man of consider- 
able wealth. Identifying himself with the interests of 
the town to which he owed his success in life, he entered 
the Common Council, and in 1763, when the Blacketts, 
the Ridleys, and the Claytons governed Newcastle, he 
was appointed Sheriff. Six years later, at Michaelmas, 
1769, the electors made him chief magistrate. 

Mr. Forster entered upon the mayoralty at a time of 
great political agitation. In the early part of the year, 
John Wilkes, expelled from the House of Commons, had 
been three times re-elected, and three times declared 
incompetent to sit. Newcastle followed the example of 
other towns in demanding that the decision of Wilkes's 
constituents should be respected, and great was the 
outcry and the clamour. A petition to the throne was 
prepared, and, on the Friday before Michaelmas Monday, 
a deputation from seventeen of the Incorporated Com- 
panies of the town waited upon Mr. Forster, as Mayor- 
elect, with a requisition, asking that the burgesses might 
be specially summoned by the Town Clerk to attend the 
Guild meeting for the purpose of signing it. Mr. Forster 
expostulated with the excited deputation, and recom- 
mended them to postpone the petition till after the 
meeting of Parliament, but he was told that the burgesses 
were determined ; and that they had a petition drawn up, 
which would be laid before their worships on Monday for 
their approbation and subscription. On the Monday the 
Guildhall was crowded. The two members for the 
borough Sir Walter Blackett and Matthew Ridley- 
were there ; most of the aldermen were there ; but not 
one of them would sign the document. Sir Walter, 
indeed, although he had voted tor Wilkes in the House, 
struck an attitude strongly antagonistic. "Standing up, 
and laying his left hand upon his breast, stretching out 
his right as a mark of eloquence," he uttered these 
" weighty and emphatical " words : " I will sooner have 
that right hand cut off than sign such a petition." 






Deserted by their representatives, and discouraged by 
the Mayor, the promoters determined to have a meeting 
of their own. "Mounted on a galloway called Liberty," 
they despatched a messenger to Sir Francis Blake 
Delaval, at Seaton Delaval, and that " gay Lothario " 
consented to become their chairman. On the 16th Nov- 
ember, 1769. the great meeting was held (in the Long 
Room of Forth House), the petition adopted, an offer of 
Mr. Ridley to present it to the king without signing it 
refused, and the chairman requested to undertake that 
duty. In May following, a similar meeting took place, 
with Thomas Delaval in the chair, and this time it was 
a "remonstrance " as well as a petition which Sir Francis 
was desired to lay at the foot of the throne. 

By their refusal to assist in the Wilkes agitation, the 
M.P.'sand the Mayor lost favour. At the next Parlia- 
mentary election an attempt, though a very unsuccessful 
one, was made to defeat both Sir Walter and Mr. Ridley. 
As for Mr. Forster, ten years was allowed to pass before 
he was again invited to assume the dignity of chief magis- 
trate. In the meantime asperities had softened down, 
and his second mayoralty was popular. 

Mr. Forster died at Seaton Burn House on the 4th 
October, 1784, leaving amongst other issue a son and a 
daughter. The daughter, Eleanor Forster, married the 
Rev. James Manisty, B.D., vicar of Edlingbam, and 
became, in 1808, the mother of Henry afterwards Sir 
Henry Manisty, one of her Majesty's judges. The son, 
Joseph Forster, succeeded his father in the sugar house 
and the bank, and in the public work of the muni- 


Joseph Forster was born in the same year as George 
IV. 1762 brought up at Seaton Burn and in Newcastle, 
and soon after his father's death, at Michaelmas, 1787, 
was chosen to be one of the Electors of the Corporation, 
and at the same time appointed Sheriff. Seven years 
later, on the 8th of July, 1794, he was united to Mary, only 
daughter of Henry Scott, and the favourite niece of Sir 
John Scott, Attorney-General, afterwards Lord Eldon. 
By this marriage young Mr. Forster was brought into 
intimate social relationship with the local families of 
Surtees, Burdon, Atkinson, Cramlington, Crichloe- 
Turner, and other people of position, which helped 
him to local honours if not to fortune. "Remember me 
affectionately to Mr. and Mrs. Forster," was the message 
which Lord Eldon sent to his niece and her husband when 
announcing to his brother Henry his elevation to the 
peerage in the month of July, 1799. The people of New- 
castle were proud of their illustrious fellow-townsman, the 
coalfitter's son who had been made a peer, and to some 
extent his lordship's kinsfolk shared the public favour. 
At Michaelmas, 1801, shortly after his lordship was 
raised to the Woolsack, the Corporation elevated Mr. 
Forster, who had already been made an alderman, to the 

Through the Eldnn influence, Mr. Forster received the 
appointment of joint receiver of the Derwentwater estates 
for the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital. In 1808 
he was elected Mayor for the second time, and ten years 
later for the third time. Just before his third election 
some facetious burgess issued a handbill announcing the 
intended publication of a letter addressed to him " on the 
subject of paving the streets with Cobble Stones, Brick- 
bats, and all the Rubbish from the Town Walls." But 
this was only a harmless squib calling attention to a local 
grievance which Mr. Forster's influence might remedy. 
A glance at the newspapers of the period shows that he 
was invariably a leader in seeking to remedy grievances, 
and especially those which affected the commercial 
prosperity of Newcastle. In one day during his Mayor- 
alty (March 8, 1819) he presided over two meetings of the 
townspeople convened with that intent. At one of them 
it was determined to petition Parliament against a pro- 
posed measure for taxing coals at the pit's mouth. At 
the other meeting a protest was made against a renewal 
of the "Insolvent Debtors' Act, "and it was resolved to 
tell the House of Commons that " consequences most 
disastrous to the commerce of this country, and most 
destructive to public morals," had followed the enactment 
of that measure, while "the confidence and good faith 
which mark the transactions of the British trader, and 
which form the basis of commercial prosperity," had been 
shaken, " profligacy and extravagance " had been encour- 
aged, and "frauds and perjuries multiplied to an awful 
extent." The burgesses of Newcastle were accustomed to 
express themselves in somewhat vigorous language, and 
upon this occasion the Mayor seems to have approved 
of it. 

Mr. Forster's last appearance in a public capacity 
occurred at the Parliamentary election of 1820. Some of 
the electors, desirous of breaking down the influence of 
the members for the borough (Sir M. W. Ridley and 
Cuthbert Ellison) brought forward young Mr. Scott, son 
of Sir William Scott, the future Lord Stowell. Alder- 
man Forster supported the nomination, and, in the 
absence of the candidate, entered upon a hopeless contest. 
At the close of the first day's polling he saw his mistake, 
and withdrew his relative from the struggle. But. like 
most men who have been accustomed to lead and to rule, 
he did not take kindly to defeat. Twelve months after 
the election, on the 7th April, 1821, he died at his town 
house in Westgate Street, aged 59, and a few days later 
was buried in St. Nicholas'. 

Mrs. Forster survived her husband for many years. To 
her we owe the majority of the personal reminiscences 
of Lord Eldon which besprinkle the pages of Twiss's 
voluminous " Life " cf that great lawyer. While his lord- 
ship lived, Mrs. Forster spent much of her time with him, 
carefully collecting all the family traditions relating to 
his early life, and noting down his own genial gossip 
respecting his exceptionally fortunate career. After the 




death of Lord Eldon in 1838, she lived in comparative 
retirement, and, dying on the 17th April, 1846, aged 71, 
was buried in St. Nicholas' beside her husband. 

3onatl)<m Jangstaffi Jfowter, 


Learning maketh young men temperate, is the comfort 
of old age, standing for wealth with poverty, and serving 
as an ornament to riches. Cicero, 

One of the numerous branches of the Northumbrian 
Forsters established themselves in the township of 
Horsley, in the parish of Ovingham, where, at the time 
of the Civil War, the family had a freehold estate. 
Towards the close of last centnry, the representative of 
this Horsley branch was one Matthew Forster, a sub- 
stantial farmer at High Barnes, in that township. He 
had listened to the preaching of John Wesley, and 
became the friend and entertainer of that eminent man 
whenever he visited the society in Horsley district. His 
eldest son, also named Matthew, born in 1775, came to 
Newcastle to learn the profession of the law. He was 
articled to Mr. John Kirsop, attorney and notary public 
in Westgate Street, and having served his time, obtained 
his qualification, and spent a year or two in London to 
gain experience, commenced to practise on his own 
account. The compiler of Mitchell's Newcastle Directory 
for 1801 enters him as "Foster, Matt., attorney-at-law, 
High Bridge." 

Shortly after his return to the North, Matthew Forster 
married Sarah, daughter of Joseph and Catherine Lang- 
staff, members of an old Romaldkirk family, and, 
removing to Clavering Place, gradually built up a 
respectable and profitable business. He filled for some 
years the office of joint secretary of the Newcastle 
Auxiliary to the British and Foreign Anti - Slavery 
Society, and his name occasionally occurs during the 
early part of the present century attached to benevolent 
enterprises of an unsectarian character. He died at his 
residence in St. James's Street, Newcastle, in 1860, at the 
venerable age of 85, leaving behind him two sons, 
Jonathan Langstaff Forster, attorney, and James 
Forster, merchant and shipbroker. 

Jonathan Langstaff Forster was born in Newcastle, on 
the 8th of January, 1804. His primary education was 
conducted by Mr. John Bruce, at Percy Street Academy, 
his finishing course was entrusted to the famous school- 
master at Witton-le-Wear, the Rev. George Newby. 
Articled, at the proper age, to his father's friend, Mr. 
William Kirkley, attorney, in Newgate Street, he distin- 
guished himself by assiduous attention to the theory and 
practice of the law, devotion to classical literature, and 
the cultivation of the poetic muse. At the expiration of 
his articles, he entered the office of Messrs. Fisher and 
Sudlow, in London, and, gaining there an insight into the 
working details of a leading practice, returned to New- 
castle, fully equipped for the responsible duties of his 

profession. Joining his father, he was in due time 
admitted to a partnership, the firm becoming that of 
"Matthew and Jonathan Langstaff Forster," with an 
office in Library Place, Westgate Street, and an excellent 
business in the intricate but peaceful department of 

The active pursuit of his calling made no change in 
Mr. Forster's literary habits. Attaching himself to the 
local Literary and Philosophical Society, then in the 
height of its usefulness, he read hard and worked hard ; 
his favourite studies being philosophy and languages. 
It may be doubted whether any other man in Newcastle 
knew so many languages, or could use those which he 
knew with greater facility. So absorbed was he in his 
studies that until he was nearly forty years of age he 
did not find time to marry. The lady of his choice 
was Jane Rachael Wood (daughter of Major Wood, of 
Berwick, a retired officer of the Royal Artillery), to 
whom he was united at St. Andrew's, Newcastle, on the 
26th April, 1342. Her decease, after only five and a half 
years of married life, was a great affliction to him, and ha 
honoured her memory by devoting the rest of his days to 
the education and upbringing of the three sons whom she 
had left to his care. 

From an early age Mr. Forster identified himself with 
philanthropic and benevolent enterpriser in Newcastle. 
For a number of years he taught in the Sunday schools 
attached to St. John's and St. Andrew's, and throughout 
his life he sacrificed no small portion of his leisure hours 
to helpful but unobtrusive ministrations among the 
suffering poor. He assisted his father as the first honor- 
ary secretary of the Newcastle Indigent and Sick Society, 
and shortly afterwards he undertook the secretarial duties 
himself, discharging them with vigour and success for 
seven and thirty years. He was also for some years co- 
secretary with his father of the Newcastle Auxiliary to 
the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. The 
North-Eastern Reformatory School and the Newcastle 
Town Mission had no warmer supporter; he was one 
of the early promoters of both institutions, and for a long 
time held an active membership of their respective com- 

Like his father, Mr. Forster belonged to that branch 
of the Church of England which claims to be the true 
exponent of the principles of the Reformation. The 
Rev, Richard Clayton, head of the evangelical clergy 
in Newcastle, was his spiritual leader. When that ex- 
cellent man died, and it was proposed to preserve his 
memory by the erection in Jesraond of a memorial 
church, Mr. Forster was one of the five or six ardent 
workers who carried the movement to a successful issue. 
In him and four others the trusteeship and patronage 
of the church were vested, and he was rarely absent from 
its services. 

Upon his return from London in 1827, Mr. Forster 
joined the newly-formed Newcastle and Gateshead Law 

1S91. / 



Society, and in 1835 moved the resolution by which an 
affiliated association, the Newcastle and Gateshead Law 
Institute, was created. This organization was established 
to promote the study of the law by the formation of a 
library, the reading of papers on law and jurisprudence, 
and the delivery of lectures. Mr. Forster was appointed 
co-secretary of the movement, with Mr. Joseph Watson 
as his colleague. His services in the promotion of these 
institutions were recognised in 1859, when the Incorpor- 
ated Law Society appointed him a commissioner to super- 
intend the preliminary examination of law students. 

After his death, which occurred on the 17th December, 
1870, his youngest son, Mr. Henry Langstaff Forster, pub- 

lished in two volumes some of the literary effusions with 
which he had occupied hia leisure hours. The first, issued 
by Messrs. Hamilton Adams and Co. in 1872, is entitled 
"Episodes of Life, in Poetry and Prose." The second, a 
work of great erudition, published by Messrs. Longmans 
Green and Co. the following year, bears the title of 
"Biblical Psychology." Both of them pourtray a richly 
stored mind, influenced by strong domestic affections, and 
guided by deep religious feeling. In the " Episodes " are 
many quaint conceits and happy turns of thought, such as 
this, referring to the loss of his wife : 

In vain I oft with heart resigned 
Her profile, like her shadow, view ; 

So life may leave its print behind 
That marks its absence too. 

His translations from ancient authors, in which he 
delighted most, are eraceful and pleasing. Among them 
is one from Horace, "To Aristius Fuscus," which, 
although for the most part easy, and often attempted by 
beginners, ends with a couple of lines that have puzzled 

every translator who has attempted to turn them into 
English verse. 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solis, in terra domibus negata ; 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loquentem. 

The late Lord Ravensworth, in his "Odes of Horace 
translated into English Lyric Verse," expresses doubt 
whether anyone has succeeded in conveying the full 
sweetness of the last lines, adding, " I confess my own 
failure, which is the more humiliating, after having tried 
every conceivable variety of form for twenty years." His 
lordship's version reads 

Place me beneath the tropic sun, 
Where houseless men in deserts run. 
The softly speaking Lalage, 
The softly smiling still for me. 

Mr. Forster's translation is as follows : 

Consign me where the sun above 
Bakes th' uninhabitable ground ; 

Sweet smiling Lalage I'll love. 
Her prattling sweet shall sound. 

and classical readers must judge between them. 

j|T is in the town of Haddington, the capital 
of East Lothian, that the antiquary may 
revel in all the peculiarities of an old 
Scottish town untouched save by the hand 
of Time. The Tyne (the Scottish river of that name), 
which flows from the Lammermoors, here divides the 
present from the past ; for the spirit of progress, it would 
seem, has never crossed the fine old bridge connecting 
Haddington with its forerunner, now the crumbling 
suburb of Nungate. 

Neat streets and pleasant villas form the picture on the 
one hand : houses huddled together, grey and ruinous 
with age, but still giving signs of life, are seen on the 
other. Nungate is as it was, so far as mere architecture 
goes ; but its glory has departed, and the houses of pre- 
tension in the olden time are now the abodes of a class of 
labourers, chiefly Irish, who rather assist than retard the 
process of decay. Nungate, in short, is to Haddington 
what the Cowgate is to Edinburgh, with this difference, 
that the bit of "Auld Scotland" in East Lothian is 
completely isolated. Till a few years ago, indeed, Nun- 
gate was not legally a part of Haddington. It was a 
"baillierie " or separate territory, and when it did at last 
come under the sway of Haddington it had the honour of 
getting a special functionary known as " Baron Baillie of 
the Nungate." The "Baron," however, like everybody 
else of his day, lets the " bailliene " alone, and it "gangs 
its ain gait " accordingly. 

But the old place has a history that is not without in 
terest. It is useless to speculate as to the age of the 
beautiful bridge of red stone which spans the Tyne with- 
out flaw in its four graceful arches. Like all work of the 



period of its erection, it was meant to stand, and the 
roaring floods from the Lammermoors have failed to move 
"Nungate Brig." Not so with Nungate itself; for 
terrible inundations are recorded as having taken place 
about once a century, houses being swept away and their 
occupants drowned. In 1358, however, one John Burley 
escaped the general fate by clambering on to his roof and 
guiding his strange bark by means of a long pole. On 
rushed the flood, and John's craft was finally dashed 
against the brig. Fixing his pole into the structure, he 
held on, and the impromptu couplet- 
Row we merely (merrily), 
Quo John Burley 

illustrates the coolness ascribed to him by tradition. At 
any rate John, with his cock, his cat, and his dog, the 
only surviving members of his household, landed, like 
another Noah, when the waters subsided. And if he had 

lived until he heard Drummond of Hawthornden's de- 
scription of the scene of this marvellous, voyage "Tyne 
tortoise-like that flows" no doubt he would have in- 
sisted upon a more correct comparison. 

It goes without saying that Nungate, along with 
Haddington, being in the linn of march far invading 
hosts, had its share of trouble by fire and sword. 
Four times did the English make a bonfire of 
the place, and in the year 1548, when the French 
and Scots sought to turn out the English forces, 
the ravages of pestilence were so great that the dead 
were left unburied, while, on the evacuation of the town 
by the English in the following year, only "a mean 
number of the ancient inhabitants " were left " to rebuild 
and venture as best they could." George Wishart had 
prophesied this dire visitation "for their contempt of 
God's messenger," complaining that while a "vain clerk 


February 1 
1891. / 


play " would have drawn an audience of two or three 
thousand, he himself could not get a hundred hearers. It 
was in this very Nungate that the great Reformer, John 
Knox, had his birth, a tree still marking the site of the 

There is one other memory that clings to this quaint 
scene. Close by a ford over the Tyne is what appears to 
be a collection of old houses having some pretension in 
their architecture. This is known as Bothwell Castle, 
being the town-house of Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, and 
the abode of Francis, Earl of Bothwell and Duke of 
Orbury. Here stayed Queen Mary from time to time, 
and tradition says that the Castle was her residence for 
a while between the murder of Darnley and her imprison- 
n-.ent at Loch Leven. A melancholy interest, therefore, 
is awakened by the rambling building now the home of 
poor families as we think of the hapless woman whose 
chief fault, as a Scottish preacher once said, was that she 
was "bonnie." 

EattU at tyamiltsan ill. 

jjHE battle of Hombyll-dnwn, Homildon, or 
Humbledon, near Wooler, was fought on 
Holy Rood Day, the 14th September, 1402, 
in the third year of the reign of that brave 
but unhappy monarch, Henry the Fourth. 

There had been a short truce between the two king- 
doms of England and Scotland ; but, as usual, little 
respect was paid to it by the turbulent Borderers on 

either side. George, Earl of March, who had fled from 
Scotland, and taken refuge with the Earl of Northumber- 
land, ravaged the lands of his enemies, the Douglases, in 
company with the Percies, while the latter, and their 
dependents and allies, revenged themselves by repeated 
inroads on the English side of the Border. In one of 
these Douglas (Archibald, the fourth earl) is said to have 
burned Bamborough Castle, but this is doubtful. At any 
rate, the Scottish chief was far less successful than others 
of his name had been. Indeed, he sustained so many 
losses that he gained the popular title of Tyne-man, or 
Lose-man, on account of the number of men who were 
slain under his banner. People accordingly began to say 
that ill-luck attended upon all his undertakings, and only 
those who were as reckless as himself cared to follow him 
across the Tweed. Douglas, however, after gaining a 
victory over Hotspur and the Earl of March at Liutuii or 
Prestonkirk, a village on the Scottish river Tyne, in East 
Lothian, made a successful raid into England and carried 
away a deal of spoil. 

The Scots were not so fortunate in a second raid. 
Having penetrated too far, they were intercepted by 
Percy and March at Nesbit Moor, in the Merse, a short 
way from Dunse. Here, after a desperate conflict, the 
leader of the Scots, Sir Patrick Hepburn of Hailes, was 
slain, with many of his bravest companions, and most of 
the rest, including some distinguished knights of Lothian, 
were taken prisoners. 

Although this was but an inconsiderable battle, it pro- 
duced important results. While King Henry thanked 
the Earl of Northumberland and his son, the gallant 





Hotspur, for their activity, and ordered them to collect 
the force of the Border Counties to resist more effectually 
the incursions of the Scots, the Earl of Douglas, enraged 
at the defeat at Nesbit Moor, and believing that the 
English king was fully occupied with the invasion of the 
Welsh, who, under Owen Glendower, were ravaging the 
western marches with fire and sword, determined to 
collect all his available strength and take ample ven- 
geance for the loss of Hepburn and his companions-in- 

There assembled under his banner, unlucky though it 
was, the greater part of the chivalry of Scotland, includ- 
ing the Earls of Moray, Angus, and Orkney, with the an- 
cient British chief. Fergus Macdouall, at the head of the 
men of Galloway, and the heads of the houses of Erskine, 
Grahame, Montgomery, Seton, Sinclair, Lesley, the 
Stuarts of Angus, Durisdeer, and Lome, and many other 
knights of distinction. They were joined by Murdoch, 
Earl of Fife, the eldest son of the Duke of Albany, 
brother of King Robert the Third, in command of a 
strong body of archers and spearmen. The whole force 
which crossed the Border amounted to not less than ten 
thousand men the "pick and wale" of Scotland's 

The Earl of Northumberland and his son were pre- 
pared, however, for this formidable invasion, which took 
place about the middle of August ; and, assisted by the 
Earl of March and his son Gawin of Dunbar, they assem- 
bled their forces to meet it. But they prudently per- 
mitted the invaders to advance for a while without oppo- 
sition ; and so the Scots marched through the heart of 
Northumberland, up to the gates of Newcastle, undis- 
turbed. Their leaders, imagining that King Henry had 
all his forces with him in Wales, and that the Borderers 
were panic-stricken, were now confident in the strength 
of their army. They, therefore, gave way to a fatal 
security. Having collected their rich but cumbersome 
spoils, they began a slow retreat ; and they had encamped 
carelessly in the neighbourhood of Wooler when intelli- 
gence was suddenly brought to Douglas that the pass in 
front was occupied by an English army, under the re- 
doubtable Hotspur, who was marching to attack him. 

Douglas lost no time in preparing for the fight. But 
he committed a fatal error in the choice of his position. 
He placed his men in a solid square on a high eminence a 
little to the west of Wooler, called in the old Cymric 
tongue, once vernacular in the North, "the bold bare 
hill " (Hu-moeltwn), as though he had only to resist an 
attack of the English men-at-arms, whereas the greater 
part of Hotspur's army consisted of archers, whose skill 
in the use of the bow had proved in so many cases 
disastrous to Scotland, and the hill on which his army 
was massed was surrounded by other eminences within 
bowshot, which commanded it. 

When the English came in sight of the Scottish posi- 
ion, Hotspur, with characteristic impetuosity, would at 

once have rushed on to the attack with his men-at-arms, 
but he was restrained by the Earl of March, whose old 
and experienced eye saw at a glance the error which had 
been committed by the Scottish general. Holding 
Percy's horse by the reins, March urged that the men-at- 
arms should be kept in reserve, and that the archers 
should be allowed to begin the battle. Fortunately for 
the English, his advice was followed. The archers 
marched slowly down the hill where the rest of the army 
halted, pouring forth as they went volleys of arrows, 
which fell with fearful execution on the close ranks of 
their enemies. The Scots were much more ex posed than 
they otherwise would have been, owing to their being 
marshalled on a number of terraces cut in the side of the 
hill, it is supposed in the old British, Saxon, and 
Danish wars, a position which would have enabled them 
to make a powerful defence had the English been forced 
to come to close quarters with them, but which rendered 
them practically defenceless when their assailants were 
armed with those famous long and cross-bows which they 
knew so well how to handle. Many of the Scottish 
barons and gentlemen were slain in this unequal fight, for 
even their tempered steel armour was not proof against 
the English arrows, and the chroniclers tell us that the 
unprotected bodies of the wild Galwegians, who fought in 
the kilt and trews, presented the appearance of hedgehogs 
on the field after the battle was over. The Scots for a 
while seemed paralysed by the destruction which thus fell 
upon them, and which became greater as the English 
archers drew nearer. At length one of the bravest of the 
Northern barons, Sir John Swinton 

A doughty knight 
As ever Scotland bred 

exclaimed that they should rush down the hill upon their 
enemies, and not stand still to be slain like deer. Calling 
on his fellow-warriors to follow, he couched his lance, and 
was giving the rein to bis horse, when another Berwick- 
shire baron Adam of Gordon with whom he had long 
been at deadly feud, dismounted and stopped him. "Let 
us be reconciled on this spot," he said, "that I may 
receive knighthood at thy hand, for I can never receive 
the honour from any more noble and brave." Swinton 
got off his horse, embraced his old foe, and gave him the 
accolade ; and then both mounted their steeds again and 
charged down the hill, with their immediate followers, 
amounting to about a hundred horsemen. 

Like two huge rocks on Braemar's brow, 

When loosen'd from their bed, 
That thunder down and overthrow 

The pines that crown the glade. 

Thus they, through ranks, the Earl of March, 

And the bold Percies sought, 
And blood and carnage mark'd their path, 

Where'er they stept and fought. 

At length they're wi' their gallant train, 

By numbers compass'd round, 
And fighting fall on heaps of slain, 

And stain with gore the ground. 

February 1 
1891. / 



So did these valiant chieftains fall, 

Who lived in mortal strife ; 
But lock'd in one another's arms. 

Dear friendship closed their life. 

It was a desperate charge, fatal to all who took part in 
it. Every man of them was slain or dismounted before 
he reached the enemy's ranks, and Sir John Swinton and 
Sir Adam of Gordon fell, as the ballad-writer states in 
the lines just quoted, fighting side hy side, on foot, with 
bootless bravery. Several times did they rally flying 
parties, and rush forward to renew the battle ; but they 
were both struck down, and trampled under foot. 

Douglas had now given the word of command to 
advance, and the whole Scottish army followed the 
example of these devoted cavaliers. As the Scots 
descended the hill towards the plain on the north-west, 
the English archers fell back slowly on their own men- 
at-arms, according to the most approved tactics then in 
vogue. They retired in well-compacted bodies, a little 
apart, to admit the other troops into the line ; and at 
each retrograde step they discharged a new volley, with 
such deadly aim that the Scots fell thick on every side. 
The numerous bodies of the slain and the furious kicking 
and prancing of the wounded horses impeded the progress 
of Douglas's men greatly. Confusion and terror soon per- 
vaded their ranks, if ranks they could now be called, and 
they began ta disperse and fly in all directions ; upon 
which the English archers laid aside their bows, and, 
rushing in with their short swords and Sheffield knives, 
completed the discomfiture of their foes. 

We are assured by contemporary writers that the 
English men-at-arms never needed to strike a blow, but 
that the battle was gained solely by the archers. No 
person of note was slain on the English side. But the 
slaughter of the Scots was dreadful, and almost every per- 
son of rank and station who survived was made a prisoner. 
The Earl of Douglas, in spite of the extraordinary 
temper of his armour, received five wounds, and likewise 
lost an eye. With him were captured the Earls of Fife. 
Moray, Angus, and Orkney, as well as Fergus Macdouall, 
lord of Galloway. Eighty knights of the first Scottish 
families were also taken, including Sir Robert Erskine of 
Alva, Sir William Abernithy of Saltoun, Sir John Stuart 
of Lome. Sir George Leslie of Rothes, Sir Adam Forester 
of Corstophine, Sir William Sinclair of Hermandston, Sir 
Robert Logan of Restalrig. the Lord Montgomery, Sir 
James Douglas, master of Dalkeith, together with three 
French knights, the Sieurs Piers de Essars, Jacques de 
Nelsey, and Jean d'Arnay. Among the slain were, 
besides the two knights already named, Sir John Leving- 
stun of Callendar, Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie, 
Sir Roger Gordon, Sir Walter Scott, and Sir Walter 
Sinclair. It was computed that at least four hundred 
fugitives were drowned in trying to cross the Tweed. Of 
the rest of the Scottish host, comparatively few found 
their wav b >me. 

Seldom had a battle, in a war undertaken for such un- 
worthy objects, brought such mourning upon Scotland. 

Frae Forth to Tweed, a swankie blade 

Was then a sight to see ; 
The cou'ter, left in half plough'd rigg, 

Lay rusting on the lee. 

The plain on which the battle was fought got the name 
of Redriggs, from the slaughter with which it was stained. 
A whinstone pillar, which was set up to commemorate the 
victory, is still known as the Battle Stone. It stands 
about half a mile south from Akeld farm, half-way be- 
tween Wooler and Kirk Newton, on the road to Kelso. 

When King Henry received intelligence of what had 
taken place, he sent the Duke of Northumberland orders 
not to ransom his prisoners, as he 'intended to detain 
them, in order to increase his demands in making peace 
with Scotland. This message was highly resented by the 
earl, who, by the laws of war which prevailed in that age, 
had a right to the ransom of all such as he had taken in 
battle. The command was still more irksome since he 
considered the king his debtor, both for his security and 
his crown, for it was the Percies who had been mainly 
instrumental in the deposition of his unhappy predecessor, 
Richard the Second. Accordingly, stung by this sup- 
posed injury, the earl resolved to overturn a throne which 
he had had the chief hand in establishing. 

So a secret scheme was laid for uniting the Scots and 
Welsh to assist Northumberland in deposing Henry and 
elevating Mortimer to the throne. Meanwhile, the 
Percies held their prisoners at their own disposal, though 
they professed to be ready to obey the king's commands. 

Except in restricting the disposal of the Homildon 
prisoners. King Henry treated the Percies with the most 
distinguished favour. He conferred on them, by a 
stretch of authority truly imperial, the whole Earldom 
of Douglas, with all the territories appeitaining to it, 
though they lay wholly within the confines of an inde- 
pendent kingdom. The Earl of Northumberland and 
his sons therefore girded themselves to carry on the war 
against the Scots, which served as a convenient cover for 
their treasonable designs. The conquest of the Earldom 
of Douglas afforded the Percies an excuse for raising a 
numerous army of devoted adherents. 

With this force, in the beginning of the summer 
of 1403, they marched into Scotland, in company with the 
Earl of March ; but, instead of undertaking any consider- 
able exploit, the whole army sat down before a miserable 
little fortress, called Cocklaws, or Ormiston, just over the 
Border, at the head of Beaumont Water, on the old hill 
road from Rothbury and Alwinton to Yetholm. This 
sorry Border peel, the possession of which was not worth 
a groat, they made a show of battering down with 
warlike engines. The commander of the place, a simple 
squire named John (ireenlaw, assumed the air of a power- 
ful chieftain, and entered into a formal agreement to sur- 
render his solitary Cheviot tower at the end of six weeks 
if he were not in that time relieved by the King of Soot- 




laud, or by his brother the Duke of Albany. In the mean- 
time, the army of the I'ercies was to remain inactive ; and 
a messenger was sent to Albany to inform him of the 
urgency of the case. The herald, it is said, carried back 
to the Percies the secret assurance that Albany was ready 
to give all the help he could to the intended insurrection 
in England. But it was necessary to keep up appear- 
ances, and so Albany assembled the Privy Council, 
gravely laid before their lordships the message of Green- 
law, and asked their opinion whether he should go to 
raise the siege or not The privy councillors, believing 
that they were acting according to Albany's real withes 
when they advised peace, recommended that the Border 
reive should be left to his fate rather than risk a battle 
with the victorious English, at a moment when the flower 
of the Scottish chivalry were captives in Northumber- 
land. But, greatly to the astonishment of the council, 
Albany, who knew better than the members did how 
things stood, gave vent to a sudden burst of patriotic 
spirit " By Heavens and St. Fillan !" he exclaimed, "I 
will keep the day of appointment with Cocklaws, were 
there none to follow me thither but Peter of Kinbuck, 
who holds my horse yonder !" The Council, hearing tbis, 
immediately agreed to the propriety of relieving John 
Greenlaw. So a formidable aimy was raised, and 
marched under Albany's command to the Border. 

The conspiracy was now ready for explosion. The Earl 
of Douglas, with the greater part of the barons and 
knights taken at Homildon Hill, being set at liberty, 
aised their forces to march under the banner ot Percy, 
who, suddenly breaking off the Scottish expedition, 
hurried away to unite his forces with those of Glendower 
on the borders of Wales. The Earl ol Northumberland, 
however, being seized with a sudden illness, stayed 
behind at Berwick. 

The fact that Douglas had joined in alliance with Percy 
was enough to drive away the Earl of March, who 
refused to assist in the conspiracy, and rode off to give 
information to King Henry, and urge him to take active 
measures against the insurgents. By a rapid march the 
king intercepted them at Shrewsbury, and a terrible 
conflict established Henry definitely on the throne. 

The Douglas and the Hotspur, both together, 
Were confident against the world in arms. 

But the Fates were now against them. The Earl of 
Douglas, severely wounded, became again a captive. He 
had performed, during the day, deeds of valour which are 
almost incredible, and which nearly decided the battle in 
Percy's favour. Seeming determined that the King of 
England should fall by his arm, he sought him all over 
the field, and as Henry, either to elude the attacks of the 
enemy upon his royal person, or to encourage his own 
men by the belief of his presence everywhere, had 
accoutred several captains in his kingly garb, the sword of 
Douglas rendered this honour fatal to many. Shakspeare 

makes Hotspur say, after the doughty earl had slain two 
of these counterfeit kings : 

Douglas, hadst thou fought at Homildon thus. 

1 never had triumphed upon a Scot 

The descendant of the hero of Otterburn swore he was 

To render all his wardrobe, piece by piece, 
Until he met the king. 

At length 

The noble Scot, Lord Douglas, when he saw 
The fortune of the day quite turn'd from him, 
The noble Percy slain, and all his men 
Upon the foot of fear, fed with the rest ; 
And, falling from a hill, he was so bruised 
That the pursuers took him. 

Before the event of the battle of Shrewsbury was 
known in the North, the Duke of Albany arrived at 
Cocklaws, with an army of no less than fifty thousand 
men, announcing publicly his intention of giving battle to 
the Percies, though there can be no doubt that his real 
intention was to join them in making war upon King 
Henry. It was not till he reached Cocklaws that he 
knew the rebellion had broken out, and the first news of 
it was the announcement of the desperate fight on the 
Welsh border, the death of Hotspur, the capture of 
Douglas, the total dispersion of the rebels, and the 
submission of the Earl of Northumberland. Having 
caused the news to be proclaimed through his army by a 
herald, Albany matched back into Scotland. 

So ended the transactions which immediately followed 
the battle of Homildon Hill. 

itt tfte 

jlMIDST the excitement and confusion of the 
J"\GB Sfreat Puritan Revolution, there were many 
singular developments of religious enthusi- 
asm, some of which passed into wild fanati- 
cism ; but, although in numerous cases the preposterous 
pretensions of crazy prophets attracted some attention 
and a few followers, each mania seemed to die away after 
a short spell of raving without leaving a trace beyond 
a vague memory that such things had been. Conspicuous 
among the characters of that zealous age was George 
Fox ; but, whatever of extravagance or phantasy his co- 
temporaries imputed to him, time has proved that he was 
a man ef deep insight into the needs and errors of the 
human heart, that he was a veritable king among enthusi- 
asts, that he was a true apostle of the faith professed by 
all Christendom, and that the work he did was of a 
permanent and extensively useful character. 

George Fox was a man of lowly origin, imperfect 
education, insignificant social standing, and somewhat 
uncouth manners. Yet he became a power in the land. 
His followers were opprobriously nicknamed Quakers by 
Justice Bennet, of Derby, in 1650, because George Fox 




admonished him and those present "to quake at the 
word of the Lord." But fearless George gloried in the 
epithet. In 1655 he was moved to indite a lengthy and 
vigorous epistle to "all you that scorn trembling and 
quaking ; who scoff at, scorn, stone, and belch forth oaths 
against those who are trembling and quaking, threatening 
them and beating them." And he cited from Scripture 
Moses trembling and quaking, Jeremiah's bones quaking 
and his denunciation of those who did not " tremble at 
tlie Word of the Lord," Isaiah's words of comfort to 
those who "tremble at my Word," and Habakkuk's 
prophecy that "all the people shall tremble and all faces 
gather blackness," summing up as follows :" There 
ye may see ye are contrary to God, contrary to the 
prophets, and are such as hate what the Lord regards, 
which we, whom the world scorns and calls Quakers, 
own. We exalt and honour the power that makes the 
devils tremble, shakes the earth and throws down the 
loftiness and haughtiness of men, which makes the beasts 
of the field to tremble and the earth to reel to and fro, 
which cleaves the earth asunder and overturneth the 

Fox was born in the year 1621, at the village of 
Drayton-in-the-Clay, Leicestershire. His father, Christo- 
pher Fox, was called "Righteous Christer," a very 
honourable nickname. His mother, Mary Lago, was, he 
says, of the seed of the martyrs. From earliest childhood 
he was of a grave and staid demeanour and speech beyond 
his years. Before he was 20 years of age he entered upon 
the great mission to which he devoted the remaining forty 
years of his life. In the earlier portion of this period, and, 
indeed, often in the course of his strange and wandering 
life, he was subject to deep depression of mind and fear- 
ful conflicts of soul. Out of all, however, he emerged 
into the clear shining of the sun, and enjoyed serenest 
peace in the thickest of outward troubles. 

We cannot even sketch his writings or his teachings, 
but must content ourselves with tracing his missionary 
career, so far as it connects him with the Northern 
Counties. For traces of this kind we must look chiefly 
to his own admirable and most interesting Journal, but 
also to other vehicles of tradition and history. It was 
not until 1653 that he made his way into Northumber- 
land. Let us see what his Journal says as to his first 
visit : 

In Northumberland many came to dispute, of whom 
some pleaded against perfection ; unto whom I declared, 
"that Adam and Eve were perfect before they fell ; and 
all that God made was perfect ; and that the imperfection 
came by the Devil, and the fall ; but Christ, that came to 
destroy the Devil, said, 'Be ye perfect.'" One of the 
professors alleged that Job said, " Shall mortal man be 
more pure than his Maker? The heavens are not clear 
in his sight. God charged his angels with folly." But I 
showed him his mistake, and let him see, " that it was 
not Job that said so, but one of those that contended 
against Job; for Job stood for perfection, and held his 
integrity ; and they were called miserable comforters." 
Then these professors said, the outward body was the 
body of death and sin. I showed them their mistake in 
that also ; for " Adam and Eve had each of them an 

outward body, before the body of death and sin got into 
them ; and that man and woman will have bodies, 
when the body of sin and death is put off 
again ; when they are renewed up into the image 
of God again by Christ Jesus, which they were 
in before they fell." So they ceased at that time 
from opposing further ; and glorious meetings we had in 
the Lord's power. Then passed we on to Hexbam, where 
we had a great meeting at the top of a hill (the Seal). 
The priest threatened that he would come and oppose us, 
but he came not; so that all was quiet; and the everlasting 
day and renowned truth of the everliving God was 
sounded over those dark countries, and His Son exalted 
over all. It was proclaimed among the people that the 
day was now come, wherein all that made a profession of 
the Son of God, might receive him ; and that to as many 
as would receive Him, he would give power to 
become the sons of God, as He had done to 
me. And it was further declared, that "he that 
had the Son of God had life eternal ; but 
that he that had not the Son of God (though he 
professed all the Scriptures, from the first of Genesis to 
the last of the Revelation) had not life." So after that 
all were directed to the light of Christ, by which they 
might see Him and receive Him, and know where their 
true teacher was ; and the everlasting truth had been 
largely declared amongst them, we passed away through 
Hexham peaceably, and came into Gilsland, a country 
noted for thieving. Here a Friend, spying the priest, 
went to speak to him ; whereupon the priest came down 
to our inn, and the town's people gathered about us. 
The priest said he would prove us deceivers out of the 
Bible, but could find no Scripture for his purpose. Then 
he went into the inn : and after a while came out again, 
and brought some broken sentences of Scripture, that 
mention " the doctrines and commandments of men, &c., 
and, touch not, taste not, &c., for they perish with the 
using." All which, poor man! was his own condition; 
whereas we were persecuted, because we would not taste, 
nor touch, nor handle their doctrines and traditions, 
which we knew perished with the using. I asked him 
what he called the steeple-house. "Oh," said he, "the 
dreadful house of God, the temple of God." Then I 
showed him, and the poor dark people, that their bodies 
should be the temples of God ; and that Christ never 
commanded these temples, but ended that temple at 
Jerusalem, which God had commanded. While I was 
speaking the priest got away ; and afterwards the people 
made as if they feared we would take their or 
steal their horses ; judging us like themselves, who are 
naturally given to thieving. 

The disciples of Fox appear, however, not to have 
gained a permanent footing in the town, or even in the 
shire, of Hexham. There used to be one solitary Quaker 
bonnet in the tewn, and that belonged to Betty Bowman, 
the bread baker and milk seller ; and so well known was 
she, that whenever the young Hexhamites chanced to see 
a person in Quaker garb, they instantly went up and 
asked, "Do you want Betty Bowman?" There is a 
tradition, doubtless, in the very name Quaker's Garth, 
given to a field at the foot of Battle Hill ; but what is the 
origin of the name we cannot discover. Probably it was 
once the property of a man who turned Quaker, and 
subsequently disappeared without leaving any traces 
behind him. Thirty years after George Fox had stirred 
up the priest at Hexham. some of his zealous followers 
did the same at Chapel Hill, with the effect of provoking 
the neighbouring priest of Slaley to the "good works " of 
instituting regular service, though not, it is said, to any 
great love of the people who had thus provoked him. 

Three years later, George Fox repeated his visit to the 



f February 

{ im. 

Northumberland Friends, and this is his account of the 
mission : 

Leavine Berwick, we came to Mprpeth, and so through 
the country, visiting Friends, to Newcastle, where I had 
been once before. The Newcastle priests had written 
many books against us ; and one Ledger, an alderman of 
the town, was very envious against truth and iriends. 
He and the priests had said, " the Quakers would not 
come into any great towns, but lived in the lells, like 
butterflies." So I took Anthony Pearson with me, and 
went to this Ledger, and several others of the aldermen, 
" desiring to have a meeting amongst them, seeing they 
had written so many books against u. for we were now 
come, I told them, into their great town. But they 
would not yield we should have a meeting, neither would 
they be spoken withal, save only this Ledger and one 
other. I queried, had they not called Friends butterflies, 
and said we would not come into any great towns .' and 
now we were come into their town, they would not come 
at us, though they had printed books against us. Who 
are the butterflies now '!" said I. Then Ledger began to 
plead for the Sabbath day ; but I told him they kept 
markets and fairs on that which was the Sabbath day, tor 
that was the seventh day of the week ; whereas that day, 
which the professed Christians now met on, and call their 
Sabbath, is the first day of the week. As we couid not 
have a public meeting among them, we got a little 
meeting among Friends and friendly people at the Gate- 
Bide ; where a meeting is continued to this day, in the 
name of Jesus. As I was passing by the market-place. 
the power of the Lord rose in me, " to warn them of the 
day of the Lord, that was coming upon them." And not 
long after, all those priests of Newcastle and their profes- 
sion were turned out, when the king came in. From 
Newcastle we travelled through the countries^ having 
meetings and visiting Friends as we went, in Northum- 
berland and Bishopric. A very good meeting we had at 
Lieutenant Dove's, where many were turned to the Lord 
and his teaching. After the meeting, I went to visit a 
justice of the peace, a very sober, loving man, who con- 
fessed to the truth. 

In 1653, Fox paid a lengthened visit to the city and 
county of Durham. Benfieldside was the locality of 
almost the first Friends' Meeting House erected in 
England. The original house is not standing, but its 
successor is, and is preserved for the sake of its adjoining 
burying-ground, while another meeting place is now used. 
Shotley Spa, and several other parts of Derwent Valley, 
early became peaceful refuges for the buffeted and per- 
secuted followers of George Fox. 

One of the most interesting portions of Fox's diary, so 
far as Durham is concerned, relates to Oliver Cromwell's 
project for establishing a university. So early as 1650, the 
Lord Protector had drawn attention to his project in a 
letter which gives a melancholy account of educational 
matters in these "poore, rude, and ignorant parts." The 
matter slept till 1651-2, when the grand jury of the county 
petitioned Parliament, aiid a committee of the House 
reported that the "houses of the Dean and Chapter were 
fit places to erect a college or school for all the science 
and literature." In 1656 Cromwell issued an ordinance 
founding the college, and in 1657 (May 15) he issued 
letters patent by which the University was created. 
Ample provision was made for its maintenance out of the 
sequestrated funds of the Dean and Chapter. At the 
Restoration the new college shared the fate of the 
Government by which it had been set up. That the 

scheme did not wholly commend itself to George Fox is 
evident from what follows: 

From Lieut. Dove's we came to Durham, where was a 
man come from London, to set up a college there, to 
make ministers of Christ, as they said. I went, with some 
others to reason with the man, and to let him see, 
that to teach men Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and the 
seven arts, which were all but the teachings of the 
natural man, was not the way to make them ministers of 
Christ. For the languages began at Babel ; and to the 
Greeks, that spoke Greek as their mother-tongue, the 
preaching of the cross of Christ was foolishness ; and to 
the Jews, that spoke Hebrew as their mother-tongue, 
Christ was a stumbling block. The Romans, who had 
the Latin, persecuted the Christians; and Pilate, one 
of the Roman governors, set Hebrew, Greek, and Latin 
a-top of Christ, when he crucified him. So he might 
see the many languages began at Babel, and they 
set them a-top of Christ, the Word, when they crucified 
Him. John the Divine, who preached the Word, that 
was in the beginning, said, "that the beast and the 
whore have power over tongues and languages, and they 
are as waters." Thus 1 told him, he might see, the 
whore and beast have power over the tongues and the 
many languages which are in mystery Babylon : for they 
began at Babel ; and the persecutors of Christ Jesus set 
them over Him, when he was crucified by them ; but He 
is risen over them all, who was before them all. Now, 
said I, to this man, "dost thou think to make ministers 
of Christ by these natural, confused languages, which 
sprung from Babel, are admired in Babylon, and set a-top 
of Christ, the Life, by a persecutor ?" Oh no ! The man 
confessed to many of these things. Then we showed him 
further, " that Christ made His ministers Himself, gave 
gifts unto them, and bid them ' pray to the Lord of the 
harvest, to send forth labourers. ' And Peter and John, 
though unlearned and ignorant (as to school learning) 
preached Christ Jesus, the Word, which was in the 
beginning, before Babel was. Paul also was made an 
apostle, not of man, nor by man, neither received he the 
gospel from man, but from Jesus Christ, who is the same 
now, and so is His gospel, as it was at that day." When 
we had thus discoursed with the man, he became very 
loving and tender ; and, after he had considered further 
of it, declined to set up his college. 

In 1663 this zealous missionary once more visited Dur- 
ham, preaching at the house of one Richmond, and 
staying overnight at the house of Henry Draper. Next 
morning he received friendly warning, as he puts it, that 
"if the priests and justices (for many priests were made 
justices in that country at that time) could light on me 
they would destroy me." After this year he came no 
more into Northumberland and Durham, unless for very 
brief visits, during the one or two years he spent in a 
sort of recruiting seclusion at his beloved Swarthmore. 


Lancashire is famous for its many picturesque old 
halls ; but Swarthmoor, near Ulverston, can hardly be 
said to be worthy of being classed with such remarkable 
erections as Tufton, Speke, or Moreton. Indeed, beyond 
a certain quaintness, Swarthmoor Hall is not of much 
moment, so far as its external appearance is concerned. 
It is an irregular, Elizabethan dwelling-house of the 
better class, without any distinguishing features, excepting 
the projecting gable. But the old hall has an interest 
to students of history, for here dwelt for a time the 
founder of the Society of Friends. And here, it is 
alleged, were held the first regular meetings of that sect. 

February X 
1891. f 



George Fox's 6rst visit to Swarthmonr Hall occurred in 
1652, during the temporary absence of the owner, Thomas 
Fell, who, being one of the judges of assize, had gone on 
the Welsh circuit. The hospitality of the hall was open 
to ministers of religion, and Fox stayed there all night. 
The next day, being Sunday, he repaired to Ulverston 
Church, where he was allowed to preach, his words 
creating a deep impression in the mind of the judge's 
wife. The same night he preached in Swarthmoor Hall 
to the family and servants, and from that time Mrs. Fell 
became one of his staunchest adherents. The friends of 
the judge went to meet him as he was returning home 
from circuit, and informed him that "a great disaster 
was befallen amongst his family, and that they were 
witches, and that they had taken us out of our religion, 
and that he must set them away, or all the country would 
be undone." This information naturally perturbed the 
spirit of the judge, who, on arriving at Swarthmoor, 
expressed his displeasure. But the same night George 

family, he does not appear to have claimed any undue 
advantage. At any rate, it is stated that he and his 
stepchildren lived on most amicable terms. But most of 
the later years of his life were spent in the London 
district, where he died on the 13th of November, 1690, in 
the 67th year of his age. 

Our drawing of Swarthraoor Hall shows it as it appears 
at the present time. The house was for a long period in 
a state of dilapidation. It is, however, now occupied by 
a farmer. In the projecting portion there are three 
windows. The room indicated by the highest of the 
three was Fox's study, and he occasionally preached from 
the window of it. Within the building are some old 
carved oak mantelpieces. It was in a quaint, flagged 
apartment on the ground floor that the first meetings of 
the Friends were held. There are many relics still to be 
seen in the place; but Mr. Edwin Waugh, in his 
"Rambles in the Lake Country," published in 1882, 
states that Fox's Bible was then in the possession of a 
lady belonging to the Society of Friends in Ulverston. 

Some quarter of a mile or so to the west ot Swarthmoor 
Hall is the first chapel of the disciples of George Fox. It 
was built at his own cost in 1688. Above the entrance is 
the inscription: "Ex dono, G. F., 1688.'' Near to the 
western end of the chapel is a croft which was presented 
with the chapel for the accommodation of worshippers 
who came from a distance. 

About a couple of miles from Swarthmoor Hall is 
Swart or Swarth Moor, where, in 1487, the army of the 
impostor Lambert Simnel encamped. In 1643 there was 
an engagement at the same spot between 1,500 men of the 
King's forces and about the same number of the Parlia- 
mentary party. The affair resulted in the defeat of the 
Royalists, with a loss of 300 prisoners, including Colonel 

Fox expounded his views at the hall, and favourably 
impressed the judge himself with his fervour and 
sincerity. "This was on the sixth day of the week, 
about the fifth month, 1652," wrote the lady in the book 
which she afterwards issued giving "a brief account of 
Fox's travels, sufferings, and hardships, endured for 
truth's sake." As there was no place in the neighbour- 
hood where the Friends could hold a meeting, the judge 
suggested that they might assemble at Swarthmoor Hall. 
This offer was gladly accepted, and, quoting from the 
same source, we find that " notice was given that day and 
the next to Friends, and there was a good large meeting 
the first day, which was the first meeting which was at 
Swarthmore, and so continued tlieie a meeting from 1652 
to 1690." 

Judge Fell died in 1658. Eleven years afterwards 
George Fox married the widow. Both before and subse- 
quent to marriage the couple suffered imprisonment for 
conscience' sake. Although Fox considerably bettered 
his worldly prospects by the connection with a good 

| HE Monthly Chronicle for November, 1887, 
p. 401, contained an account of the bridge 
over the Wear at Sunderland which was con- 
structed and erected by Rowland Burdon in the year 
1796. The total cost of the structure was 40,000. 
Of this sum 30,000 was advanced by Mr. Burdon, 
at 5 per cent, interest, on security of tolls, while 
the remaining fourth was raised by subscription on 
loan. Owing to adverse pecuniary circumstances, the 
shares held by Mr. Burdon were afterwards offered 
for sale. As there was no prospect of realising 
by this means, it was determined to sell Mr. 
Burdon's interest in the bridge by means of a lottery. 
All the circumstances in connexion therewith are fully 
detailed in the Monthly Chronicle for June, 1889, p. 254. 
The foundation stone of Sunderland Bridge was 

February t 
1891. I 




./ 'Ji*? 



\ 1891. 

laid on September 18, 1795, the bridge being opened 
to the public on August 8, 1796. An Act of Parliament 
was obtained in 1857 for the renovation of the bridge, 
which was carried out under the superintendence of 
Robert Stepbenson. An additional interest is attached 
to the drawing which we now present to our readers 
(page 72) from the fact that it includes a view of the rail- 
way bridge which also spans the Wear. 

at Uttfttrtoittan. 

J1ROM the Simonside Hills to the Wansbeck 
runs the bright little river the Font, 
through a valley of sylvan beauty, shut 
in and protected by pastoral ridges, which, 
to the north, roll away into moor and common. 

Midway up this valley, surrounded by woods and 
waters, is the picturesque village of Netherwitton. To 
our Anglian forefathers it was the "white" or fair 
"town, "and hence it received from them the descriptive 
and lovely name of Witton-by-the- Waters. 

It is five miles from any railway station, and out of the 
track of the ordinary tourist who may follow perhaps the 
high-road to Alnwick and Rothbury, never dreaming 
that so pretty a bit of Northumberland is within a very 
short distance of him. 

Netherwitton impresses us most when approached from 
the south by a road called the Trench, which descends the 
hillside through the Old Park Wood, being bordered by 
several fine beeches a little way out of the village. 
Through the foliage .we may catch, now and then, a brief 
glimpse of an old thatched roof or a picturesque gable. 

The greater part of the village is seated, as we see, on a 
gentle incline in a bend of the Font, which is joined at 

this point from the west by the Ewesley Burn. A num- 
ber of fine tall elms interspersed with sycamores, beeches, 
and limes the abode of a colony of rooks, who have many 
a good-natured wrangle in the branches form an appro- 
priate background of dark-green foliage. 

The " harvest of a quiet eye" is a rich one in Nether- 
witton. We gaze with calm pleasure on the rustic scene, 
singling out all the picturesque details thereof the pan- 

tiled smithy with some rusty, worn horse-shoes nailed 
to its door ; the modest little temperance hotel, 
which is also the post-office, of two storeys, 
built of a warm-tinted sandstone and roofed with thin 
slabs of the same material ; the half-dozen steps near its 
door, which have probably served in the past as a " horse- 
block," or "louping-on-styen," as it is locally called ; the 
grey-walled, thatched, low cottages, which have asters, 
nasturtiums, calceolarias, and stocks round 
their doorways ; the newly-built cottages in 
the centre of the village with high-pointed 
gables and diamond-panedwindows, one of 
them decked very prettily with clematis 
and honeysuckle ; the village well under 
a small roundarch, four steps leading down 
to it ; and the neat little gardens with 
hedges or palings around them, a few 
having beehives of modern construction 

What was once the village green is now 
occupied by several of these gardens, and 
we cannot fail to notice, in one of them, 
between two leafy limes, the village cross 
(restored in 1825) with the date 1698 carved 
upon it. Here might have been formerly 
fi witnessed those simple rural sports and 
pastimes so inimitably described by Gold- 
smith in the opening lines of the "De- 
serted Village." The villagers, we are 



told, were accustomed to assemble of an evening on the 
green, and to dance around the cross to the sound of the 
Northumbrian bag-pipes. On festival days they decked 
it with flowers, ribbons, and showy finery. 

A path by the end of the principal house in the vil- 
lagethe residence of Mr. Raleigh Trevelyan leads 
along the park wall to a small wooden bridge across 
the Font. Then, from this point, a walk between ivy- 
grown walls curves round past the vicarage to the church 
of St. Giles a plain little edifice consisting of nave and 
chancel, with a bell-turret rising from its western gable. 
A chapel waa founded here in tDe 12th or 13th century, 
but not a vestige remains of it in the present building, 
which was erected above 120 years ago, though restored in 
1881 and 1886. While excavations were being made for 
the north wall of the nave the stone effigy of a female in a 
loose flowing mantle was found. It now occupies a posi- 
tion near the pulpit. Netherwitton is ecclesiastically 
dependent on Hartburn. 

A curious side-light is thrown by the acts of the High 
Commission Court at Durham on the relations that 
existed in 1633 between the curate of Netherwitton and 
some members of his flock. On the 8th of March of that 
year, Mungo Barnes, of Netherwitton, was brought in by 
attachment upon the information of Andrew Hall, clerk, 
curate of Netherwitton, " that he called Hall ' base lousie 
rogue ' and did pull him by the throat and strick him on 

the breast." This offence he had to acknowledge publicly 
on Sunday, the 14th of April. For laying violent hands 
upon Hall he was denounced excommunicate in the chapel 
of Netherwitton. It would seem from another entry that 
he was assisted by one Giles Todd. This person confessed 
"that he did call Mr. Hall base fellow, and did assist 
Mungo Barnes, who attempted to have beaten him, though 
he himself did not meddle with him. " He also had to 
make public confession. About the same time, another 
person in the parish of Netherwitton, one Thomas Swan, 
came to grief in the High Commission Court for " beating 
a minister" probably Mr. Hall. What the reverend 
gentleman had done to provoke this violence we are 
unable to say. The incidents show how accustomed the 
people of those days were to take the law into their own 

A former curate of Netherwitton the Rev. J. Thomson 
published, in 1806, two volumes of poems, moral, 
descriptive, and elegiac, one of which is entitled ''On 
Seeing Mr. Cunningham's Monument in St. John's 
Churchyard, Newcastle-upon-Ty ne. " Had the reverend 
gentleman possessed, even in a small degree, poor 
Cunningham's descriptive powers, the attractions of 
Netherwitton might have been sung in some lovely 
stanzas that the world would have cherished ; but, 
unfortunately, he was but a mere rhetorician, and his 
volumes contain little of value or interest, unless we 




except "The Country Wedding " for its description of old 
marriage customs. 

By the side of the river, which is fringed with small 
elders and thorn bushes, past some shrubberies and 
gardens, there is a road from the church to the woollen 
mill. It was about here that the old market town oj 
Netherwitton stood ; for, says Hodgson, " Very old 
people remember when its site was ploughed and cleared 
of the old groundworks, weeds, and rubbish." The 
market was granted by Edward I. to Sir Roger de 
Somerville in 1290. The woollen mill stands on the north 
side of the Morpeth road near the bridge, and is a large 
stone building with a fine, many-windowed fagade, the 
central portion, projecting slightly, being crowned with a 
pediment ot simple character. It was erected in 179^ by 
Mr. Walter Trevelyan as a cotton mill, but was not 
worked long, the speculation having proved unsuccessful. 
After being closed many years, it was taken, in 1823, by 
Messrs. Dixon, Walker, and Co., of Morpeth, and re- 
opened as a manufactory of flannel, blankets, and yarn. 
As such, it is still being carried on by Mr. Joseph 
Law ton. 

The mill forms the subject of some verses in a volume 
of poems, published in 1831, by John Farrer, who first 
drew breath, as he states with some pride, by the side of 
the Font. For thirty years, he laments, the well-known 
bell which had tolled the hour six times a day to all the 
country round from the turret of the mill, has never been 
rung, the engines are destroyed, the machinery is rusted, 
the lofty roof admits the rain, the walls are becoming 
ruinous, the shattered sashes rattle in the wind, and the 
windows are stuffed with straw. He wishes success to 
"the enterprising few whose resolutions all these works 

renew," and he looks forward to the time when Xether- 
witton, by virtue of its manufactures, will rival Leeds and 

Adjoining the building, on the east side, is the old 
manor corn-mill, now in ruins. On the great overshot 
wheel the water drips and splashes, creating a humid 
atmosphere, which favours the growth of mosses, liver- 
worts, and ferns in the dim enclosure. The wheel of the 
woollen mill is also laid idle. 

The fine stone bridge over the Font, consisting of two 
segmental arches, 23 feet in span, was erected by sub 
scription, the foundation-stone being laid on September 
13th, 1837, by Mr. K. Trevelyan. Its battlements were 
carried away by the great flood of Sunday, the 15th 
September, 1839, which also partly destroyed the dam- 
head higher up the river. Many of the inhabitants can 
remember how the waters of the Font came rushing 
through the village, flooding the lower storeys of several 
of the houses. Here, on this graceful parapet, just above 
where the Font and the Ewealey Burn meet and mingle 
in the shade of three spreading willows, it is pleasant to 
linger and watch the brisk waters as they shimmer among 
the smooth mossed stones, whereon we may chance to see 
resting the shy water-ouzel, and gaze at the peaceful 
village, where everyone moves about in a quiet and 
leisurely way, as though Time were not fast on the wing. 
So tranquil is the scene that it induces a dreamy, 
clairvoyant mood in which our thoughts, almost uncon- 
sciously, slip back into the past, and we find ourselves 
trying to realise the changes which the scene has wit- 
nessed. We can see in imagination the skin-clad chief- 
tains, who tenanted the rudely-formed camp nearGallow- 
shaw, and the smaller one on the outskirts of Dixon's 

February 1 
1S91. / 



Wood brave warriors who, perhaps, were interred with 
mysterious rites, beneath the Five- Ashes and Callagers 
tumuli, and the other three barrows in the neighbour- 
hood of the xillage; we behold once again the stern 
legionaries of Rome as they passed up the Devil's Cause- 
way, within half a mile of the place where we sit ; and we 
picture to ourselves the village as it was in the by-gone 
centuries in 1405, when Roger Thornton, the munificent 
merchant prince of Newcastle, who is stated by Leland 
to have been born here, became the lord of the manor ; 
in 1505, when, beneath a September sky, the unfortunate 
John Crawfurth lay, with a mortal wound in his breast 
from the weapon of Cuthbert Law, who had fled to the 
sanctuary of Durham ; and, in the summer of 1651, when 
it was visited by the great Cromwell, his army, consist- 
ing of nine regiments of foot, and two regiments of 
dragoons with his horse guard, being quartered for one 
night on the grounds of the Lady Thornton, and there 
doing much damage to the grass and corn, &c., for 
which, however, compensation to the amount of 
96 5s. 6d. was paid. 

But the times are changed, and the character of the 
people too, and the secret of the change is to be found in 
the little school-room by the wayside just above us. 

A little way along the Morpeth road, past the woollen 
mill, there is a fine view of the front of Netherwitton 
Hall the seat of Mr. Thornton Roger Trevelyan. It is 
a stately pile, with open battlements, built by Robert 
Trollop, the architect of Capheaton Hall and the Guild- 
hall of Newcastle. A tower, which probably stood to the 
south of the present gardens, was built here by Roger de 
Thornton, not long after 1411, when he completed the 
purchase of the estate. It is mentioned in the list of 
cascles and fortalices compiled in 1415. A tablet in the 
north wall of the house, bearing the arms of Thornton, 
and the inscription, "Anno Regis Ed wardi Quinti "- 
in the year of King Edward V. probably belonged to this 
earlier building, and refers to some repairs or additions 
which were made to it in 1483. In the upper part of the 
house is one of those secret closets or hiding-places found 
iu nearly all the old Catholic mansions, and known as 
"Priests' Holes." 

Near the hall, on the opposite side of the road, there 
are two small lakes connected by a pathway which leads 
through the wood, past an enclosed chalybeate spring. 
Beautifully situated is the upper lakelet, in the midst 
of trees of many varieties larches, firs, pinasters, 
beeches, elms, sycamores, birches, and horse-chestnuts. 
Bulrushes, among which the water-fowl splash and nutter, 
stand thickly along one side of it, and water-lillies spread 
their broad leaves upon its surface, while at one end 
there is quite a rich glow of colour from the pretty pink 
spikes of the amphibious persicaria. Not many yards 
from the north side is an islet of diminutive size, whereon 
a few firs have secured a foothold. On the bank near it 
is a row of large beeches, having their lower branches 

trained in one direction, towards the lake, thus making a 
shady walk more conducive to meditation than a monastic 
arcade. The lake in its perfect seclusion, surrounded by 
woods, where, within reasonable limits, nature has 
pretty much her own way, would be, to a Thoreau, a 
not unfair substitute for the famous Walden Pond. 

The woods of Witton-by-the-Waters are of ancient 
celebrity. Ranulph de Merlay, when he founded the 
Abbey of Newminster in 1139, gave to the monks " a 
part of the wood of Witton." Roger de Merlay, the 
second, obtained from King John, in 1214, a license to 
make a park of his woods at Witton, and bis son granted 
to John de Plessy liberty to cut timber in them. To 
thesn woods may have belonged the two venerable 
oaks the King and Queen of Netherwitton which 
stand above the Font a short distance from the weir. 
There is a tradition in the village, which may be 
founded on a memory of the above-named grant to the 
Abbey of Newminster, that the three plane-trees, growing 
close together by the side of the road to Morpeth, half a 
mile from the bridge, were planted by the monks, and re- 
present the three persons of the Trinity. 

Hitherto the smoky banners of trade have not waved in 
this charming valley. May it long retain its idyllic agri- 
cultural character must be the devout wish of all who love 
nature and simple modes of life. 


tre' fJumn-als, 

||HE moors of Upper Weardale and Teesdale are 
vast grazing fields vast solitudes too. We 
are transported thither. No sign of aught save 
sheep and moorlands. At last a human being ! A man ! 
Listen, he is apparently talking to his sheep. Ah ! I 
have it. But I will wager a small amount you cannot tell 
me the meaning of what he is saying. Talking Dutch ! 
No. He is counting his sheep one , two, three, four, 
and so on. Listen again. Now you hear "Yan, tean, 
tether, mether, pip, sezar, azar, catrah, horna, dik,"&c. 
There is an interesting thing for you. You have been 
extremely lucky to hear that, for there are extremely 
few people in this part of the world who use that 
language in counting their sheep. Civilization is in- 
vading all the out-of-the-way corners of the earth. 
and all dialects and local distinctions are dying out. 
People in Teesdale, getting more cultivated as years aa- 
vance, are abandoning the fashions and habits of their fore- 
fathers ; but in some of the more retired mountain vales 
of Westmoreland and North Yorkshire, as also in Wales, 
the numerals used by these shepherds are so similar to 
each other, and so different from those English words now 
in general use, that they point to a common Celtic 
origin, and that, in turn, can be shown to be akin 
to the rest of the Aryan tongues. For instance, your 



\ 1891. 

ancient Swaledalesman will say, " Yahn, tay'nn, 
tether, mether, mimph, hithher, lithher. anver, dan- 
ver, die." The Nidderdale rnan says, " Yain, tain, 
eddero, peddero, pitta, tayter, later, overro, cover- 
ro, dix." Compare with this the Welsh, "Tin, 
dau, tri. pedwar, pump, cwec. saith, wyth, naw. deg." 
Few words excepted, these shepherds' numerals 
are the sole relics of the old Cymric dialect of 
the Pennine Chain, Wales, and Cumberland and West- 
moreland, as spoken by those ancient Britons who 
were driven by fierce invaders into mountain retreats, 
whither no one cared to follow them. You get the same 
numerals in Brittany, where also there is a fast expiring 
Celtic population, "Unan, daou, tri, peder, pemp, 
chouech, seiz, eiz, nao, dek." Then look at the gipsy, 
"Yek, dui, drin, stor, pange, tscho, efta, octo, enia, 
desh." Hindustani is similar. "Ek, du, trin, char, panj, 
tscho, st, aute, noh, des." So, of course, is Sanskrit, 
" Eka, dui, tri, c'atur, pancan, s'as, saptan, astan, nuvan, 
dasan. 1 ' And, go over the Atlantic, you will find it trans- 
lated there. Here is what was written from the dictation 
of an old gentleman of Hartford, Connecticut ; he had 
been taught the scoring when a child by an old Indian 
woman, who used to come to his father's house in Connec- 
ticut: ''Een, teen, tudhur. fedhur, pip, sat, latta, poal, 
defri, dik/' C. 


jjETWEEN the millstone grit ridfie running 
northward from Rothbury and the porphyry 
hills of the Cheviot range is a broad, 
fertile valley, where all the elements of 
a picturesque landscape limpid streamlets, green 
meadows and pastures ; fields of wheat, barley, and oats ; 
trees massed into woods and plantations, or deploying, as 
it were, into lines by the roadsides are gathered 

The principal village in this lovely valley is Whitting- 
ham, which occupies a low, sheltered situation on the 
banks of the little river, the Aln. The view on all sides 
is bounded by hills Northfieldhead Hill, Ewe Hill, Ryle 
Hill, Chubden, Old Fawdon Hill, Gibb's Hill, Glanton 
Pike, Titlington Mount, Lantern Hill, Brizlee Hill, 
Thrunton, Callaly Crags, and others. 

Whittingham, as we gather from the derivation of its 
name, was originally the home of the Anglian family of 
White or Hewit, and from its position in a rich agricul- 
tural district, has been, through the centuries, a place of 
no little importance. Until the railway was opened out 
between Alnwick and Cornhill, it was little known to the 
outside world, and, indeed, was not easily accessible. 
The village is pretty without being prim, for it has not 

grown up as an adjunct to some stately and venerable 
hall which would perhaps have interfered with its natural 
development along other than conventional lines. 

Very cheerful and quiet does it look as we approach it 
from the south-east. Right before us is the Castle Inn 
a well-known posting-house in the early years of the 
century, having still such a quaint, old-fashioned air 
about it that we might almost expect to Bee, on the open 
space in front of it, the Wellington coach from Newcastle 
or Edinburgh drawn up, while the horses were being 
changed and the passengers entertained with such cheer 
as the house could provide for them. 

From the garden hedge behind the inn rises a very fine 
ash, 85 feet in height. Near to it a road leading to 
Callaly turns off to the left, passing through the southern 
part of the village, which is seated on a gentle slope, 
the various buildings being arranged around three 
sides of a rough square. These consist of several 
cosy-looking cottages with honeysuckle and bindweed 
round the windows and small garden plots m front ; a few 
shops which it would not be easy to classify under the 
respective trades on account of the miscellaneous charac- 
ter of the articles sold in them; the Court-House where 
the Petty Sessions are held on the second Monday of each 
month a stone building with many gables and mullioned 
windows erected in 1859 ; the Post-office, the smithy, 
with the coulter of a plough and a few rusty wheel-tyres 
near it ; and the massive old pele-tower overlooking the 
river, &c. 

Some portions of the space enclosed have been planted 
with shrubs and young trees, chiefly sycamores, limes, 
laburnums, lilacs, and privets, which add a leafy charm 
to the scene. 

Half hidden by some of these trees is the village pant 
erected in 1865 by the Right Hon. Henry Thomas Baron 
Ravensworth. It bears the following inscription : 

May this pure Fount perpetual streams supply 
To every thirsty soul that passeth by ! 
And may these crystal waters ever run 
Unchanged by Winter's frost or Summer's sun ! 


This portion of the village is connected with the Church 
Town as it was formerly called by a stone bridge of 
four arches built early in the century, and restored in 
1887, and by a wooden foot-bridge. 

We obtain from the parapet of the bridge our best view 
of the village, which is that represented in our sketch. 
To the east we see the Aln making its way through a 
swampy bit of ground, where, among rank butter-burs, 
grow a few young firs, birches, and poplars. In a pasture 
called Pyle's Field, below the inn garden, we can trace, 
by a depression in the surface, the course of the road 
which led down to the ancient ford. To the north, by the 
side of the Glanton road, stands an old house, which once 
bore the sign of the Hole-in-the-Wall : a garden, girdled 
with a green hedge, sweeps down from it to the river. 
Looking to the west, we observe on our right, alittle grove 

February 1 
1891. I 



of trees, principally beeche?. which extend their branches 
over the stream. Behind the grove runs the Eslington 
road, forming a kind of terrace above the river. By the 
side of it, approached through gardens, are some taste- 
fully built cottages with dormer windows, and the school- 
house, erected in 1850, standing amid flowers. 

To our left we notice the Court House and the great Pele 
Tower converted in 1845 into an alms-house, its battle- 
ments corbelled out from the walls, and its flagstaff turret 
standing out boldly against the sky. 

Looking right up the stream, which is bordered with 
sallows and sedges, past the wooden foot-bridge, we see 
the gable end of a cottage having a pear tree trained up 
it, and, beyond, the square tower of the church, with the 
vicarage trees as a background. 

On the wsst side of the village the Aln is crossed by 
another bridge, and this again is a good standpoint for 
obtaining a view of the place. We behold the Aln winding 
along from the Eslington woods through the level haughs, 
and the Callaly burn wending from another direction to 
join it. Looking eastward, we see the vicarage seated on 
a slight mound nearly surrounded by trees, then a portion 
of the church and churchyard, the fountain erected in 
1874 by the villagers ; a cluster of farm-buildings and 
cottages, with a number of conical-headed stacks adjoining 

The tower of the church, which is prominent in every 
view, is a constant witness to the antiquity of the place, for, 
in its lower stage, is the long-and -short work of pre-Con- 
quest architecture. With such a past we naturally 
expect to h'nd some interesting historical associations in 
connexion with Whittingham, and we shall not be dis- 

Whittingham was one of the five places conferred by 
Ceolwulph on the monastery of Lindisfarne, when he, in 

For cowl and beads laid down 
The Saxon battle-axe and crown. 

It would probably not be long after the monks of the 
Holy Isle acquired this possession that they erected a 
church here. 

About 882 there was livingat Whittingham, in bondage 
to a widow, a Dane Guthred the son of Hardacnut, 
probably of that Haurda-Knute who appears in the lists 
of the Danish kings as the second in succession to Regner 
Lodbrog. From this position of servitude he was 
redeemed and made king of the southarn portion of 
Northumbria on the death of Halfdene in the 13th year of 
King Alfred. The story, as told by Roger de Hoveden, 
is, that this was done in accordance with the instructions 
of St. Cuthbert communicated to Eadred, Abbot of Car- 
lisle, in a vision. The appointment of a king whc was 
a Dane, but also a convert to Christianity, was probably 
a compromise between the Christian Angles and the 
Pagan invaders. The arrangement was sanctioned, if not 
suggested, by Alfred, who found in the new king a loyal 

vassal and a faithful servant of the Church. Guthred 
died on the 21st of August, 896, and his remains were 
interred in the Cathedral at York. 

During medieval times when the Borders were so 
disturbed by feud and foray, we hear but little of 
Whittingham. At the close ot Gilbert de Middleton's 
rebellion in 1317, Whittingham Pele was reduced by the 
garrison of Warkworth Castle. 

From this time we leap over three hundred years to the 
Civil Wars of the seventeenth century. On August 25th, 
1640, about 400 horse of the Parliament ordered breakfast 
at Whittingham. They came from the Brandon Hills, 
singing psalms all the way. They behaved civilly, we 
are told, and paid for everything. Again, in the summer 
of 1648, Whittingham was visited by the Roundheads, 
who captured here Lieut. -Colonel Millet with 200 horse. 
" Wee advanced on towards Bran ton," says Major Saun- 
derson in his report to headquarters ; " but, finding that 
wee were cloyed with prisoners and horse and booty, wee 
retyred towards Whittingham, where Colonel Lilburne 
was labouring to rally into a firme body, for there 
appeared about Shawtonfour bodies of the enemies' horse, 
who had taken the alarme and got together : but all the 
rest wee took before they could mount." 

In 1761, when there was so much dissatisfaction in 
Northumberland respecting a new regulation whereby 
men were elected by ballot for the militia instead of being 
hired by the landowners dissatisfaction which resulted 
in fatal riots at Hexham Whittingham was thrown into 
a state of excitement on March 3rd of that year by the 
arrival of a number of rioters from Morpeth, who seized 
all the lists and books relating to the militia from the 
constables, burning them or tearing them to pieces before 
their eyes. 

From that time to this there has happened little to dis- 
turb the calm tenour of life in the village. 

Whittingham is justly proud of the two important 
relics of the past still preserved in its midst the church 
of St. Bartholomew and the Pele Tower. The tower of 
the former has quite an archaeological fame ; it is repre- 
sented in Rickinan's great work on Gothic architecture. 
In 1840, during a "restoration," falsely so-called, the 
upper stages of the tower, the Norman arcade of the 
north aisle, and other interesting features of the build- 
ing, were ruthlessly destroyed. Most antiquaries find 
the English language too inadequate to express their 
feelings on the subject of this vandalism. Some Early 
English additions on the south side ei the nave were, 
however, happily spared. 

The Pele Tower, in spite of the alterations which were 
necessary to transform it into a charitable institution, is 
still a fine specimen of a small Border stronghold of the 
14th century, and we examine with interest the plinth, 
partly covered with ivy, the barrel-vaulted chamber on the 
ground floor, and the original doorway on the south side 
a fine pointed arch. In 1415 it was in the possession of 



( February 
t 1891. 

William Heron, and in 1541 of Robert Collingwood, both 
owners being members of famous North-Country families. 
There was another pele tower here in the 16th century, 
occupied by the vicars, but this was removed when the 
present vicarage was built. 

Whittingham formerly had its fair, which was the 
occasion of much rustic festivity ; but it has now been 
discontinued. The day on which it was held, the 24th of 
August, is now set apart for athletic and other sports. 
We are no longer hailed in the words of the quaint old 
ballad " Are you going to Whittingham Fair ? '' but if 
confronted with the question, without the addition of the 
"fair," in the brighter months of the year, we should 
answer at once in the affirmative, with a lively anticipa- 
tion of much serene pleasure from the visit. 


| ITU ATE some score of miles north of Moffat, 
which is within easy distance by rail from 
Carlisle, St. Mary's Loch is the resort of 
thousands of tourists in the summer time ; 
for the district literally teems with poetic and historic 
associations ; and many are the pilgrimages to the places 
that are everlastingly connected with such names as those 
of Sir Walter Scott, the Ettrick Shepherd, Christopher 
North, and William Wordsworth, not to mention lesser 
Let us join the university undergraduate, say, who has 

tsiken his seat on the top of the coach which is to bear its 
freight along Moffatdale to the lochs Loch Skene, Loch 
of the Lowes, and St. Mary s Loch. As we are whirled 
along the road which leads to Selkirk, we quickly realise 
that the scenery is suggestive of calmness and repose, 
though it is not devoid of a certain amount of grandeur. 

If we were to alight and inspect every tower or 
other interesting object that presents itself on the 
journey, it would be some days before we reached 
the far-famed lochs : so we content ourselves with 
a mere glance at Cornal Tower on the east side of 
the valley, and a small eminence which is suggestive 
of a British fort. Approaching Craigieburn, we are 
reminded of Burns's beautiful song, "Sweet fa's the 
Eve on Craigieburn," and the Ettrick Shepherd's legend 
of "Bonnie Mary.' 1 To our left we soon see Saddleyoke, 
or Saddleback, as it is sometimes named, the summit of 
which is so narrow that, standing astride of it, you can 
roll a stone a mile down the hill on either hand. Here- 
abouts were the hiding places of many of the old 

Near to the tenth milestone is the famous waterfall, the 
Grey Mare's Tail. The total height of the fall, with two 
breaks, is about 300 feet, and of course it is seen to best 
advantage immediately after a storm of rain. No one will 
emulate the young man who, in 1811, lost his life whilst 
attempting to scale the rock in the line of the waterfall, 
and lovers of natural scenery will generally be content 
with what they see from the ordinary point of view. Time 
does not always allow of a visit to the gloomy Loch Skene 
from which the Grey Mare's Tail issues, and one must 

February \ 
1891. / 



rest content with the description thereof by the Wizard 
of the North. 

Passing Watch Hill, one of the outposts of the 
Covenanters, we reach the summit of the watershed, and, 
following the course of the Yarrow, coine to the rather 
uninteresting sheet of water called the Loch of the Lowes, 
and arrive within sight of the Ettrick Shepherd's Monu- 
ment. The statue, which is 8 feet in height, stands on a 
square pedestal 9i feet high, and was erected in I860- 
The poet is seen seated on an old oak ; by his side is his 
faithful dog Hector ; his right hand grasps a stout staff, 
and he holds in his left a scroll on which is carved the last 
line of the "Queen's Wake " 

He taught the wanderin? winds to aing. 

The hostelry kept by the renowned Tibbie Shiel stands 
on a piece of level ground, not far from the Ettrick 
Shepherd's Monument, and between the Loch of the 
Lowes and St. Mary's Loch, which is now in sight. 
Tibbie owes her reputation to the pens of the great poets 
of a past age who partook of her hospitality. A more 
modern writer, Professor John Stuart Blackie, has sung 
her praises in the following lines : 

" And is this Yarrow?" Wordsworth sang ; 

Though I am but a linnet, 
And he a skylark, I may weave 

A rhyme with something in it. 
All things that are to all men given, 

Sometimes a peeping sparrow, 

May spy a beauty that escaped 
An eagle's glance in Yarrow. 

But wiser he whom once I knew 

'Neath Tibbie's roof in Yarrow, 
Who nevei- brimmed a cup to-day 

That left a sting to-morrow. 
High priest of "Maga," glorious John, 

The troutful billow lashing, 
Himself a grand old trout in floods 

Of sportive wisdom splashing. 

Nor he alone, but who with him 

Had sworn a league together, 
To greet the sun or face the blast 

In bright or stormy weather, 
And live a life in all things true 

To Nature's prime intention, 
And breathe free breath, and speak free words 

That own no nice convention. 

With him was Hogg, a minstrel born, 

Who sang no stilted sonnets, 
But bonny lasses, honest men, 

And grey plaids and blue bonnets ; 
And many an eldritch story told 

Of brownies and of fairies, 
That from the cellar witched the wine, 

And soured the milk in dairies. 

And others came whom I could name, 

Stout men of bone and marrow, 
To catch contagion from the whim 

Of glorious John in Yarrow, 
Whose brain was like a busy hive 

Of humming bees in summer. 
With honey free and never a sting 

To every blithe new-comer. 

To praise the green huge-shouldered hills, 
The silver-shimmering waters, 



f February 

The hill-fed well whose draught brings health 

To Yarrow's sons and daughters ; 
And I for love-lorn maids can spare 

A tear of kindred sorrow. 
And my best thought is glorious John 

At Tibbie Shiel's in Yarrow. 

St. Mary's Loch is surrounded by bare hills that do not 
possess any beauty of outline. From Megget Bridge, 
however, the views of the lake are very fine. We make 
no apology for quoting Sir Walter Scott's vivid descrip- 
tion of the scene : 

Thou know'st it well nor fen, nor sedge 

Pollute the pure lake's crystal edge ; 

Abrupt and sheer the mountains sink, 

At once upon the level brink ; 

And just a trace of silver sand 

Marks where the water meets the land. 

Far in the mirror, bright and blue, 

Each hill's huge outline you may view ; 

Shaggy with heath, but lonely bare, 

Nor tree, nor bush, nor brake is there, 

Save where, of land, yon slender line 

Bears 'thwart the lake the scattered pine. 

Yet even this nakedness has power, 

And aids the feeling of the hour : 

Nor thicket, dell, nor copse you spy, 

Where living thing concealed might lie ; 

Nor point, retiring, hides a dell, 

Where swain or woodman lone might dwell : 

There's nothing left to fancy's guess, 

You see that all is loneliness : 

And silence aids though the steep hills 

Send to the lake a thousand rills, 

In summertide so soft they weep, 

The sound but lulls the ear asleep : 

Your horse's hoof-tread sounds too rude, 

So stilly is the solitude. 

Not far from the east end of the lake is Drybope Tower, 
noted as the birthplace of Mary Scott, the " Flower of 
Yarrow," and the heroine of a song by Allan Ramsay. 

All that remains to indicate the site of St. Mary's Kirk, 
which continued to be a place of worship during the 
seventeenth century, are a few gravestones which may be 
found a little above the road not far from the lake. The 
church is the scene of one of the main incidents in the old 
ballad "The Gay Goss Hawk," which may be found in 
Scott's "Border Minstrelsy." 

The district known as Yarrow, to the east of St Mary's 
Loch, has been sung by Wordsworth in immortal verse 
' Yarrow Unvisited," "Yarrow Visited," and "Yarrow 
Revisited." The following lines from the first-named 
poem are pleasantly anticipatory of the delight which he 
afterwards experienced : 

Let beeves and horae-bred kine partake 
The sweets of Burnhill meadow ; 
The swan on still St. Mary's Lake 
Float double swan and shadow ! 
We will not see them ; will not go 
To-day, nor yet to-morrow ; 
Enough if in our hearts we know 
There's such a place as Yarrow. 

tytvcitd ffirtr Wetitminzttv 

LARGE number of people assembled at 
Westminster Abbey on the morning of 
December 24, 1890, to see the remains of the 
late Duchess of Northumberland Louisa, 
daughter of the celebrated Henry Drummond deposited 
in their final resting place. The body had been trans- 
ferred from Alnwick Castle to the residence of Earl 
Percy, in Grosvenor Square. There it remained until it 
was removed, by way of Hyde Park Corner, to the 
front of the family mansion in Grosvenor Place. As 
soon as the bereaved duke joined his eldest son at this 
point, the journey to the Abbey was resumed the hearse 
being stopped in front of the great west door. This 
furnished the onlookers with their first surprise, for the 
Percies not only claim a right of burial at Westminster, 
but their dead are admitted by the entrance that is usually 
reserved for royalty. The inscription on the coffin read 
as follows : 


Wife of Algernon George, 
6th Duke of Northumberland, 

Born October 22, 1815, 
Fell asleep December 18, 1890. 

Some interesting information concerning the ancient 
prescriptive right of the ducal family of Northumberland 
to interment in the Abbey has been given by the Dean of 
Westminster to a Royal Commission, which has recently 
published its first report of evidence on the present want 
of space for monuments there. Asked whether there are 
any prescriptive rights of burial in the Abbey other than 
the burial of kings, Dean Bradley stated that there was a 
very curious instance in what is called the Percy or 
Northumberland tomb. It is in the Chapel of St. 
Nicholas, where the Seymours were originally buried. 
The following is a list of recent burials in the Duke of 
Northumberland's vault in St. Nicholas' Chapel, viz.: 
On July 19th, 1817, Hug-h Percy, Duke of Northumber- 
land ; January 20tb, 1820, Lady Elizabeth Percy ; May 
10th, 1820, Frances Julia, Dowager Duchess of Northum- 
berland ; February 23rd, 1849, Hugh Percy, Duke of 
Northumberland ; February 25th, 1865, Algernon Percy, 
Duke of Northumberland ; August 3rd, 1866, Charlotte 
Florentia, Duchess of Northumberland ; August 30th, 
1867, George Percy, Duke of Northumberland ; Decem- 
ber 7th, 1877, Lord Henry Hugh Manners Percy ; De- 
cember 29th, 1883, Lady Louisa Percy; and December 
24th, 1890, Louisa, Duchess of Northumberland. It 
was not until after the marriage with the Duke of 
Somerset with the heiress of the Percies that the Percies 
were buried in the Abbey, and there is a prescriptive 
right, although the Dean said he could not trace its legal 
value, that the Percies may claim to be buried in the 
Percy vault. This right is still claimed and exercised, as 

February \ 
1891. / 



we have just seen. There are in the Abbey other vaults 
beloncring to private families ; but there is no other claim 
of prescriptive right. 

The right of sepulture claimed by the Dukes of North- 
umberland comes no doubt from the Percy alliance with 
the Seymours, whose ancestors appear to have been buried 
in the Chapel of St. Nicholas for centuries. One of the 
present monuments, which stands 24- feet high, was 
erected in memory of the Duchess of Somerset, who, as 
wife of the great Protector, was sister-in-law of one of the 
queens of Henry VIII., and aunt to Edward VI. On 
another of the tombs is recorded the death of Elizabeth 
Percy, who is described as sole heiress of Algernon, Duke 
of Somerset, as well as of the Ancient Earls of North- 
umberland. She is said to have "inherited all their 
great and noble qualities, together with their amiable 
and benevolent virtues." It was this lady who married 
Sir Hugh Smithson, and who became Duchess of North- 
umberland shortly before her death in 1766. Her 
funeral, we are told, led to so much crushing and confu- 
sion amongst the spectators that the screen of St. 
Edmund's Chapel was knocked down and smashed to 
pieces, stopping the ceremony for many hours, and in- 
juring a large number of the onlookers. "The body," 
says Dean Stanley, "was left in the ruined chapel, and 
the Dean did not return until after midnight, when the 
funeral was completed, but still amidst the cries and 
groans of sufferers from the fall of the screen who had not 
yet been removed. " 

at gang. 

3> 3oh,n tokoe. 

jjHE song of " Billy Oliver's Ramble " is one 
of the old-time ditties which were as highly 
popular fifty years ago as " Jimmy Joneson'a 
Whurry," "My Lord 'Size," or any of our 
historic local effusions. The author is unknown, but the 
song is a characteristic description of the ways of an 
old fashioned bard-working pitman bent on a pilgrimage 
of pleasure to his Mecca, Newcastle, and doing it, we 
fear, with anything but frugality or total abstinence. 

The tune is a very old English melody, which Mr. 
William Chappell, in his " Popular Music of the Olden 
Time," traces back to 1641, when it was introduced in 
Brome's comedy of "The Jovial Crew, or the Merry 
Beggars," with the song of "A Begging we will go." 
The latter was the prototype of several others sung to the 
same melody, such as "A Bowling we will go," "A 
Fishing we will go," "A Hunting we will go," &c., 

besides being used in a number of the principal ballad 
operas performed in London during the eighteenth 

The "Parody on Billy Oliver " was written about the 
same time, and enjoyed a share of popularity somewhat 
less than the original song. 

Me nyem it's Bil - ly 

Ol i - ver, Iv 

n - well toon aw dwell. An' aw's a clev -er 

chep, aw's sure, Tho' aw de say'd me - sel. Sio an a 

chep am aw, am aw, am 

aw, Sic an a 

clever chep am aw. 

Me nyem it's Billy Oliver, 

Iv Benwell toon aw dwell; 
An' aw's a clever chep, aw's sure, 
Tho' aw de say'd mesel. 

Sic an a, clever chep am aw, am aw, am aw, 
Sic an a clever chep am aw. 

There's not a lad iv a' wur wark 

Can put or hew wi : me ; 
Nor not a lad iv Benwell toon 

Can coax the lasses sae. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

When aw gans tiv Newcassel toon, 

Aw myeks mysel' sae fine, 
Wur neybors stand and stare at me, 

An' say " Eh ! what a shine ! " 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

An' then aw walks wi' sic an air, 

That, if the folks hev eyes. 
They a'wis think its some greet man 

That's cum in i' disguise. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c, 

An' when aw gans down Westgate Street, 

An' alang biv Denton Chare, 
Aw whussels a' the way aw gans, 

An' myek the people stare. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, & ;. 

An' then aw gans intiv the Cock* 

Ca's for a pint o" beer ; 
An' when the lassie cums in wi'd, 

Aw a'wis says maw dear ! 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

An' when w gets a pint o' beer 

Aw a'wis sings a sane ; 
For aw've a nice yen aw can sing 

Six an' thorty vairses lang. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

An' if the folks that's i' the house 
Cry " Haud yor tongue, ye cull !" 

* "The Cock," a favourite public-house of the pitmen, kept by 
the late Martin Jude, stood nearly opposite the west door of St. 
Nicholas' Cathedral. 



( February 
\ 1891. 

Aw's sure to hev a fight wi' them, 
For aw's as strang as ony bull. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

An' when aw've had a fight or twee 

An' fairly useless grown, 
Aw back, as drunk as aw can be. 

To canny Benwell toon. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 


Me nyem is Willy Dixon, 

A coachmaker to my trade ; 

And when aw see a pitman come. 

Aw run because aw's naid. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, am aw, am aw, 
Sic an a clever chep am aw. 

On pay-day neets aw gan to th' Cock, 

When the pitmen's a' gyen hyem, 
Then aw begins to rair and sing 

An" myek o' them a gyem. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &o. 

On Sunday mornings, then ye see, 

Aw dress mesel se tine ; 
And wi' me white drill pantaloons, 

Aw cuts a fearful shine. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

Then what a swagger a diz cut, 

As aw gan alang the street ; 
'But aw's myed se like nutcrackers, 

That my nose and chin they meet. 
Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

Then when aw gans to see the lass, 

It's in the afternoon ; 
An' then we gans a walking, 

Wi' her fine lustre goon. 

Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

And as we gan through Jesmond Fields 

The lasses gyep and luik, 
And efter we get past them a", 

They cry " Ah ! what a guik !" 
Sic an a clever chep am aw, &c. 

Then efter wandering up an' down. 

At neet we toddle hyem ; 
And aw gie her a kiss, ye see, 

And she cries " Fie for shem !" 
Sic an clever chep am aw, &c. 

Then aw seeks out my awd wark claes. 

Gets on another sark ; 
And on Monday morn, at six o'clock, 

Gans whisslin' off to wark. 

Sic an a clover chep am aw, &c. . 

iSrfltoiT JHatt at tfit Maavti. 

ROWNIES, it would appear, were divided 
into two sets. Both belonged to the rebellious 
spirits whom the Archangel Michael worsted 
in fair fight and tumbled ignominiously out of heaven. 
Some, when they reached the earth, took refuge in the 
dwellings of men, and became domestic drudges, service- 
able but capricious. Others fell down on the wild lonely 
moors, and were the progenitors of those usually male- 
volent elf-folk who terrified belated travellers and some- 

times drowned them in moss-haggs. A being of the 
latter class used in former days to haunt the extensive 
wastes that spread over the upper part of Northumber- 
land, houseless, treeless, and trackless. It was seldom, 
indeed, that he was actually seen, for his colour was 
that of the heather and ferns amid which he passed 
his time. 

The historian of Durham, Robert Surtees, tells, on the 
authority of an old dame named Elizabeth Cockburn, 
how, in the year before the Great Rebellion (that of 1715, 
as we conclude), two young men from Newcastle were 
sporting on the high moors above Elsdon, and at last sat 
down to refresh themselves in a green glen near a moun 
tain stream. After their repast, the younger lad ran to 
the brook for water, and, after stooping to drink, was 
surprised, on lifting his head again, by the appearance of 
a brown dwarf, who stood on a crag covered with brackens 
across the burn. This remarkable personage did not ap- 
pear to be above half the stature of an ordinary man, but 
was uncommonly stout and broad built, having the ap- 
pearance of vast strength ; his dress was entirely brown, 
the colour of the brackens, and his head covered with 
frizzled red hair ; his countenance was expressive of the 
most savage ferocity, and his eyes glared like those of a 

Addressing the awe-struck young man, he threatened 
vengeance for having trespassed on his demesnes, asking 
him if he knew in whose presence he stood. The youth re- 
plied that he supposed him to be the lord of the moors, but 
added that he had offended through ignorance, and offered 
to bring him the game he had killed. This seemed to 
mollify the dwarf a little ; nevertheless, he protested that 
nothing could be more offensive to him than such an offer. 
For, said he, "I consider the wild animals as my subjects 
and never fail to avenge their destruction. I do net feed 
on anything that has life. In the summer I subsist on 
whortle-berries, cloud-berries, dew-berries, and crane- 
berries, with nuts and mushrooms for a change ; and 
in winter my food is hazel nuts and crab apples, wild 
plums and sloes, of which I have great store in the 

The strange figure then invited the youth to partake of 
his hospitality. And the lad was about to accept the in- 
vitation when he heard the call of his companion. Turn- 
ing to tell him that he would be with him erelong, he was 
surprised to find, on looking round again, that " the Wee 
Brown Man had fled." 

Elizabeth Cockburn's information was to the effect that 
the infatuated youth paid so little attention to the warn- 
ing he had gotten from the Brown Man, that he continued 
his day's sport over the moors on his way homewards, 
reckless of the consequences. Sooth to tell, however, 
soon after his return he fell into a lingering disorder, of 
which he died before a year was out. People, of course 
felt morally certain that it was the Brown Man of the 
Moors that was the death of the irreverent sportsman 

February \ 
1891. f 



who had made light of the warning to spare his feathered 
and furred subjects. 


j]N the presence of a large assemblage of people, 
the third annual Exhibition of Toys in 
connection with the Dicky Bird Society, 
conducted by Uncle Toby in the Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle, was opened in the Bath Lane Hall, 
Newcastle, on the 19th of December, 1890. The spacious 
room was specially fitted up for the occasion ; and the 
splendid and well-displayed array of playthings collected 
and subscribed for by the members and friends of the 
society, and numbering 16,250 articles, presented an 
exceedingly pretty and attractive sight. 

The opening address was delivered by the Mayor of 
Newcastle (Mr. J. Baxter Ellis), who reviewed briefly the 
history of the society, and spoke of the good it did in 
stimulating its young members to thoughts and acts of 
kindness. Appropriate speeches were also delivered by 
the Vicar of Newcastle (the Rev. Canon Lloyd), the 
ex-Mayor (Mr. Thomas Bell), the Rev. Frank Walters, 

Colonel Coulson, Dr. Hodgkin, and the Sheriff of New- 
castle (Mr. Stephen Quin). Afterwards, accompanied by 
Mr. C. X. Sykes, of the Weekly Chronicle, who had 
charge of the musical arrangements, Madame Tomsett 
sang a song, entitled "Robin Redbreast," composed for 
the Dicky Bird Society by Miss Alice Simpkin. 

During the two days on which it remained open, the 
toy show was visited by large and interested throngs of 
spectators, the estimate being that, in all, between 30,000 
and 4-0,000 persons had passed through the room. Vocal 
and instrumental music was performed at intervals. The 
Wellesley Band, under the leadership of Mr. Wigg, Mus. 
Bach., played "Uncle Toby's March," the composition of 
Mr. Ernest Reid, of Newcastle ; and a very charming 
pianoforte recital was given by Master Willie Wigg. 
Mr. J. H. Amers kindly gave the services of his 
orchestral band on the two afternoons, and selections 
were likewise rendered by the Newcastle Industrial 
Band, the Newcastle Workhouse Band, and ihe Gates- 
head Workhouse Band. Among other performers were 
Miss Etta Newborne, Mr. W. G. Whittaker, Master 
Willie Scott, Miss Lillie Heenan, Master T. H. Morrison, 
Master Harry Amers, Miss Ethel May Amers, and Miss 
Kate Steele. 

The closing address was delivered by Mr. Alderman 
W. D. Stephens, the proceedings concluding with three 



cheers for Uncle Toby and Father Chirpie. The 
articles comprising the varied and extensive collection of 
toys were afterwards, as usual, distributed among the 
poor children in the charitable institutions of the North 
of England and elsewhere. 

$atl) $ane ljurcl) anb 

More than thirty years ago, when the late Dr. 
Rutherford was holding religious services in the Lecture 
Room, Nelson Street, Newcastle, he gathered around him 
a number of influential supporters, who, finding that the 
popularity of this energetic preacher was increasing, 
decided upon erecting for him a permanent place of wor- 
ship. The edifice then raised was Bath Lane Church, 
which was built and opened in 1860. It occupies a site at 
the corner of Bath Lane and Corporation Street. Not 
long after being settled in his new church, Dr. Ruther- 
ford set about the foundation of schools. As a re- 
sult of his energy and enterprise, the elementary schools 
in Corporation Street adjoining the church were erected 
in 1870. Accommodation was provided for 660 scholars, 
but within a short time it was found necessary to provide 
seats for double that number of children, while branch 
schools were afterwards opened elsewhere. The next 
progressive step in the cause of education was the erection 
of the School of Science and Art, also in Corporation 
Street, the foundation stone of which was laid on 
November 21, 1877, by Mr. Joseph Cowen. This was 
followed in 1886 by the establishment of a technical 
college, situated in Diana Street, containing workshops, 
dining hall, and about fifty separate dormitories. Over 
all his educational undertakings, Dr. Rutherford ex- 
ercised personal supervision. After a life of untiring 
zeal, he died suddenly on March 22, 1890, to the great 
grief of bis fellow-townsmen, more than one hundred 
thousand of whom lined the streets as his remains were 
borne to their last resting place. It was in the large hall 
devoted to the elementary schools that Uncle Toby held 
his third annual Exhibition of Toys. 

Sttrtring at 

Irmng'is Jirjit Appearance. 

j]REAT preparations were being made in 
December, 1855, for the production at the 
Lyceum Theatre, Sunderland, of the panto- 
mime, " Puss in Boots," in which Sam John- 
eon was to play the Cat. Scenery of the most picturesque 
and costumes of the most elaborate description were pre- 
pared ; most careful rehearsals had brought us up to as near 
perfection as was possible ; and on the Saturday night 
iChristmas Eve) we parted at twelve o'clock with the 

hope of meeting on the Monday and taking the town by 
storm. The theatre was carefully looked over from the 
large front doors, which were fastened by heavy bars of 
wood across the back as well as by lock and bolts, to the 
purlieus of the stage, above and below, and so to the stage 
exit. Everything was right, and apparently safe. 

In the middle of my first sleep I was listening, it 
seemed, to the vigorous plaudits of an audience, but these 
soon resolved themselves into frantic knockings at ray 
bedroom door, accompanied by cries of "Get up, Mr. 
Davis ! The Lyceum is on fire ! " As may be imagined, 
it did not take me long to struggle into some garments and 
get to the theatre. The entire back part of the building, 
by which alone entrance could be made, was a raging 
furnace. That end was hopeless, "To the front !" was 
then the cry. Those bars and bolts appeared to be 
adamantine. Hatchets, crowbars, improvised battering 
rams all were applied vigorously and unceasingly 
until the doors went down, and I made a rush 
for the stairs leading to the wardrobe, which was 
in the front of the house. The last thing I saw was a 
roaring flame rushing at terrific speed towards me, but I 
thought it might be just possible to save the costumes. 
The next instant, as it seemed, I found friends round me 
in the street forcing water and other refreshers into my 
mouth. They said I had fallen, and providentially so 
close to the stairs that I had rolled down them. 

Dipping a handkerchief into water, I tied it over my 
mouth and nostrils, and with a hatchet in my hand made 
for another stair leading to the business office. Others 
followed, we smashed a door or two, and with great 
difficulty we contrived to get out the office desk with its 
contents the sole salvage from the entire wreck. 

It was then about five in the morning ; snow deep on 
the ground, the military drawn up in due array, and the 
entire building a mass of flame a beautiful sight to on- 
lookers who had not a personal interest in the result. To 
me it was different, "Have you telegraphed to E. D. 
Davis?" "Certainly not; let him have his night's 
rest. He'll know all about it quite soon enough." Some 
one, however, wished to be the first to make the pleasing 
announcement, and just as the roof had fallen in my 
father arrived from Newcastle. As we met there was no 
word spoken ; just an exchange of looks, and a good firm 
hand grip. Then we went away to see what was to be 

While we E. D. D. and self were writing letters, 
our friends came in troops to bring comfort and cheer us 
ur>, and we were compelled in the kindest manner to join 
an improvised dinner party, where jollity and enjoyment 
were the order of the day. 

The announcement was at once put out that the New 
Lyceum Theatre would be opened in the month of Sep- 
tember of the following year, and building was imme- 
diately commenced. It being settled that the new 
theatre should be much larger than the original Lyceum, 

February \ 
1891. J 



purchase was made of adjoining premises, and of course 
there was not to be any large hall underneath to favour 
"the entrance of any would-be fire-raiser." When com- 
pleted the theatre was considered such a perfect model of 
comfort in the auditorium, and of convenience behind the 
curtain, that the builder (Mr. J. Potts, of Sunderland) 
rose into eminence as a theatre architect, and was sent for 
to improve and re-build several other houses in Glasgow, 
Birkenhead, and elsewhere. 

As promised, the theatre was opened in September, 
1856, and on the 29th of that month we started. For 
months previously a small army of scenic artists had been 
at work, headed by John Johnson. Carpenters, property 
makers, and of course costumiers had been working night 
and day, and everything was, as far as could be foreseen, 
ready and perfect. Among the names of a carefully 
selected corps dramatique were those of our old friend Sam 
Johnson, George Orvell (real name Frederick Kimpster), 
Miss Sly Loveday (sister of H. J. Loveday, the present 
much respected stage manager of the Lyceum, London), 
afterwards married to Mr. Kimpster ; and a youthful 
novice just eighteen, " his first appearance on any stage," 
called Henry Irving. Making his first appearance, he 
spoke the first word in the first piece (played for the first 
time in the town, I believe) on the first or opening night 
of the new theatre, from which he has by his industry 
and genius worked up to the proud position of the first 
man in the first theatre of the first city of the world ! The 
words of the speech itself, "Here's to our enterprise !" have 
in them almost a prophetic tone of aspiration and success. 

It will be readily believed that on such an occasion my 
time was fully occupied. In fact, so busy was I in front 
and behind the scenes that I was barely able to reach my 
place on the stage in time for the rising of the curtain. 
I kept my back to the audience till my cue to speak was 
given, all the while buttoning up, tying, and finishing my 
dressing generally, so that scant attention would be given 
to others. But even under these circumstances I was 
compelled to notice, and with perfect appreciation, the 
great and most minute care which had been bestowed by 
our aspirant on the completion of his costume. In those 
days managers provided the mere dress. Accessories, or 
"properties," as they were called, were found by every 

Henry Irving was, from his splendid white hat and 
feather; to the tips of his shoes, point-device, a perfect 
picture ; and, no doubt, had borrowed his authority from 
some historical picture of the Louis XIII. period. From 
the very outset of his career, he gave an earnest of that 
attention to detail, in its microscopic points, which has 
culminated in his being facile princeps among stage 
directors, and the beat arranger of realistic theatrical 
pictures in the world. 

The character in which Mr. Irving made his first 
bow to the theatrical public was that of Orleans in 
"Richelieu." ALFRED DAVIS. 

SHE Flycatchers (ifuscicapcej, a rather 
numerous group, constitute a family of 
birds chiefly confined to Europe, Africa, and 
Asia, our only British birds of the family, 
both spring and autumn migrants, being the spotted and 
pied flycatchers. The members of this family have 

elongated bodies, short necks, and broad heads. Their 
soft and rather fluffy plumage varies considerably in its 
colouration, according to the age and sex of the bird, and 
the young are easily recognised by their spotted appear- 
ance. They frequent trees in preference to bushes, and 
rarely seek their food on the ground. In fine weather 
they may be seen darting from the branches of trees, 
snapping up passing flies. In rainy weather, when flies 
and insects are under cover, the birds feed on berries and 
wild fruit. 

The spotted flycatcher iMuscicapa griiola), which is 
tolerably plentiful in the Northern Counties, is about the 
latest of our summer arrivals, and it departs for warmer 
climes correspondingly early. The bird is a regular 
frequenter of gardens and orchards, where it is too often 
killed by fruit growers while clearing the fruit trees and 
bushes of insect pests. It is known as the beam bird, 
rafter, cob-web bird, post bird, cherry chopper, cherry 
sucker, and chanchider. Its scientific name, Afuscicapa 
is derived from musca, a fly, and capio, to catch or take, 
while grisola seems to indicate that the bird helps itself 
to garden fruits. It is, however, by no means a fruit 
eater, inasmuch as its food consists almost exclusively of 
insects inimical to fruits, wild and cultivated. Gilbert 
White, of Selborne, notes that the female, while hatch- 
ing, is assiduously fed by her mate as late as nine o'clock 
at night. 

The following curious circumstance has been recorded 
of a brood of flycatchers, which had been taken from a 
nest, and placed in a large cage with some other birds of 
different species, among which was a robin : The young 



f Fe'oruary 

birds were fed regularly by one of their parents, the 
female, while her mate, who accompanied her constantly 
in her flight, used to wait outside the window, either 
upon the roof of the house or on a neighbouring tree. 
Sometimes the little birds were on the top perch of the 
cage, and not always near enough to the wires of the 
cage to be within reach of the old bird when she ap- 
peared with food ; but the robin, who had been for some 
time an inhabitant of the cage, where it lived in perfect 
harmony with all its associates, and had from the first 
taken great interest in the little flycatchers, now per- 
ceiving that the nestlings could not reach the offered 
food, but sat with their wings fluttering, and their 
mouths open, anxious to obtain it, flew to the wires, 
received the insects from the mother bird, and put them 
into the open mouths of the nestlings. This was repeated 
every succeeding day, as often as kind robin's services 
were required. 

The male bird (and in plumage and markings the hen 
resembles her mate) is soberly feathered, and but for the 
conformation of the beak, and the spotted feathers of the 
breast, might be taken for the titlark, though the latter 
affects a different habitat. It has an undulating flight, 
not unlike that of the pied wagtail, and its only note is a 
weak and somewhat monotonous chirp, which it mostly 
utters from the branch of a tree or shrub. The birds, 
which commence to nest about the beginning of June, 
sometimes select extraordinary places for their nests, and 
some have even been known to build on lamp-posts and in 
letter boxes. 

The average length of the male is five inches and a half ; 
bill,' dusky, flattened and broad at the base, with a ridge 
along the upper part ; the under mandible is yellowish 
at the base ; iris, dark brown ; head, brown ; crown, 
spotted with darker brown ; neck on the sides, streaked 
with brown ; nape, as the back ; chin, dull white streaked 
with brown; breast, as the chin, tinged on the sides 
with yellowish brown ; back, light brown ; greater 
and lesser wing coverts, as the back ; primaries, darker 
brown, sometimes edged with buff brown ; the first feather 
very short, the second and fourth nearly equal, the third 
the largest ; secondaries, as the primaries ; tertiaries, 
the same, with a narrow margin of light brown. Tail, 
brown, paler at the tip, slightly forked ; under tail coverts, 
dull white ; legs, toes, and claws, dusky black. 

The pied flycatcher (Muscicapa luctuosa) is a much 
rarer bird than the spotted flycatcher, and affects more 
lonely localities. On this account, and as it cannot be 
said to be plentiful anywhere, it is by no means as well 
known as its more familiar relative. It is sometimes 
called the coldfinch and epicurean warbler, and occurs 
sparingly in most English districts, but seems most 
partial to the Northern Counties. Morris remarks that 
it appears to be only a summer visitant, and not a 
resident throughout the year. 

Mr. John Hancock, in his "Catalogue of the Birds of 

Northumberland and Durham," has some interesting 
notes on the bird. The pied flycatcher, he observes, "is 
a spring-and-autumn migrant, though very rarely ob- 
served breeding here. I never obtained its nest in the 
district, though Bewick mentions the occurrence of one in 
Axwell Park, near Newcastle, in June, 1801. And I am 
informed by Mr. Isaac Clark that a nest was taken with 
five eggs in Stella Park, a little west of Newcastle. A 
few of the birds may always be seen on our coast in 
autumn previous to their migration ; and in the middle 
of May they are occasionally observed in the same 
locality on their return to this country." 

The bird has been found along the banks of the Eden, 
near Carlisle ; on the banks of the Lyne, near the Border; 
and in various parts of the Lake District. Years ago it 
was by no means scarce in Castle Eden Dene. Morris 

notes that it has been seen near Wearmouth (Sunder- 
land), in Durham, and several others at Benton and other 
parts of Northumberland. Indeed, it has of late years in- 
creased in numbers, both in Northumberland and 
Durham, and is found nesting regularly in the two 

The food consists almost entirely of insects, which are 
captured in the air when the birds are on the wing. 

The male bird is about five inches in length ; tail, 
black ; head on the sides, dark brown spotted with 
white ; crown, black ; forehead, white, the connection of 
two white spots ; neck and nape, brownish or yellowish 
black ; chin, throat, and breast, white, tinged with 
yellowish brown at the sides ; back black, blackish grey 
in winter. The wings, which expand to a width of about 
seven and a half inches, reach to one-third of the length 
of the tail, which is black, with the exception of the basal 
half of the outer web of the outer feather, but it is said to 
be totally black in aged birds. The wings are brownish 
black, edged with white ; tail coverts, greyish black ; 
under tail coverts, white ; legs, toes, and claws, black. 
The female is distinguished from the male by the white 
portions of the plumage being of a duller hue chan in her 

February \ 
1891. f 



mate. The young are at first mottled over with dull 
white spots on the back, and with brown on the breast ; 
the eyes, toes, and claws being of a dark slate colour. 


, arcfrfcteftap at 

ILLIAM THOMSON, Archbishop of York, 
and Primate of All England, whose death 
occurred at Bishopthorpe on Christmas morn- 
', 1890, was the son of Mr. John Thomson, of Kelswick 
House, near Whitehaven, and was born in the year 1819. 
It was at Shrewsbury and Queen's College, Oxford, 
that he received his higher education. While at Oxford 
he devoted a great portion of his time to the study of 
k>g!c, and produced his well-known work, " An Outline 


of the Laws of Thought," which is used as a text-book in 
several universities in this country and in America. 

Entering the church, he was for three years curate of 
St. Nicholas', Guildford, and there he came under the 
notice of one of the greatest men of the day, Samuel 
Wilberforce, father of the present Bishop of Newcastle, 
who was then Archdeacon of Surrey. By hirn Mr. 
Thomson was offered a curacy at Alverstoke; but 
while the arrangement was being made the rector ol 
Alverstoke became Bishop of Oxford, and Mr. Thomson 
followed him to Cuddesdon as curate, the bishop being 
then the vicar of that parish, in which the episcopal 
palace is situated. Here he did not remain long, for in 

1847 he was asked to return to his college as tutor, 
a position that he occupied for over eight years, 
during which period he successively became dean and 

The year after Mr. Thomson's return to Queen's 
College, he was appointed Select Preacher to the Uni- 
versity, which distinguished post he was again called 
upon to fill in 1856. Previous to the latter date he was 
chosen Bampton Lecturer an honourable office which 
the University bestows upon her most eminent men. 

The year 1855 was an eventful one in the life aud career 
of Mr. Thomson. In the month of July he married Miss 
Zoe Skene, then living with her grandfather, James 
Skene, of Rubislaw, known to many as the friend of Sir 
Walter Scott, who dedicated to him the fourth canto of 
"Marmion." The lady's father was James Henry 
Skene, her Majesty's Consul at Aleppo, while her mother 
was Rhalou Rangabe, a Greek lady of distinguished 

And in this year commenced those appointments which 
led up to Mr. Thomson's promotion to the Primacy of 
England. It was then that he became Chaplain to the 
Queen, and shortly after, when the important Crown 
living of All Souls. Langham Place, became vacant, Lord 
Palmerston, who was Prime Minister, offered it to Mr. 
Thomson. Shortly after he had accepted the living of 
All Souls, he was elected Provost of Queen's College. At 
this time Mr. Thomson was only 36 an unusually early 
age for anyone to be elected to such a position. In 1856 
Mr. Thomson took his degree of Doctor of Divinity. In 
1858 the preachership of Lincoln's Inn became vacant, 
and the Provost of Queen's, who had by this time estab- 
lished a considerable reputation as a preacher, became 
a candidate for the distinguished post. There were 
thirty competitors, and from among them the benchers 
of the society elected Dr. Thomson by a very large 

After a few years' enjoyment of the comparatively 
tranquil position of Provost of Queen's, Dr. Thomson was 
called to a higher post and increased responsibilities. The 
See of Gloucester and Bristol became vacant in 1861 by 
the death of Bishop Monk ; and Lord Palmerston, who 
was still Prime Minister, presented it to Dr. Thomson. 
A year after this Dr. Longley was translated to Canter- 
bury, and the newly-made Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol 
was appointed in his room, and became Archbishop of 

The Archbishop was the projector of the "Speaker's 
Commentary"; he also contributed largely to Smith's 
"Dictionary of the Bible." A theologian, philosopher, 
and poet, Archbishop Thomson was also a student of 
physical science, and had a remarkable power of grasping 
any subject to which he turned his mind. On one occa- 
sion, when he addressed the students of St. Mary's 
Hospital, Paddington, the medical men present ex- 
claimed, "What a good doctor spoilt by being Arch- 




bishop ! " Another time an ironmaster to whom he was 
talking said, "If he hod been an ironmaster, he would 
have beaten us all." 

years ago, and was left with a grown-up family, chiefly 
sons, the eldest of whom is 73 years old. 


atrti Cunwmrtaries. 


A Dunston correspondent, who takes the name of Vil- 

lage Blacksmith, lately informed the readers of the Weekly 

Chronicle that a venerable gentleman who had nearly 

reached his hundredth 
year was still living, 
hale and hearty, in the 
neighbourhood of Kib- 
blesworth. Village 
Blacksmith has since 
supplied me with a few 
particulars of this re- 
markable man, together 
with a copy of a photo- 
graph which was taken 
by Mr. J. Eltriugham, 
of the Telling. It is 
from this photograph 
that the accompanying 
sketch has been copied. 
Mr. Thomas Ironsides 
was born at the quaint village of Kibblesworth, in the 
county of Durham, in 1791, so that he is within a very 
few months of celebrating his hundredth birthday. It 
is an interesting fact that he first saw the light 
in the same house Kibblesworth East Farm that 
he now occupies, which has been his peaceable 
home for close upon a century. Mr. Ironsides is a 
son of the late William Ironsides, a well-known agricul- 
turist in his day. Coming to Kibblesworth about 1786, the 
father obtained from an ancestor of Lord Ravensworth the 
farm which his son now holds. William was born in the 
year 1766, and died on July 25, 1856, at the ripe age of 
90 years. After his father's retirement, about 61 years 
ago, Thomas took the farm (which he had managed for 
some time previously) into his own hands, and he has 
carried it on with success up to the present day. 
Although the old gentleman walks at a slow pace, 
and has to rely upon a trusty stick, he still takes plenty 
of out-door exercise, enjoys good health, and has all his 
mental faculties about him. When a young man, he 
served in Sir Thomas Burdon's cavalry. Although he was 
seven years a foot soldier and seven years a horse soldier, 
he was never called out except once, and thatwasatthetime 
of the great Keelmen's Strike on the Tyne, when troops 
were despatched to Shields to assist in preserving the 
peace. Village Blacksmith regrets to say that Mr. 
Ironsides lost the partner of his joys and sorrows some 

Elizabeth Isabella Spence, the descendant of a literary 
family, was the only child of Dr. Spence of Durham, where 
she was born in the year 1767. Her parents dying whilst 
she was yet a child, she went to London and resided with 
some friends, and there became imbued with a desire for 
the study of literature. At the house of these relatives 
she became the associate and friend of many of the leading 
litterateurs of the period, and in time the authoress of 
several works, including : " Summer Excursions through 
Part of England and Wales," "Letters from the North 
Highlands," " Tales of Welsh Society and Scenery," 
"The Curate and his Daughter," "Dame Rebecca 
Berry." She died at Chelsea on the 27th of July, 1832, 
in the sixty-fifth year of her age. 

J. W. FAWCETT, The Grange, Satley. 

Old Samuel Wood, Town Clerk of Jedburgh, gave 
Henry Brougham his first brief. He found him in his 
office, pacing up and down like a bear in his den, with a 
clerk, evidently afraid of him, writing to his dictation. 
Mr. Wood stated his case, and then proceeded, with the 
natural self-confidence of an old practitioner, to give him 
some law points. Brougham stopped him. " Are these 
the facts?" "Yes." "Then leave the law to me. 
Good day !" And he hurried him out. The worthy old 
gentleman thought he had engaged a madman; but 
Brougham gained the cause. While it was going 
on in the court, the young advocate curtly asked 
the attorney if he could lend him ten pounds. He did so. 
"I'll remit you," said Brougham. But the remittance 
never came. Six months afterwards, Mr. Wood was 
walking along Princes Street when he saw Brougham 
approaching. He would have avoided him, but the 
future Lord Chancellor's quick eye, catching sight of his 
Jeddart friend, put it out of his power. Brougham came 
forward with a bound, and, taking his hand, said, " I 
remitted you yesterday, Mr. Wood, with ten thousand 
thanks, and ten thousand apologies ; for I had entirely 
forgotten all about it." He sent off the money by next 
post. W. BROCKIE, Sunderland. 

William Gibson was born at Boulton, near Appleby, 
Westmoreland, in 1720. From his childhood (so I 
read in the "Imperial Dictionary,") he was brought 
up to farming, receiving no education whatever. In 
early manhood he obtained a farm at Hollins, near 
Cartmell Fell, Lancashire. It was here he commenced 
to teach himself how to read, his chief lesson book 
being a work on arithmetic. While studying the art 
of reading, he developed a marvellous power for work- 

February \ 
189L / 



ing out sums of all kinds by sheer mental process. He 
next set about mastering the art of writing; then he 
devoted all his spare time to studying geometry, algebra, 
trigonometry, and astronomy, proving himself an expert 
in these sciences, finally acquiring a sound knowledge 
of the higher grades in mathematics and their various 
branches. The problems propounded in the " Ladies' 
Diary," the "Palladium," the "Gentleman's Diary," 
and cognate publications, were answered by him with an 
accuracy so astounding that his fame spread far and wide. 
Mathematicians in various parts of England were glad to 
consult him on abstruse matters. By the time he was 
thirty years of age he opened a school at Cartmel for the 
instruction of eight or ten pupils, who boarded at his 
farm-house. He also held a good position as a laud- 
surveyor and acquired a lucrative practice. He died from 
the effects of a fall at his bouse at Blawitb, near Cartmel, 
on Sept. 4, 1791, leaving a widow and ten children. 

C. H. STEPHENSON, Southport. 


One of the first persons to suggest the idea of a high level 
bridge between Newcastle and Gateshead was Edward 
Hutchinson, master-mason, of Newcastle, who, when the 
old Tyne Bridge was swept away in 1771, brought a 
prospectus and plan before the Newcastle Corporation ; 
but the project was premature, and nothing was done. 
In 1853 a plan was presented for an elevated suspension 
bridge, to connect Newcastle and Gateshead, by Mr. B. R. 
Dodd, civil engineer, Newcastle, at a cost of 77,000 ; but 
this project was also abandoned. About the year 1839 
Messrs. John and Benjamin Green published a scheme for 
a high level bridge. Although a committee of the New- 
castle Corporation, of which Sir John Fife was a member, 
reported in favour of the plan, it likewise was abandoned. 

Another plan for a high level bridge was that of Mr. 
Richard Grainger, who proposed to erect a superstruc- 
ture on the Tyne Bridge, consisting of a viaduct for 
passengers and other traffic, supported upon metal tubes 
resting upon the piers of the bridge. Mr. Grainger's pro- 
posal, which, like the others, left the railway connection 
severed, did not meet with much favour. The eccentric 
William Martin (brother of John Martin, the painter) 
proposed to raise an additional storey upon the old bridge. 

The most important proposal of all was that of Mr. John 
Dobson, the architect of many of the fine buildings in 
Newcastle. His plan provided a road for horse carriages 
and foot passengers in addition to a viaduct with two 
lines of railway, and included the formation of a grand 
central and general railway station in Neville Street, 
Newcastle. To Mr. Dobson is due the honour of 
having initiated the idea of the High Level Bridge ; but 
he did not design that noble structure. The directors of 
the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway Company, who saw 
the utility of the plan, judiciously engaged the services 
of the greatest engineer of the day, Mr. Robert Stephen- 

son, to carry the scheme into execution, engaging Mr. 
Dobson at the same time to design the Central Railway 
Station. x., Newcastle. 


arcus meridian! 25 20' 


ad fluvium Danubiun usque 


Norvegiam, Sueoiam et Rossiam 
j ussu et auspiciis 
Eegis Augustissimi 

et Imperatorura AuKUStissimorum 




continue labore emensi sunt 
triuiu gentium Geometry. 

Latitudo 70' W 11" 3. 

At a little distance outside the town of Hammerfest 
(the most northern town in Norway and of the world), 
there stands a handsome polished granite pillar, of 
which I here give a drawing from a photograph. The 
pillar is surmounted by a large bronze casting of 

the globe, and upon 
I this the hemispheres 

are portrayed in re- 
lief, the wholestand- 
ing upon a suitable 
base consisting of 
three tiers of granite, 
and enclosed by a 
massive metal rail- 
ing. Upon either 
side of the granite 
column may be read 
an inscription in the 
Latin and Norwe- 
gian languages 
which indicates that 
the pillar has been 
erected for putting 
on record the fact 
that the geometri- 
cians of the three 

northern countries Norway, Sweden, and Russia under 
the auspices of the most august King Oscar I., and of the 
most august Emperors Alexander I. and Nicholas I., 
have, by continuous labour, during the years 1816-1852, 
measured the northern terminus of the arc of the meridian 
of 25 20', the latitude being recorded as 70 40' 11" 3. 

VIATOR, Newcastle. 



Mr. Joaeph W. Oliver, now of Birmingham, while 

employed in the Electric Telegraph Company's office in 

the Sandhill, Newcastle, in 1849, had the honour of 

sending the first telegraphic message that was ever 



/ February 
\ 189L 

transmitted from Newcastle to London. How this hap- 
pened has been thus described by himself : 

In those days, night-work was almost a sinecure, and, 
except in the troublous times of 184-8, it was rare that 
anything occurred to disturb our "watchful repose," or 
the game of draughts in which we occasionally indulged 
with our fellow-clerk at Edinburgh or York. On one 
occasion somewhere in the latter half of 18491 was 
alone on night duty at the Sandhill, long after all active 
business had ceased, when, looking up from a book I was 
reading, I noticed a slight vibration of the needles taking 
place. But it was so very slight, and so much like that 
which was constantly being caused by disturbed condi- 
tions of the atmosphere, that for some time I paid but 
little heed. At last, however, I began to suspect that 
someone was "calling " Newcastle, and I at once proceeded 
to reply to the signal, taking it for granted that it was one 
of the stations with which we usually communicated, but 
that some accident had occurred to the wires, and thus 
rendered the signal indistinct. For a long time, I could 
make nothing of it, but at last, after a very slow and 
deliberate putting of the question, " Who are you ?" I got 
the reply, equally deliberately given, but with the very 
faintest motion of the needles, "lam I. R." As far as 
my memory goes, those were the code letters which stood 
ior London ; at any rate, it was the code signal for Lon- 
don which was given, and to my astonishment I found I 
was speaking to the great metropolis, whereas up to that 
time our messages had never gone further than Norman- 
ton. We both of us tried a little further talk, but with- 
out avail ; and presently Nprmanton intervened and told 
me he had connected me with London, and that it was 
with London I had been speaking. My chief and col 
leagues were considerably surprised when I reported the 
matter to them next morning. 

ifJcrrtft=Cmwtrt> 8Mtt& ftunumr. 


A drunken character was accosted in the streets of 
Blyth one day by a person of evangelistic propensities, 
who found John in his usual condition. " Oh Jack," said 
he, " drunk again, aa see. Wey. man, whaat'll become 
o' ye ? Divvent ye knaa that drunkards cannot inherit 
the kingdom of heaven?" "Aye," said Jack, "aaknaa 
that; but aa divvent mean to get drunk when aa gans 

thor !" 


A Pelton Fell man who had purchased the week's pro- 
visions at the co-operative stores, called at a public-house 
on his way home, and indulged rather freely in strong ale. 
The result was that he lost his parcel. On his arrival at 
his home, he told his wife of his misfortune, and she up- 
braided him for his folly. "Begox," he suddenly shouted 
in joyful tones, " it's not se bad ef tor aall. Nivvor mind 
the grosseries aa've getten the checks aall reet ! " 

A Tyneside artist was painting the portrait of a sculler 
who hails from the other side of the Atlantic. The oarsman 
was seated in his boat, and the painter was desirous that 
he should alter his position. " I want you to be a little 
more foreshortened," said the painter. " What's that ?" 
queried the other. "Oh, it's just an artist's expression 
an artist's license." "Waal," said the oarsman, " this is 

the first time I've heard that English painters have to 
obtain licenses !" 


A local character in the neighbourhod of Jarrow, a 
great frequenter of public-houses, was accosted recently 
by a temperance friend who pointed out that he was des- 
pised and rejected by all respectable people, owing to his 
frequent visits to the public-house. " Ah, weel," was the 
reply, " if aa is despised and rejected by them, aa can 
easily see that it's for the syem reason that ma Lord and 
Master was despised and rejected because aa's a friend 
of publicans and sinnors !" 


A gentleman and his wife were walking down Grey 
Street, Newcastle, when a little sweep in front of them 
delivered a volley of oaths, and then ran away. The 
gentleman, disgusted, left his partner and hastened after 
the boy to correct him. "You young scoundrel," he 
cried, shaking the boy, "what made you swear before my 
wife?" "What, sor?" "What made you swear before 
my wife?" "Oh, aadident knaa, sor," whimpered the 
laddie, " thet'yor wife wanted to sweer, or she shud ha' 
sweered afore aa did !" 


Two miners were conversing together one morning dur- 
ing the spelling bee rage. Bob says to Mick, " What an 
a sort of a speller is thoo, Mick ?" "Wey, when aa went 
te skyule, aa nivvor got varry far larn'd, but aa knaa 
m-double-e spells me." "Whaat?" says Bob; " 
dissent." " Wey, it dis noo," says Mick. " Aa tell thoo, 
man, thoo's wrang," said Bob. "Wabbot, aa's sure aa's 
reet; it dis, mun." "Hoots man, had thee tongue ; aa 
tell thoo thoo's wrang; it dissent spell me," says Bob. 
" Wey. aa cannot tell whether it spells thoo or not, but 
aa can insure thoo it spells me !" 


A few years ago a keelman opened the door of a carriage 
at a Tyneside railway station, with the intention of 
entering, but found that the passage was not clear, as a 
tall, thin gentleman, deeply engaged in reading his paper, 
and evidently too much interested to perceive the opening 
of the door, had his legs stretched on to the opposite seat. 
Making his way up the steps, the keelman shouted out, 
" Mind thy pipestopples, man !" The gentleman at once 
withdrew the offending extremities, and the keelman took 
his seat. As soon as the train started, the former began, 
"I am sorry, my friend, that I did not observe your 
entrance, or I certainly should not have caused such an 
offending request to be made to me. But just let me give 
you a bit of advice. Be a little more respectful and 
courteous to your fellows, make your requests with a 
certain amount of civility and regard, and I'll warrant 
you will get on much better in life." The keelman looked 
at him with somewhat of a curious gaze, as if he hardly 
understood him, but, determined not to be beaten, re- 
plied, "Noo, let me gie thoo a bit advice. Always keep 

February X 
1391. I 



thy pipestopples oot o' folk's way, if thoo dissent war.t 
them smashed !" 

age being only 35 years. The deceased, who was born at 
Blenkiasop, near Haltwhistle, in 1855, after studying at 

D (Dfottuartto. 

On the 12th of December, 1890, Mrs. Dodds, widow of Mr. 
George Dodds, the well-known temperance advocate and 
ex -Mayor of Tynemouth, died at the residence of her 
grandson, Mr. Allison, at Liverpool. The remains of the 
deceased were conveyed to Newcastle, and interred in 
All Saints' Cemetery. 

Mr. John Burnup, of the firm of Messrs John Burnup 
and Sons, builders, and for many years chairman of St. 
John's Burial Board, Newcastle, died in Newcastle, on 
the 11th of December, in the 87th year of his age. 

On the same day, Mr. Robert McQueen, senior partner 
in the firm of R. McQueen and Son, cutlers, Grainger 
Street, Newcastle, died at his residence at Gateshead. 

On the 18th of December the Duchess of Northumber- 
land died at Alnwick Castle. (See ante, p. 82.) 

The death was announced, on the 20th of December, of 
Joseph Inskip, an old standard of the city of Durham. 
The deceased was a great favourite of John Gully, the 
celebrated prize - fighter, horse racer, legislator, and 
colliery proprietor, by whom he was frequently enter- 
tained at Cocken Hall. 

On the 23rd of December, Mr. William Dodd Pratt, a 
large land and property owner, died suddenly at Field 
House, Hylton, in the 69th year of bis age. The deceased 
was originally an architect, and in that capacity furnished 
the design of the Lambton Monument at Penshaw. Mr. 
Pratt was a member of several local public bodies. 

On the same day, James C. Hunter, an old showman, 
died at South Bank, Yorkshire. The deceased was a 
Newcastle man, belonging to the Ouseburn, and a brick- 
layer to trade, but at an early age he acquired a taste for 
the drama, and as an actor and showman he travelled 
round the Northern Counties, Northumberland and 
Durham especially being his favourites. 

Mrs. Watson, of Prestone, Weardale, a lady well known 
for her philanthropy, died suddenly on the 24th of 

Mr. Joseph Michael Smith, of Monkwearmouth, a 
retired draper, local philanthropist, and originator of the 
Volunteer Life Brigade at Roker, died on the 24th of 
December, 80 years of age. 

Dr. Thomson, Archbishop of York, in his 72nd year, 
died in that city on the 25th of December. (See ante, 
page 89.) 

On the 27th of December, Mr. Matthew Stephenson 
Dodds, the oldest printer in business in Newcastle, died 
at his residence in Gateshead, aged 70 years. 

Mr. Thomas Richardson, member of Parliament for 
the Hartlepools, died at his residence, Kirklevington, near 
Yarm, on the 29th of December. The deceased gentle- 
man, who was 69 years of age, was head of the firm of 
Richardson and Sons, marine engineers, Hartlepool. 

On the 30th of December, the remains of the late Mr. 
Jonathan Claude Wylie, a noted linguist, and a frequent 
contributor to theological and philological discussions, 
were interred in the cemetery at Blackhill. 

Mr. George Walton, artist, of Newcastle, who was 
especially distinguished as a portrait painter, died at 
Appleby, Westmoreland, on the 30th of December, his 


the School of Art, Newcastle, the Royal Academy, and 
in Paris, painted many portraits of great excellence both 
in England and in Australia. 

On the 1st of January, 1891. Mrs. Harkness, wife of 
the chief officer of the Tyne Division of the Salvation 
Army, died in Westgate Road, Newcastle. 

At the age of 75 years, Mr. William Knott, for upwards 
of thirty years outdoor manager fortheSunderland Water 
Company, died on the 4th of January, 

Mr. J. G. Robinson, one of the principal clerks in 
Backhouse's Bank at Durham, a prominent architologist, 
and a captain in the 4th Durham Volunteers, died on the 
5th of January, aged 50 years. 

The death occurred on the 6th of January, at an ad- 
vanced age, of Mr. Thomas Brentnall, J.P., of South- 
field Terrace, Middlesbrough. The deceased was Mayor 
of that borough in 1862-63. 

On the 6th of January, news was received of the death, 
at Hull, of Mr. William Joliffe, the founder of the 
famous steam-tug boat company at Liverpool, to which 
town, in early life, he had removed from Shields. 

Mr. Thomas Tucker, managing partner of the firm of 
Isaac Tucker and Co., brewers and merchants, Gates- 
head, died suddenly on the 6th of January, aged 41. 

On the 8th of January, intelligence was received of the 
death from fever at Usambiro, in Africa, of two mission- 
aries belonging to the party of Bishop Tucker. One of 
the unfortunate gentlemen was Mr. James William 
Dunn, a native of Blaydon. 

Mr, John Thompson, who for thirty years was a builder 
of wooden ships at Sunderland, died on the 8th of 

On the same day, the death took place of Mr. John 
Binks, for forty years assistant-overseer and poor-rate 
collector for the township of Westoe, in the South Shields 



f February 

Union. Mr. Binks was a native of Alnwick, and was 81 
years of age. 

Mr. H. Bowman Brady, of the firm of Brady ana 
Martin, chemists, Newcastle, and one of the sons of Dr. 
Brady, of Gateshead, died at Bournemouth on the 10th of 
January. Mr. Brady, who was an accomplished natur- 
alist, was a member of the Society of Friends, and was 56 
years of age. 

On the same day died, in his 70th year, Mr. Thomas 
Main, a member of the Northumberland County Council. 

On the 10th, also, in the 91st year of his age, Mr. 
Andrew Brown died at Linthaugh Farm, near Ford, 


DECEMBER, 1890. 

11. Mr. G. E. T. Smithson, secretary of the Tyneside 
Geographical Society, addressed a letter to the local 
papers, enclosing a communication from Mr. Albert Grey, 
who drew attention to the fact that the initial steps 
of the Anglo-Siberian enterprise, which had recently been 
crowned with success, grew directly out of the admirable 
lecture delivered by Captain Wiggins under the auspices 
of that society about twelve months previously. 

12. The Bishop of Durham laid the foundation stone 
of a new wing of the Lady Vernon Schools, Gateshead. 

13. At the offices of the Miners' Permanent Belief 
Fund, Newcastle, Mr. Thomas Weatherley, of Pelton 
Fell, was presented with a testimonial, in the form of a 
purse containing a hundred sovereigns, together with a 
handsomely bound volume of Allan's edition de luxe of 
Joe Wilson's poems and a copy of Wilson's "Pitman's 
Pay," in recognition of the services he had rendered to the 
miners of the Morth of England during a period of fifty 
years. Mr. T. Burt, M.P., presided, and the presentation 
was made by Mr. George Parkinson, of Sherburn, Dur- 

Messrs. Palmer and Co., Jarrow-on-Tyne, launched 
from their yard at Howdon, a second-class twin-screw 
steamer, named the Pique, for the English Government. 

The first prize awarded by the directors of the North- 
Eastern Railway Company for the best floral display at 
railway stations was awarded to the station-master at 
Heddon-on-the-Wall, and the second to the station- 
master at Newburn. 

The Dundee and Newcastle steamer Pladda went 
ashore, and subsequently became a wreck, on the Fifeshire 
coast, near Crail, but the passengers and crew were saved. 

14. At two mass meetings, held in Newcastle, an almost 
unanimous resolution was passed in favour of a strike 
among the servants of the North-Eastern Railway Com- 
pany in the event of certain demands relating to the 
hours of work and the rate of wages not being conceded, 
and a large number of notices of an intended cessation 
of labour on the expiration of a week were subsequently 
handed in to the company. Before the expiration of the 
notices, however, an amicable settlement of the difficul- 
ties was effected, liberal concessions having been made to 
the men. 

In the Tyne T heatre, Newcastle, Miss Amelia B. 
Edwards, LL.D,, PH.D., lectured under the auspices of 

the Tyneside Sunday Lecture Society on "The Literature 
and Religion of the Ancient Egyptians." 

15. Mr. Thomas Wilson, the father of the Newcastle 
Council, and for many years chairman of the Town Im- 
provement Committee, tendered his resignation as an 
alderman of the city of Newcastle. Mr. Richard Henry 
Holmes, of the firm of Messrs. Holmi>s and Spence, 
chartered accountants, and honorary secretary to the 
Newcastle Hospital Sunday Fund, was subsequently 
elected in his stead. 

The Newcastle City Council declined the proposal of 
the Byker Bridge Company to sell the bridge to the 
Corporation for 112,000. 

Mr. Sims Reeves, the celebrated tenor vocalist, gave 
a farewell concert in the Victoria Hall, Sunderland. 

A meeting was held in reference to a freehold farm, 
consisting of a hundred acres, about four miles west, of 
Newcastle, which it was proposed to purchase with a 
view to its subdivision into allotments, and applications 
were eventually received for the whole of the lots. 

The foundation stone was laid of a new "Citadel," 
to be erected by the Salvation Army on the site of the 
old Lyceum Theatre, in Lambton Street, Sunderland. 

16. At Newcastle Christmas Cattle Market the total 
number of cattle shown was 2,650, and the prices realised 
ranged from 8s. 3d. to 8s. 6d. per stone. 

17. Mr. E. A. Hedley was appointed a director of the 
Newcastle and Gateshead Gas Company in the room of 
his late brother, Mr. Alderman Hedley. 

Three men, named Birbeck, Laverick, and Maddison, 
were fatally suffocated by a sudden escape of gas from 
some old workings at North Biddick Colliery. 

18. Mr. Charles Percy, solicitor, Alnwick, was elected 
coroner for the northern division of the county of North- 

19. The third annual exhibition of toys for poor 
children, under the auspices of Uncle Toby, the conductor 

February X 
1891. / 



of the Dicky Bird Society of the Weekly Chronicle, was 
opened by the Mayor of Newcastle in the Bath Lane Hall 
in that city. (See page 85.) 

The Rev. R. Stewart Wright, who three years ago 
left Newcastle to act as a missionary in Central Africa, 
but who had had to return home invalided, paid a visit to 

It was announced that the will of the late Mr. Daniel 
Adamson, of the Towers, Didsbury, formerly of Shildon, 
in the county of Durham, and one of the originators 
of the Manchester Ship Canal, had been sworn at 
54,168 10s. lOd. Other local wills of the month were 
those of Mrs. Bolckow, widow of Mr. H. W. F. Bolckow, 
M.P. for Middlesbrough, 29,281, and of Mr. Robert 
Walters, of Eldon Square, Newcastle, valued at 16,376. 
Under the last of these testaments a considerable sum 
was left to local charities. 

2L Damage to the extent of 4,000 was caused by a 
fire which broke out in Messrs, Lauder and Company's 
saw mills at West Hartlepool. 

22. The Rev. C. P. Sherman, who had been appointed 
to the living of St. John Lee, Hexham, was presented 
with several gifts by the parishioners of St. Paul's, 
Elswick, Newcastle. 

23. A severe frost, which had lasted several days, 
prevailed at this time, skating being freely enjoyed on 
the ponds in the public parks ; and as showing the great 
waste of water, from the fear of frozen pipes, it was stated 
that 15,500,000 gallons per day had been sent from Whittle 
Dene to the Benwell reservoir, whereas the usual quantity 
did not exceed 12,000,000 gallons. 

24. It was announced that Mr. Charles William F. 
Goss, sub-librarian of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Public 
Libraries, hid been appointed principal librarian to the 
Lewisham Public Libraries and Museum, London, S.E. 

The Christmas pantomime of " Dick Whittington and 
his Cat" was produced at the Theatre Royal ; and the 
same evening witnessed the first representation of " Jack 
and the Beanstalk " at the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, 

25. The frost having given way, rain fell smartly 
during the greater part of Christmas Day. There were 
the customary festivities and entertainments, including a 
breakfast to poor children given by the Mayor (Mr. J. 
Baxter Ellis), in Bath Lane Hall, Newcastle. 

A married woman at Consett was delivered of 
triplets, all boys. 

Dr. and Mrs. Beatty celebrated their golden wedding 
at Seaham Harbour. 

26. The little Border church of Falstone was destroyed 
by fire ; the sacramental plate, a fine harmonium, and a 
painted window, presented by Mr. T. Spencer, of Ryton 
Grove, being lost in the conflagration. 

A massive silver pencil case was presented to Colonel 
Coulson by a number of the girls whom he had helped in 
connection with the Northumberland Association for the 
Protection of Women and Children. 

27. Mr. J. R. D. Lynn, as umpire, decided that the 
drawing hours of double shift pits in the county of 
Durham should be twenty hours per day. 

A second-class protected cruiser, the Sybille, built 
for the Government, was launched from the shipbuilding 
yard of Mesrs. Robert Stephenson and Co., at Hebburn, 

The foundation of a Workmen's Institute for the 
workmen of IHirradon was laid by Mrs. Reah, of 
Gosforth, wife of the managing owner of the Burradon 
and Coxlodge Coal Company. 

29. A meeting of the governors of the Wellesley 
Training Ship in the river Tyne was held in Newcastle, in 
reference to certain changes in the rules ; but, owing to the 
difficulty of coining to a unanimous agreement, the pro- 
ceedings were eventually adjourned. 

30. Robert Kitching was executed in York Castle for 
the murder of Police-Sergeant Weedy, at Leeming, near 
Bedale, on the 9th of September, the executioner being a 
man named Billington. 

JANUARY, 1891. 

1. In Newcastle, and throughout the North of 
England generally, the New Year of 1891 was ushered in 
by a strict observance of the customs, secular and sacred, 
traditionally associated with the season. There were the 
usual festive and other social gatherings, while in the 
evening all the places of entertainment were largely 
patronised. In the afternoon, the Mayor of Newcastle 
entertained about 250 aged persons, male and female, to 
a comfortable meal in the schoolroom attached to the 
Church of the Divine Unity, New Bridge Street. One of 
the guests, Catherine O'Hara, of Wall Knoll, was of the 
reputed age of 104 years. 

The annual gathering and singing competition pro- 
moted by the Cleveland and Durham Eisteddfod was held 
in the Town Hall, Middlesbrough, under the presidency 
of the Marquis of Londonderry. 

2. Mr. Thomas Stamp Alder's annual New Year's 
breakfast to poor children took place in the Bath Lane 
Hall, Newcastle, the little guests numbering 2,500. 
Through Mr. Alder's instrumentality, also, about 200 of 
the poorest and most destitute children in the neighbour- 
hood were, on the 4th, entertained to breakfast in All 
Saints' Church Mission Room, Silver Street, in the same 

John Power, a labourer, but formerly stationed as a 
Customs officer at North Shields, was found lying dead 
on the North-Eastern Railway between North Shields 
and Tynemouth. 

3. The steamer Caroline Robert de Massey, of Stock- 
ton, was sunk off Dungeness after collision with another 
steamer, the Braithwaite Hall. 

It was announced that the degree of D.D. had been 
conferred by the University of Dublin on the Rev. Thos. 
Randall, Principal of Bede College, Durham. 

5. The Rev. J. C. Street, formerly minister of the 
Church of the Divine Unity, Newcastle, received and 
accepted a unanimous call to the pastorate of the Church 
of the Saviour in Birmingham, with which the late Mr. 
George Dawson, M.A., was identified. 

A large new Board School at Todd's Nook, affording 
accommodation for 1,200 children, and erected at a cost of 
11,000, was formally opened by the Mayor of Newcastle. 

In the Central Hall, Hood Street, Newcastle, the Rev. 
Canon Talbot commenced a series of six lectures on " The 
English Reformation in the Sixteenth Century." The 
Bishop of Newcastle presided. 

6. A number of men were seriously burned by the 
accidental upsetting of a ladle of molten steel at the 
Eston Steel Works of Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co. 

The Stockton Town Council resolved to confer the 
honorary freedom of the boroueh on Major Ropner, J.P., 
in recognition of his munificent gift of a park to the 

Mr. G. F. Kobinson, a local artist, and his wife, 
celebrated their golden wedding at tbeir residence, 



\ 1891. 

Elsdon Road, Gosforth, and were the recipients of 
numerous congratulations. 

7. There being no cases for hearing at the Sunderland 
Police Court, the customary pair of white gloves was pre- 
sented t*> the Mayor, who presided on the Bench. 

It was stated that the total output of iron in the 
Cleveland district during 1890 had amounted to 2,846,000 
tons, being the largest quantity ever known in one year. 

9. George Sterling, late assistant-overseer of the town- 
ship of Elswick, pleaded guilty to falsifying the books of 
the township and embezzling large sums of money 
received by him on account of the overseers. The 
Recorder (Mr. W. Digby Seymour, Q.C.j sentenced the 
prisoner to 18 months' imprisonment. 

Mr. Thomas Stamp Alder gave the first of a series of 
free indoor winter concerts for the poor, in the People's 
Palace, Haymarket, Newcastle. 

Five men were injured by the sudden collapse of a 
portion of the roof of the North Bridge Street Presby- 
terian Church, Snnderland, at which they were working. 

10. A gold watch and guard and a pair of gold-rimmed 
spectacles were presented, on the occasion of his retire- 
ment, to Mr. John Baines, permanent-way inspector for 
the North-Eastern Railway Co., at Malton. Mr. Baines 
began his career on the Stockton and Darlington Railway, 
under George Stephenson, sixty-four years ago. 

A conversazione was held in the Burras Bridge 
Assembly Rooms, Newcastle, under the auspices of the 
Tyneside Sunday Lecture Society. Dr. R. Spence 
Watson, who presided, stated that the attendance at the 
lectures had averaged 1,900. 

Considerable damage was caused by a fire which broke 
out in the shop of Miss H. Pye, milliner, 177, Westgate 
Road, Newcastle. 

(general reumnecs. 

DECEMBER, 1890. 

12. Sir Edgar Boehm, K.A., the famous sculptor, 
died suddenly in his studio, Fulham Road, London. 

15. A Parliamentary election for the Bassetlaw 
division of Nottinghamshire resulted as follows : Sir 
Frederick Milner (Conservative), 4,381; Mr. Mellor, Q.C. 
(Liberal), 3,653. 

Owing to the prospect of a rising of Indians in the 
United States, the authorities arrested a noted chief. 
Sitting Bull, and his son. Their followers attempted a 
rescue, and the two chiefs were killed. 

16. Serious disturbances occurred at Ballinakill, 
Ireland, in connection with an election for North Kil- 
kenny. Among those assaulted were Mr. Michael 
Davitt and several members of the Irish party. Mr. 
Parnell was nearly blinded by having two bags of lime 
thrown in his face. 

The trial of Michael Eyraud and Gabrielle Bompard 
for the murder of a man named Gouffe was commenced at 
Paris. After a very sensational and prolonged inquiry, 
both the prisoners were found guilty. Bompard was 
sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment, while Eyraud 
was sentenced to death. 

19- Charles Lyddon, a medical student, was committed 

for trial by the coroner of Faversham on a charge of 
having feloniously administered a poisonous dose of 
morphia to his brother, Dr. Lyddon. 

21. The Scotch railway servants decided to coma out 
on strike, owing to the refusal of the directors to grant a 
ten hours' day. The traffic was almost paralysed for a 
time by the action of the men. 

22, M. Niels Gade, the eminent Danish composer, 
died suddenly, aged 73. 

The North Kilkenny election took place. The result 
was the defeat of the Parnellite candidate, Mr. Vincent 
Scully, by a majority of 1,162 votes, Sir J. Pope 
Hennessy, the Gladstonian candidate, being returned 
with 2,527 votes. 

23. Mary Eleanor Wheeler, alias Mrs. Pearcey, was 
executed at Newgate Prison for the murder of Phoebe 
Hogg, the wife of Frank Hogg, and their infant daughter, 
Phoebe Hanslope Hogg, on 24th October last, in Kentish 
Town, London. 

27. Mr. Walter Grimshaw, a well-known chess player, 
committed suicide. 

28. A terrible fight ensued between American troops 
and Red Indians at Porcupine Creek, Nebraska, U.S., 
owing to the attempted disarmament of the latter. The 
Indians were mown down by artillery, and during their 
flight many women and children were killed. 

29. M. Octave Feuillet, the well-known French author, 
died, aged 78. 

30. Thomas Macdonald was executed at Liverpool for 
the murder of Miss Holt at Belmont, near Bolton. 

JANUARY, 1891. 

1- Nine children lost their lives and many others were 
seriously burnt at an entertainment at Leeds. While 
they were being dressed in cotton wool to represent th 
winter season, a Chinese lantern caught fire and ignited 
the costumes of the children. 

2. A great tire occurred at New York, the Fifth 
Avenue and Hermann Theatres being destroyed. 

3. About two hundred men employed in the Savings 
Bank department of the General Post Office were dis- 
charged for having declined to work two hours extra the 
day previous. They afterwards apologised, and were 

5. Serious disturbances took place at Motherwell in 
connection with the Scotch railway strike. The affair 
arose through men being evicted from houses belonging 
to the Caledonian company. The soldiers were called 
out, and the Riot Act was read. Blank cartridges were 
fired upon the crowd, which then quickly dispersed. 

Intelligence was received of the suppression of a 
native insurrection in the Caroline Islands with terrible 

10. Kiotous proceedings occurred at Carlisle in con- 
nection with the strike on the North British Railway. 

11. Two steamers the Britannia, trading between 
Leith and Newcastle, and the Bear, belonging to Glasgow 
accidentally collided in the Firth of Forth. Both 
vessels were sunk, thirteen persons being drowned. 

It was announced that the Right Rev. William 
Connor Magee, Bishop of Peterborough, had been ap- 
pointed Archbishop of York. 

Printed by WALTEB SCOTT, Felling-on-Tyne. 




VOL. V. No. 49. 

MARCH, 1891. 

PRICK 60. 

Cltfficrrtt, 3&t|jft JHtrnff trf 

j|EORGE CLIFFORD, third Earl of Cum- 
berland, the father of the subject of our 
sketch, was a brave, extravagant, reckless, 
and eccentric man. Endowed by nature 
with strength and agility, splendid in his dress, and 
accomplished in all knightly exercises, he was renowned 
alike for his personal attractions and his Quixotic 
valour. A skilful navigator and an intrepid com- 
mander, he made many successful voyages to the 
Spanish Main an El Dorado whose golden stores were 
the goal of all sea adventurers in Elizabethan 
days. Spending his substance in fitting out ships for 
these expeditions, this high-born buccaneer won the 
favour of Queen Elizabeth, who, true to her 
Boleyn blood, liked nothing better than to share 
the profits of enterprises whioh cost her nothing ; 
in fact, the handsome cavalier was held in so much 
esteem by the Queen, who loved a "proper man," 
that she honoured the most skilful horseman and tilter 
of his day by appointing him her special champion at all 
tournaments, an office for which he was admirably 
qualified by taste and personal advantages. 

The suit of tilting armour which he wore when 
challenging all-comers to combat in honour of his Royal 
mistress now hangs in "monumental mockery" at 
Appleby Castle, and some idea of the gallant champion's 
strength and vigour may be formed from the great size 
and weight of the helmet, which no living shoulders can 
now support. In 1592 he was invested with the Order 
of the Garter, which he is represented as wearing in 
the Skipton family picture, while another whole length 
portrait of the earl preserves the memory of a cireura- 
etance characteristic of that chivalric age, when even 
the most trifling observance bore some romantic or 

allegorical meaning. On his return from one of his semi- 
piratical voyages the Queen accorded him an audience, 
during which she inadvertently dropped her glove. Earl 
George immediately picked it up, and presented it kneel- 
ing ; his sovereign, with a gracious smile, bade him keep 
it, and he, fully conscious of the honour Elizabeth had be- 
stowed upon him, had the gauntlet richly set in diamonds, 
and wore it ever afterwards in front of his hat at all 
courtly ceremonials. 

In 1577 this Earl of Cumberland married Margaret 
Russell, daughter of the Earl of Bedford, and Ann Clif- 
ford, the youngest and ultimately only surviving child 
of this union, was born at Skiptou in 1590. Her father 
and mother, though knowing each other from infancy, 
and married before either of them had reached twenty 
years of age, led a moit unhappy life, the reckless and 
roving disposition of the earl causing him to be a negli- 
gent and unfaithful husband to a wife whose only faults 
appear to have been goodness and virtue. They were 
separated while their daughter was still in her childhood, 
and she was thenceforth entirely left to the care of her 
mother a prudent, sensible woman, who entrusted her 
education to efficient teachers. Samuel Daniel, a poet of 
no mean fame, was appointed her tutor, and it was from 
him she acquired that fondness for literature and com- 
position which led her afterwards to write the long 
and curious account of herself and family which is still 
extant. Her account of her own personal appearance is 
worthy of notice ; she details the length and thickness of 
her hair, the beauty of her eyes and figure, the dimple on 
her cheek, &c., but in her idea her physical advantages 
were more thau equalled by her intellectual charms, for, 
" though I say it, the perfections of my mind were 
much above those of my body; I had a strong and 



I March 
1. 1S91. 

copious memory ; a sound judgment ; and a discerning 
spirit; and so much of a strong imagination as at 
many times even my dreams and apprehensions proved 
to be true." From a very early age the Lady Anne, as 
the only child of her noble parents, was regarded as a 
little lady of no small importance. Before she was ten 
she was introduced at the Court of Queen Elizabeth by 
her maternal aunt the Countess of Warwick, and after 
that Queen's death she accompanied her mother to 
Tibbals to see King James when he first came to England. 
Of that visit she writes : " We all saw a great change 
between the fashion of the Court as it was BOW, and of 
that in the Queen's (time), for we were all lousy by sitting 
in Sir Thomas Erskine's chamber." 

The Lady Anne was not present at the coronation of 
James and Anne of Denmark, " because the plague was 
then so bad in London " ; but afterwards we find her 
in constant attendance at courtly festivities in company 
with her mother and her aunt of Warwick, and we learn 
that her " father at this tyme followed his suite to the 
kinge about the border lands, so that sometimes my 
mother and ho did meet by chance when their countenance 
did shew the dislik they had one of ye other, yet he 
would speak to me in a slight fashion and give me his 

The extravagances of the Earl of Cumberland plunged 
the countess into poverty, and the education of his 
daughter had to be conducted on the strictest principles 
of economy. During the two years Lady Anne was in 
London with her governess (Mrs. Taylor), her whole ex- 
penses amounted to 55 13s. 8d. This small allowance 
was, however, supplemented by constant gifts from her 
wealthy relatives, the Countess of Warwick, the Countess 
of Derby, and the Countess of Northumberland, who sent 
her presents of silver groats and small gold pieces packed 
in little silver barrels, besides trinkets, fruit, and game, 
and sometimes a whole stag at a time. Her most expen- 
sive accomplishment was dancing, for we find twenty 
shillings was paid for " teaching my lady to daunce for 
one month." If she could read the books the titles 
of which are seen on the backs of volumes depicted 
in the portrait representing her as a prim girl 
of thirteen, she must have been a very learned little 
woman, for among them are Josephus, Eusebius, Sidney's 
"Arcadia, "and works on alchemy. Her general educa- 
tion, however, was in no particular neglected ; she was in- 
structed in the precepte and practice of frugality and 
domestic economy, and to her careful training in early 
youth must be ascribed the business habits and adminis- 
trative power she developed in after life. She made 
journeys with her mother to Brougham, Skipton, and 
Appleby, and paid visits to numerous relatives. During 
one of these visits she tells us, "I used to wear my hair- 
coloured velvet gown every day, and learned to sing and 
play on the bass viol of Jack Jenkins, my aunt's boy." 

But a great change in Lady Anne Clifford's circum- 

stances and position was about to take place. Her 
father's iron constitution broke down during a course of 
wild dissipation, and he died in London in the autumn of 
1605, after a mouth's illness. In spite of all previous 
estrangements and disagreements his wife and daughter 
were with him at the bitter end. The latter testifies that 
he expressed great sorrow for his conduct to her saint-like 
mother, and died a very penitent man. He left the world, 
however, without repairing a grievous injury he had done 
his child. Pride of family was with him a stronger 
feeling than paternal affection, and by a will and deeds 
executed some years previously he arranged that all bis 
lands should go with the earldom to his brother, and 
should only return to his daughter on the failure of his 
brother's heir male ; the only provision bequeathed to 
Anne Clifford, expect this apparently remote reversion, 
being a present portion of 15,000. 

After the death of the earl, Anne, by the advice and 
under the direction of her mother, contested the validity 
of her father's settlement, grounding her claim to the 
estates and barony of Clifford on the old entail granted 
by King John. Her case was laid before the House of 
Peers, and judgment was given against her at York. 
Both mother and daughter refused to accept this 
decision, and demanded a fresh trial ; but before 
the case was ready for a new tribunal Anne Clifford, 
then in her nineteenth year, was married to Richard, 
Earl of Dorset, a youth who was a few months older than 
herself. From the first the marriage was an unhappy 
one ; her husband, like all the Buckhursts, was immoral 
and extravagant ; he soon wearied of the perpetual law- 
suit, and urged his wife to accept a sum of money in lieu 
of her birthright. She held out ; the case was tried over and 
over again ; quarrels ensued and put an end to all harmony 
between husband and wife ; and, though never finally 
separated, they lived as much apart as if they had been 
separated. The Earl of Dorset's life was, however, not 
a long one ; he died in 1624, leaving by his wife only two 
daughters. Some years afterwards Lady Dorset's eldest 
daughter, then about fifteen, was married to Lord 
Lupton, and she herself took as her second husband 
Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. This union 
was no more fortunate than her preceding one, and my 
lady's matrimonial miseries, and the state of terror in 
which she lived, may be imagined when we find that she 
was obliged to write to her uncle, Lord Bedford, begging 
him to ask her husband to allow her to spend a few days 
in London, " for I dare not ventter to come up without 
his leve, lest he should take that occasion to turne me 
outt of his howse, as he did outt of Whitehall, and then I 
shall not know wher to put my hede." Under such cir- 
cumstances well might she exclaim that "the marble 
pillars of Knowle and Melton were to her aftertimes but 
the gay arbours of anguish." Events now occurred which 
were of more vital interest to this daughter of the house of 
Clifford than the acquisition or loss of a husband. Her 

1891. / 



uncle ^Francis, the fourth Earl of Cumberland, died, 
after holding the title and estates for thirty-five years, 
and his son Henry, who succeeded him, expired at York 
about two years afterwards, without leaving an heir male. 
On the death of this last earl the long contest was finally 
cl.>sed, and Anne, Countess Dowager of Dorset, Countess 
of Pembroke and Montgomery, in accordance with her 
father's will, as well as heir of entail, became Baroness 
Clifford, and the ancient title and inheritance once more 
settled in the old line. 

It was not, however, till the death of her tyrannical 
husband, the Earl of Pembroke, in 1649, that she found 
herself for the first time in her life a free agent. She then 
set out, though nearly sixty years ot age, with all the 
activity and energy of a great nature long suppressed, to 
take personal possession of her superb estates in the 
North, and never again quitted her native mountains. 
With every impediment removed, and two rich jointures 
added to her paternal possessions, she at once commenced 
the great works which have made her as celebrated a 
builder as Bess of Hardwicke. She completely rebuilt 
the castles of Brougham, Skipton, Pendragon, Appleby, 
Brough, and Barden, some of which had been in ruins for 
centuries, and "scarce one showed more than the skeleton 
of a house," for "she did think upon the stones, and it 
pitied her to see them in the dust." As "she was not one to 
live in ceiled palaces while the Lord's House lay waste," 
she did not neglect more sacred edifices, but restored the 
parish churches of Appleby, Brougham, Barden, Skipton, 
Bongate, Mallerstang, and Ninekirks; she also repaired 
an almshouse, built by her mother at Bearmly, and built 
and endowed another at Appleby for thirteen poor 
women. In this way she imagined she earned the 
blessings promised in scripture to "the repairer of 
breaches, and the restorer of paths to dwell in." 

One of her first pious works was the erection of a 
memorial pillar on the road between Penrith and 
Appleby, marking the never-to-be-forgotten spot 
where years before she had said her last sad 
good-bye to her beloved mother. (See Monthly 
Chronicle, 1890, page 71.) The memory of this dear 
parent was cherished through life ; she constantly 
alludes to her in her memoirs, and ascribes whatever 
good fortune befell her to "the prayers of my 
devout mother, who incessantly begged of God 
for my safety and preservation." She never forgot 
or forgave her mother's injuries ; even in the long epitaph 
she inscribed on her father's magnificent monument this 
feeling peeps out, for she assures us that it was erected by 
his sole surviving legitimate offspring, an innuendo most 
daughters would have avoided, particularly in Craven (her 
father was interred at Skipton), where many families claim 
a sinister descent from George, Earl of Cumberland. 

Moving from castle to castle, the Countess Anne spread 
plenty and happiness around her, consuming the produce 
of her estates and spending large sums in hospitality and 

benevolence. She caused all the groceries, spices, stuffs, 
wine, corn, and malt required in her households to be 
bought from her neighbours, being desirous that the 
country should be benefited by her expenditure. Amongst 
other charitable acts, she caused a dole of money to be dis- 
tributed to twenty poor persons in the neighbourhood of 
her residence every Monday morning. Exceedingly 
temperate in her diet, she rarely tasted wine, even 
after she ws past eighty years of age, nor did 
she ever take physic in her life ; her dress was plain to 
meanness, for though she attired her waiting women (who 
were all daughters of her tenants) in handsome garments, 
a petticoat and waistcoat of black serge was her own con- 
stant dress after her second widowhood. It was her 
custom to pass the year among her six castles, spending a 
certain number of weeks or months at each, not only 
inspecting the works she had in progress, but insisting in a 
tenacious and inflexible manner on what she believed to be 
her just rights. 

It was a custom on her estates for each tenant, in 
addition to his rent, to pay an annual boon hen, as it was 
called, and this survival of an old custom had come to be 
considered the steward's perquisite. It happened that a 
rich tradesman from Halifax, named Murgatroyd, 
having taken a house near Skipton,' refused to pay 
bis boon hen. The countess, whenever relinquished even 
the most shadowy of her claims, at once commenced 
a suit against him. As her tenant was as obstinate and 
determined as herself, the case was argued at consider- 
able length, and when at last the law decided in her 
favour she found her hen had cost her 200. After the 
affair was settled, she invited Mr. Murgatroyd to dine 
with her, and the hen was the first dish served at table. 
"Come," said she, "let us now be good friends; since 
you allow the hen to be dressed at my table, we will 
divide it between us." Many other anecdotes of 
her . inflexible determination are related. She defied 
Oliver Cromwell, refused his proffered arbitration in some 
difficulty with her tenants, and when he threatened to 
blow her castle down with his cannon she said she would 
build them up again so long as she had a shilling in her 
pocket. Who has not heard of her celebrated letter to 
the Minister who attempted to interfere with her right of 
nomination to the borough of Appleby ? "I have been 
bullied by a usurper and neglected by a court, but I will 
not be dictated to by a subject : your man shan't stand. 
ANNE DOBSET, Pembroke and Montgomery." Whether 
this letter is authentic or not, it is difficult to say. 
Horace Walpole believed it to be genuine, and he was no 
mean authority. 

The countess was particularly proud of a singular 
dignity derived from her paternal ancestors, who had a 
hereditary right to act as High Sheriffs of Westmoreland. 
It has been stated again and again that Anne Clifford 
filled this office in person, and, like her great ancestress, 
Alethea, sat on the bench with the judges. That she 



f March 
\ 1891. 

ever did so is uncertain ; she was, however, recognised 
as Sheriff, and exercised the authority of the office by 
deputy. After having lain in abeyance for many years, 
this right was at length abolished by an Act of Parliament 
passed in 1850, ordaining the appointment of Sheriffs for 
that county in the usual manner. 

' Lady Dorset preserved her mental and physical activity 
to the end of her life, keeping up her journal of the events 
and transactions of every passing day to the very last. 
She met death with the same uncomplaining fortitude 
which had characterised her life, always answering when 
asked how she felt during her last brief illness, " I thank 
God I am very well." She died at Brougham Castle in 
1675, in the 86th year of her age, and was buried in the 
sepulchre which she had herself erected at Appleby, 
choosing rather to rest beside her adored mother than to 
be interred with her martial ancestors at Skipton. 



at tfte Utartttr. 



| HUNDRED and fifty years ago, or less, the 
superior order of gipsies used to swagger 
about the country like "perfect gentlemen." 
Simson tells us, in his History of the 
Gipsies, that the male head of the Hut livens a man 
who, according to the newspapers of the day, lived to the 
advanced age of 115 years when in full dress in his 
youth, wore a white wig, a ruffled shirt, a blue Scottish 
bonnet, and white stockings, with silver buckles in his 
shoes. And William Baillie, well-known in Tweeddale 
and Clydesdale, was said to be the handsomest, the best 
dressed, the best looking, and the best bred man of his 
day. He acted, however, the character of the gentleman, 
the robber, and the tinker, indifferently, just as it 
answered his purpose. He was considered the most 
accomplished swordsman in all Scotland. Weapon in 
hand, and his back at a wall, he set almost everything. 
save fire-arms, at defiance. 


The Winters, one of whom was the principal in the 
Elsdon tragedy, for which murderous exploit he was hung 
in chains, were a gang of ferocious gipsies who long in- 
fested the wastes of Northumberland and committed many 
crimes. Several of them, we believe, were hanged for 
horse-stealing, house-breaking, or murder, and others were 
sent to the plantations or the hulks for various offences. 
The only member of the family that turned out well, for 
several generations, was a girl who was taken from her 
father when he was in prison, previous to execution, and 
brought up apart from her brothers and sisters. The 
father had a quarrel with one of his sons about the sale 

of some property, and shot him dead. The mother 
cohabited with another man, and was one morning found 
dead, with her throat cut. The remnant of this gang 
went down to Scotland about a hundred years ago, and 
assumed the Roxburghshire name of Wintrup, as they 
found their own somewhat odious. They settled at a 
cottage within four miles of Earlstoun, on the Leader, 
and became great plagues to the country round, until 
they were secured, after a pitched battle, tried before the 
Circuit Court at Jedburgb, and banished to England. 
The dalesmen of Reedwater showed great reluctance to 
receive these returned emigrants when they were set 
loose on the southern side of the Carter Bar. After the 
Sunday service at a little chapel near Otterburn, one of 
the squires rose, and, addressing the congregation, told 
them they would no longer be accounted Reedsdale 
men, but Reedsdale women, if they permitted this 
marked and atrocious family to enter the district. The 
people answered that they would not allow them to come 
that way; and the proscribed family, hearing of the 
unanimous resolution to oppose their passage, slunk away 
across the Kielder Moors to the head of North Tyne, 
and thence southward, where they were lost sight of. 
One of them was the redoubtable boxer, Tom Spring, 
Champion of England, who changed his name of Winter 
to that of a more kindly season on severing connection 
with his tribe. 


The quarrels of the gipsies frequently broke out in an 
instant, and almost without a visible cause. Some of 
their conflicts were terrible. Dr. Pennecuik gives the 
following account of one of them that took place on his 
estate of Romanno, in the parish of Newlands, in Tweed- 
dale : 

Upon the 1st of October, 1677, there happened at 
Romanno a remarkable polymachy between two clans of 
gipsies, the Fawes and the Shawes, who had come 
from Haddington fair, and were going to Harestanes to 
meet two other clans of these rogues, the Baillies and 
Browns, with a resolution to fight them. They fell out 
at Romanno among themselves about dividing the spoil 
they got at Haddington, and fought it manfully. Of the 
Fawes, there were four brethren and a brother's son ; of 
the Shawes, the father with three sons ; and several 
women on both sides. Old Sandy Fawe, a bold and 
proper fellow, with his wife, then with child, were both 
killed dead upon the place, and his brother George very 
dangerously wounded. In February, 1678, old Robin 
Shawe, the gipsy, and his three sons, were hanged at the 
Grassmarket for the above-mentioned murder, committed 
at Romanno ; and John Fawe was hanged the Wednes- 
day following, for another murder. 

This gipsy battle is also noticed by Lord Fountainhall, in 
a MS. preserved in the Advocates' Library. The Browns 
and Baillies (whom he calls Bailezies) had come over from 
Ireland, he says, a short time before, and the others were 
determined to chase them back. The bodies of the four 
Shawes who were hanged were thrown into a hole dug 
for them in the Greyfriars' Churchyard, with their clothes 
on, but the next morning that of the youngest, who was 
scarce sixteen, was missed. "Some thought," says his 

1891. / 



lordship, "that, being last thrown over the ladder and 
first cut down, and in full vigour, aud not much earth 
placed upon him, and lying uppermost, and so not so 
ready to smother, the fermentation of the blood, and heat 
of the bodies under him, might cause him to rebound, and 
throw off the earth, and recover ere the morning and 
steal away, which, if true, he deserved his life, though 
the magistrates deserved a reprimand. But others, more 
probably, thought his body was stolen away by some 
chirurgeon, or his servant, to make an anatomical 
dissection on." Dr. Pennecuik erected a dove-cot on the 
spot where the fray took place ; and to commemorate the 
battle, put upon the lintel of the door the following in- 
scription : 

A.D. 1683. 

The field of gipsie blood, which here you see, 
A shelter for the harmless dove shall be. 


A very bloody, though not fatal, gipsy battle took 
place at the bridge of Hawick, in Teviotdale, in the 
spring of the year 1772 or 1773. The following particu- 
lars, given in Simson's History, were derived from a 
former tenant of Falnash, Mr. Robert Laidlaw, a gentle- 
man of respectability, who was an eye-witness. It was 
understood that the battle originated in some encroach- 
ments of one tribe upon the district assigned to another ; 
and it had been agreed by the contending parties to fight 
ont their dispute the first time they should meet : 

On the one side, in this battle, was the famous Alex- 
ander Kennedy, a handsome and intelligent man, and 
head of his tribe. Next to him in consideration was little 
Wull Ruthven, Kennedy's father-in-law. This man was 
known, all over the country, by the extraordinary title 
of the Earl of Hell ; and although he was above five feet 
ten inches in height, he got the appellation of Little 
Wnll to distinguish him from Muckle Wull Rutbven, 
who was a man of uncommon stature and personal 
strength. The earl's son was also in the fray. These 
were the chief men in Kennedy's band. Jean Ruthven, 
Kennedy's wife, was also present, with a great number of 
inferior members of the clan, males as well as females, of 
all ages, down to mere children. The opposite band 
consisted of old Rob Tait, the chieftain of his horde, 
Jacob Tait, young Rob Tait, and three of old Rob Tait's 
sons-in-law. These individuals, with Jean Gordon, old 
Tait's wife, and a numerous train of youths of both sexes 
and various ages, composed the adherents ot old Robert 
Tait. These adverse tribes were all closely connected 
with one another by the ties of blood. The Kennedies 
and Ruthvens were from the ancient burgh of Loch- 
maben. The whole of the gipsies in the field, females as 
well as males, were armed with bludgeons, excepting 
some of the Taits, who carried cutlasses, and pieces of 
iron hoops notched and serrated on either side like a saw, 
and fixed to the end of sticks. The boldest of the tribe 
were in front of their respective bands, with their 
children and the other members of their clan in the rear, 
forming a long train behind them. In this order both 
parties boldly advanced, with their weapons uplifted 
above their heads. Both sides fought with extraordinary 
fury and obstinacy. Sometimes the one band gave way, 
and sometimes the other ; but both, again and again, 
returned to the combat with fresh ardour. Not a word 
was spoken during the struggle ; nothing was heard but 
the rattling of the cudgels and the strokes of 
the cutlasses. After a long and doubtful contest, 
Jean Ruthven, big with child at the time, at 
last received, among many other blows, a dreadful 
wound with a cutlass. She was cut to the bone, above 

and below the breast, particularly on one side. It was 
said the slashes were so large and so deep that one of her 
breasts was nearly severed from her body, and that 
the motions of her lungs, while she breathed, were 
observed through the aperture between her ribs. But, 
notwithstanding her dreadful condition, she would 
neither quit the field nor yield, but continued 
to assist her husband as long as she was able. 
Jean's father, the Earl of Hell, was also shockingly 
wounded, the flesh being literally cut from the bone of 
one of his legs, and hanging down over his ankles, "like 
beefsteaks." The earl left the field to get his wounds 
dressed ; but, observing his daughter, Kennedy's wife, so 
dangerously wounded, he lost heart, and, with others of 
his party, fled, leaving Kennedy alone to defend himself 
against the whole of the clan of Tait. Having now all 
the Taits, young and old, male and female, to contend 
with, Kennedy, like an experienced warrior, took advan- 
tage of the place. Posting himself on the narrow bridge 
of Hawick (over the Teviot), he defended himself in the 
defile, with his bludgeon, against the whole of his in- 
furiated enemies. His handsome person, his undaunted 
bravery, his extraordinary dexterity in handling his 
weapon, and his desperate situation (for it was evident 
that the Taits thirsted for his blood, and were determined 
to despatch him on the spot) excited a general and lively 
interest in his favour among the inhabitants of the town 
who were present, gazing on the conflict with amazement 
and horror. In one dash to the front, and with one 
powerful sweep of his cudgel, he disarmed two of the 
Taits, aud, cutting a third to the skull, felled him to the 
ground. He sometimes daringly advanced upon his 
assailants, and drove the whole band before him pell-melL 
When he broke one cudgel on his enemies, by his powerful 
arm, the town's people were ready to hand him another. 
Still, the vindictive Taits rallied, and renewed the charge 
with unabated vigour ; and everyone expected that 
Kennedy would fall a sacrifice to their desperate fury. 
Jean Gordon stole, unobserved, from her band, and, 
taking a circuitous route, came behind Kennedy, and 
struck him on the head with her cudgel, but failed to 
stun him. A party of messengers and constables at last 
arrived to his relief, when the Taits were all apprehended 
and imprisoned ; but as none of the gipsies were actually 
slain in the fray, they were soon set at liberty. 

This gipsy fray at Hawick is known as " The Battle o' 
the Brig." Every one engaged in it, save Alexander 
Kennedy, was severely wounded, and the ground on 
which they fought was wet with blood. Mr. Murray, of 
Hawick, in his " Gipsies of the Border," gives an account 
of another conflict which took place at Hawick, about 
the year 1730, between the Yetholm and Lochmaben 
tribes. The incident, he tells us, is gleaned from Wilson's 
" History of Hawick," where it may be read at length. 

Alexander Kennedy's grandson, of the same name as 
himself, was sent to Botany Bay for fourteen years, about 
the year 1819, for the manslaughter of a gipsy named 
Irving, at Yarrowford, the cause of the quarrel having 
been the same feud which gave rise to the Hawick battle. 
The latter engagement was not decisive to either party. 
The hostile bands, a short time afterwards, came in 
contact in Ettrick Forest, at a place on the water of 
Teema, called Deepshope. They did not, however, en- 
gage then and there, though the women on both sides, 
at some distance from each other, with the stream 
between them, scolded, cursed, and banned, urging the 
males to fight. The men, more cautious, observed for the 
nonce a sullen and gloomy silence. After this they 



\ 1891. 

separated, taking different roads ; but in the course of a 
few days, meeting again on Eskdale Moor, a second 
desperate conflict ensued. In thia the Taits were com- 
pletely routed, and the result was that they were driven 
from the district. The country people were horrified at 
the sight of the wounded tinklers, after these bloody 
engagements. Several of them, lame and exhausted, in 
consequence of the severity of their wounds, were carried 
up and down, by the assistance of the tribe, on the backs 
of asses, till they either recovered or died. Some of them 
were slain outright in the Eskdale Moor fight, and buried 
on the field, or at least were never heard of more. 


There used to be, and perhaps still is, a small public- 
house on the roadside between Lauder and Dalkeith, 
called Lowrie's Den. It stood in a very lonely situation, 
near the steep mountain pass of Soutra Hill, the terror of 
the South-Country carters in pre-railway times. It was 
seldom one could get past it without witnessing a 
drunken fight, if not getting implicated in it. In fact, 
the place was infamous. The neighbourhood was a 
harbourage for the gipsies, who could make their way 
thence across the hills, without let or hindrance, either to 
Galawater, Leithen and Eddlestone waters, the Black- 
adder, which runs down into the Merse, the Haddingtou- 
shire Tyne, the South Esk in Mid-Lothian, or right down 
Lauderdale into Teviotdale, and thence into England. 
Many a gipsy fight, as well as carters' squabble, has taken 
place at Lowrie's Den. Little more than a century ago it 
was the scene of a terrible conflict. Two gipsy chiefs, 
named respectively Robert Keith and Charles Anderson, 
who had somehow fallen out, and followed each other for 
some time, for the purpose of fighting out their quarrel, 
met at last at Lowrie'a Den. The two antagonists were 
brothers-in-law, Anderson being married to Keith's sister. 
Anderson proved an over-match for Keith ; and William 
Keith, to save his brother, laid hold of Anderson. 
Whereupon Madee Grieg, Robert's wife, handed her 
husband a knife, and called on him to despatch the 
villain, while unable to defend himself, owing to his 
hands being held. Robert repeatedly struck with the 
knife, but it rebounded from the unhappy man's ribs 
without much effect. Impatient at the delay, Madge 
called out to the assassin, "Strike laigh ! strike laigh !' 
Following her directions, he stabbed him to the heart. 
The only remark made by any of the gang was this ex- 
clamation from one of them: "Gude faith, Rob, ye've 
dune for 'im noo !" William Keith was astonished when 
he found that Anderson had been stabbed in his arms, as 
his interference was only to save his brother from being 
overpowered by him. Robert Keith instantly fled, but 
was pursued by the country folks, armed with pitchforks 
and muskets. He was caught in a bracken-bush, in which 
he had concealed himself, and was executed at Jedburgh, 
on the 24th November, 1772. One of the persons who 
assisted at Keith's capture was the father of Sir Walter 

Scott. Long afterwards William Keith was apprehended 
in a ruinous house in Peeblesshire, but not till he had made, 
thugh half-naked, a desperate resistance to the officers 
sent to capture him. He was tried, condemned, and 
banished to the plantations. 


So formidable were the numbers of the gipsies, at one 
time, and so alarming their desperate and bloody battles, 
in the upper section of Tweeddale and parts adjoining, 
that the fencible men of the district had sometimes to turn 
out to disperse them. A clergyman was on one occa- 
sion under the necessity of dismissing the congregation 
in the middle of divine service, that they might 
quell one of these furious tumults in the immediate 
vicinity of the church. On another occasion, a band 
of gipsies broke into the house of Pennicuik, when 
the greater part of the family were at church. Sit 
John Clerk, the proprietor, barricaded himself in hi& 
own room, where he sustained a sort of siege, firing from 
the windows upon the robbers, who fired upon him in re- 
turn. One of them, while straying through the house in 
quest of booty, happened to mount the stairs of a very 
narrow turret, but his foot slipping, be caught hold of the 
rope of the alarm bell, the ringing of which startled the 
congregation assembled in the parish church. The people 
instantly came to the rescue of the laird, and succeeded, 
it is said, in apprehending some of the gipsies, who were 
executed in due course in the Grass Market of Edinburgh. 
A volume might be filled with tales of violence and outrage 
similar to the above, recorded in the Scotch law books. 

pNTIL a comparatively recent date, the higher 
districts of Northumberland were entirely 
destitute of made roads. All traffic between 
one part and another was carried on by means of pack 
horses, generally shelties from Shetland or galloways 
from the wild uplands of Wigton and Kirkcudbright- 
shires. These shaggy little creatures, wonderfully strong 
for their size, furnished with rope halters instead of 
bridles, and having their backs fitted with straw-stuffed 
cloth pads, would be marched in single file, or driven, if 
ten or a dozen, from twenty to thirty miles a day, for 
several days consecutively, with loads of four, five, or 
even six bushels of oats, barley, or rye, poised across their 
backs, in sacks made for the express purpose, with a slit 
on each side to pour or empty the corn through. 

The principal route taken across that wild and dreary 
tract of country which lies between Corbridge on the 
Tyne and Woodburn on the Reed was by the old Roman 
road, the Watling Street, which "runs in its arrow-like 
course over hill and dale, swerving not to the right or the 
left, undaunted, untrammelled by any physical difficulty, 

March 1 
1891. / 



whether in the form of deep set valley, running water, 
boggy tract, or ridgy precipitous hill in short, over- 
coming any hindrance which may present itself, rather 
than deviate from its straightforward course." If the 
traveller rashly diverged from it, either to the right or to 
the left, he was almost sure to get entangled and lost in 
the trackless waste, or, at all events, to find himself in 
such a situation that, as Hutchinson the historian says, 
" he would prove himself a patient Christian if he 
forebore to execrate the want of guide posts, and the 
neglect of those whose duty it was to remedy the delay, 
fatigue, hazard, and anxiety of the stranger whose stars 
infatuated him to engage in the labyrinths and wilds of 
such a country." 

But to our tale. We shall tell it as it was told to Mr. 
William Pattison, about fifty years ago, by the landlord 
of a little roadside public-house, at Tone Pits, near Carry 
Coates, in Throckrington parish, and as he afterwards 
communicated it to Richardson's "Table Book." The 
landlord spoke as follows : 

It is as nigh fifty years as I can guess, that old Johnnie 
Craigie, of the Whitesidelaw, on the South Tyne, went to 
Cowden, in Reedswater, to bring oats. He had twelve 
ponies, and carried with him his son, who was an idiot 
born. The lad was counted harmless, and was besides 
very useful being a capital hand among horses. Well, 
they went to Cowden, where they met with many others 
on the same errand. The oats were soon bought, and the 
money as quickly paid, and then the whisky drinking 
commenced, which did not end as soon or so well. 
Terrible hands for drinking whisky in those days ! I've 
known my father stay a month, and heard of others stay- 
ing from seed-time to harvest. Well, .old Craigie drank 
whisky until he was well nigh full, and, what was worse 
than that, they gave it to his idiot lad, who was not 
drunk with it, but staring mad. His looks almost 
frightened the whole company to death, so that instead of 
detaining old Craigie (as was many a time the case with 
others), the people of the house very gladly seconded bis 
proposal to depart, when, much to the relief of the rest of 
the guests, be left on the afternoon of the following day. 
After proceeding a few miles on their journey the lad 
began to be very mischievous, turning the horses off upon 
the moor, and upsetting the sacks on their backs. For a 
time the old father kept putting things to rights, but at 
last his patience was exhausted ; and, when the lad was 
in the act of throwing off a sack, the old man struck him 
a smart blow across his fingers with the stock of his whip. 
In a moment, maddened with pain and opposition, the 
wretch, implanted with the fury of a demon, suddenly 
seizing the whip, wrenched it from his father, and with 
one blow felled him to the ground. A g^rl attending some 
sheep which were pasturing around witnessed the whole 
affair. Of all the deeds ever transacted, perhaps this was 
one of the most appalling. The lad jumped upon his 
father, and kicked him until he was tired ; then withdrew 
to a distance and watched him attentively ; ran again and 
inflicted another shower of blows. There then lay on one 
side a heap of stones intended for the repair of the road ; 
these he took up, and, selecting the sharpest, pelted the 
body with such unerring aim and effect, that it might as 
lief have been a heap of road scrapings as that it could be 
said to bear any resemblance to humanity. This done, 
the lad mounted one of the ponies, scoured over the moor, 
and, reaching home, informed his mother of the deed. 
Meanwhile, assistance arrived, but too late. There lay in 
a bloody mass all that was mortal of poor Craigie his 
brains and grey hairs besmeared and matted among the 
stones, whilst I myself, a little boy at the time, picked up 
five of his fingers, which had been knocked off by the 
stroke of the stones. The lad, on his arrival home, went 
to bed, and lay till he was secured and sent to a lunatic 

asylum in Newcastle, where he died. When the common 
was enclosed, the masons employed in erecting the fence, 
built a cross into the wall Crafgie's Cross which, being 
destroyed by some accident or other, a rude death's head 
was made to supply its place. 

Mine host concluded by observing : " Often have I 
heard it said that at night the form of old Craigie might 
be seen stealing quietly about the fatal spot ; but I'm not 
one, sir, that believes in such stories." 

Jptwrtoffafce awtt 

j|HE snowflake or snow bunting (Emberiza 
nivalis, Bewick Pleetrophanes nivalis, Yar- 
rell) is a purely winter visitant, and only 
makes its appearance in the North of Eng- 
land when the winters are unusually rigorous. Mr. Han- 
cock remarks in his Catalogue " Occasionally abundant, 
it arrives on our coast, singly or in pairs, in September or 
October, and during the winter assemble in large flocks. 
In the breeding season, the snowflake has a very different 
appearance from that which it assumes with us. The 
change is produced in the same manner as in the moun- 
tain finch, namely, by the margins of the feathers wearing 
off. The change in appearance thus produced is very 
remarkable in this species ; the head, neck, breast, and 
belly become quite white, while the back and scapulars 
are changed to pure black." Large flocks of snowflakes 
used formerly to visit Newcastle Town Moor, but are 
now rarely seen. Whether the decrease in numbers is 
owing to drainage and other agricultural changes, or 
because it is getting less numerous from other causes, it 
is hard to say. 

The bird, which is a native of the Polar regions, is 
found over the whole of the northern parts of Europe and 
America, and was seen by Captain Scoresby, in immense 
numbers, in icy Spitzbergen, where it breeds during tie 
brief northern summer. It is also occasionally found in 
winter in the warmer countries of Southern Europe and 
in Mid and Southern England and Ireland, but it is 
always most plentiful in Scotland and the Border 
Counties. As Morris remarks, the number of those 
wintry visitants diminish from Yorkshire southward. 
Mountainous regions are their natural resort, which they 
leave for lower and more sheltered ground when severe 
weather sets in. They return to their breeding haunts 
in the far north about April. 

The male, in shape and size not unlike the yellow 
bunting, is from six to seven inches in length. The short 
bill is yellow, darker at the tip in winter, but wholly 
yellow in summer. The iris of the eye is a chestnut 
brown. The head, on the back, is a pale yellowish 
brown, white in summer ; crown, bright chestnut brown, 
mixed with white, the tips of the feathers being reddish 



"I 1891. 

brown in winter, though sometimes white. Neck, on the 
back, greyish brown, white in summer; in front, a 
gorget of bright chestnut brown, mixed with white ; nape 
of the neck, white in summer, tinged with greyish or 

brownish red in winter ; chin white, with more or less 
yellow brown on the sides, white in summer. The back 
feathers are beautifully mottled black and brown. The 
wings, which extend to the width of thirteen inches, are 
black and white. The tail is black, the outside feathers 
white. The legs, toes, and claws are black, the hind claw 
being prolonged and nearly straight. The female is 
somewhat duller plumaged than the male, and rather 
smaller in size. 

Snowflakes run with rapidity on the ground when in 
search of food, perch on rocks and walls, seldom on trees, 
and roost on the ground. Their food consists chiefly of 
different kinds of grain, the seeds of grasses and plants, 
as also of small mollusca, caterpillars, and insects. The 
note is low and soft, and uttered on the wing. The male 
bird sings to his mate when the latter is on the nest, and 
rises a little way in the air with hoverintr wings and out- 
spread tail. 

Dr. Brehm, the German naturalist, thus refers to the 
arrival of the snow buntings in Northern Europe : "The 
flocks of these beautiful creatures (in winter) are remark- 
ably numerous ; they pour in masses over the 
country, and drop like Snowflakes upon such spots as 
seem to offer them the food of which they are in search 
indeed, so strong is the resemblance of these swarms to a 
snow-storm, when thus seen congregated in large num- 
bers, that the birds are popularly called ' Snowflakes ' in 
St. Petersburg, where they are met with in much greater 
multitudes than in other parts of Europe. Many tales 
are told of these flocks settling down during their migra- 
tion, on the decks of ships, in order to enjoy a short 
repose ; upon such occasions, however, they rise again 
into the air almost immediately, and continue their long 
and weary journey, even should they have to encounter 
the full violence of a contrary wind." 

The Lapland bunting ( ' Plectrophanei Lapponica) is a 
rare accidental visitor to this country. The first instance 
of its occurrence was early in the year 1826, the fact being 
announced by Selby to the Linntean Society. This speci- 
men was discovered in Leadenhall Market, where it had 
been sent with some larks from Cambridgeshire. Since 
that date about a score of examples have been obtained in 
Great Britain. One was killed among a flock of snow 
buntings near Durham, in January, 1860, and is now in 
the Durham Museum. The adult male in breeding- 
plumage has the entire head, throat, and upper part 
black, except a nearly white streak, which, beginning 
behind the eye and passing at the back of the ear-coverts, 
forms a white patch on the sides of the neck. A rich 
chestnut collar reaches from behind the head to the upper 
back. The rest of the feathers of the upper parts, in- 
cluding the wing-coverts, innermost secondaries, and 
centre tail feathers, are brownish black, margined with 
white and buff. The quills and tail feathers are brown, 
with narrow pale margins, the two outer tail feathers 
with more or less smoky white at the tip. The black on 

the upper breast extends to the flanks, and the rest of the 
underparts is nearly white. The bill is yellow, black at 
the tip ; the legs, feet, and claws are dark brown ; and 
the irides are hazel. 

, (Srarfntm. 

[OWARDS the close of last century William 
Wordsworth settled down at Dove Cottage, 
Townend, Grasmere. At that time the seclu- 
sion of the lovely neighbourhood would seldom be 
intruded upon ; but the English Lake District gradually 
became the haunt of thousands of tourists. Wordsworth 
himself was in some way responsible for the invasion, for 
he published a " Guide to the Lakes." 

The cottage at Townend has of late been surrounded by 
the out-buildings of an hotel, and no doubt the time was 
not far distant when it would have been either consider- 

1891. / 



ably altered or pulled down. Recognising this possibility 
some admirers of the poet have acquired possession of the 
premises. It is proposed to place in them editions of 
Wordsworth's poems, to fill the little nook with all the 
mementoes of the poet that can be obtained, and to 
maintain the cottage by voluntary subscriptions as public 
trust property. 

No better description of Dove Cottage, as it was when 
Wordsworth entered into possession, can be desired than 
that of Dorothy Wordsworth, the poet's sister, who in a 
letter dated September M, 1800, refers to it in the follow 
ing terms : 

We are daily more delighted with Grasmere and its 
neighbourhood. Our walks are perpetually varied, and 
we are more fond of the mountains as our acquaintance 
with tbem increases. We have a boat upon the lake, and 
a small orchard and smaller garden, which, as it is the 
work of our own hands, we regard with pride and 
partiality. Our cottage is quite large enough for us, 
though very small ; and we have made ill neat and com- 
fortable within doors ; and it looks very nice on the 
outside : for though the roses and honeysuckles which we 
have planted against it are only of this year's growth, yet 
it is covered all over with green leaves and scarlet flowers; 
for we have trained scarlet beans upon threads, which are 
not only exceedingly beautiful, but very useful, as their 
produce is immense. Wo have made a lodging-room of 
the parlour below stairs, which has a stone floor; therefore 
we have covered it all over with matting. We sib in a 
room above stairs, and we have one lodging-room with 
two single beds, a sort of lumber-room, and a small low 
unceiled room, which I have papered with newspapers, 
and in which we have put a small bed. 

The following poem was written by Wordsworth during 
his residence at Dove Cottage : 

On Nature's invitation do I come, 

By Reason sanctioned. Can the choice mislead, 

That made the calmest, fairest spot on earth, 

With all its unappropriated good. 

My own, and not mine only, for with me 

Entrenched say rather peacefully embowered 

Under yon orchard, in yon humble cot, 

A younger orphan of a name extinct, 

The only daughter of my parents dwells? 

Aye, think on that, my heart, and cease to stir ; 

Pause upon that, and let the breathing frame 

No longer breathe, but all be satisfied. 

Oh. if such silence be not thanks to God 

For what hath been bestowed, then where, where then, 

Shall gratitude find rest? Mine eyes did ne'er 

Fix on a lovely object, nor my mind 

Take pleasure in the midst of happy thought, 

But either she, whom now I ha,ve, who now 

Divides with me that loved abode, was there. 

Or not far off. Where'er my footsteps turned, 

Her voice was like a hidden bird that sang ; 

The thought of her was like a flash of light 

Or an unseen companionship, a breath 

Or fragrance independent of the wind. 

In all my goings, in the new and old 

Of all my meditations, and in this 

Favourite of all, in this the most of all. . . , 

Kmbrace me then, ye hills, and close me in. 

Now on the clear and open day I feel 

Your guardianship : I take it to my heart ; 

'Tis like the solemn shelter of the night. 

But I would call thee beautiful ; for mild, 

And soft, and gay, and beautiful thou art, 

Dear valley, having in thy face a smile, 

Though peaceful, full of gladness. Thou art pleased. 

Pleased with thy crags, and woody steeps, thy lake, 

Its one green island, and its winding shores, 

The multitude of little rocky hills, 

Thy church, and cottages of mountain stone 

Clustered like stars some few. but single most, 
And lurking dimly in their shy retreats, 
Or glancing at each other cheerful looks, 
Like separated stars with clouds between. 

It was to Dove Cottage that Wordsworth brought his 
bride in 1802, and here he spent many happy years. But 
the accommodation was very limited, and his increasing 
family soon necessitated a transfer to a larger house. In 
the spring of 1808 he went to live at Allan Bank, at the 
north end of Grasmere; but, finding this place unsuitable, 
he removed for a time to the parsonage at Grasmere. The 
loss of some of his dear ones and the circumstance that 
they lay iu Grasmere churchyard rendered him anxious 
to leave a house that, to use his own words, "by recalling 
to our minds at every moment the losses we have sus- 
tained in the course of last year, would grievously retard 
our progress towards that tranquillity which it is our 
duty to aim at." Finally, a suitable residence was found 
at Bydal Mount, on the rocky side of Nab Scar, and 
overlooking Rydal Water. Thither he and his family 
migrated in the spring of 1813, and there he spent the 
remainder of his days. 

at JKarfc 'tEtoijrt ftgtu atttt 

JttdjarD SKdfort. 



[ESTGARTH Forster, author of "A Section 
of the Strata from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to 
Cross Fell," was the eldest son of Westgarth 
and Lucy Forster, of Ivy House, Garrigill, 
Alston, and grandson of George Forster, of Jeffry's 
Rake, Hunstanworth, who married a daughter of the 
ancient family of Westgarth, owners for many generations 
of the estate of Unthank, in Weardale. Westgarth 




I 1891. 

Forster, the elder, was a mining agent, who, in 1774, 
received the appointment of assistant-manager of the 
Allendale and Coaloleugh mines, and who, at his death in 
February, 1797, was described in the Newcastle Chronicle 
as "one of the best judges of lead mines in the North of 
England." Westgarth, the younger, was born in 1772, 
and it is believed that the family mansion of Jeffry's 
Kake was his birthplace. There, and at Allenheads, his 
boyhood was spent. 

Upon the death of his father, Westgarth Forster under- 
took the agency of the Allendale mines, and held it for 
about ten years. When he resigned, he was preparing 
his great work on the Strata. The first edition of this 
elaborate treatise was issued in 1809. In the same year 
appeared the first geological map of England, by William 
Smith. These two productions both the results of 
patient investigation conducted in two different portions 
of the same field of inquiry laid the foundation of a . 
sound knowledge of English geology. 

Though the profits accruing from the sale of the work 
were small, the author had good reason to be satisfied with 
the success it had achieved. It brought his name promi- 
nently before the mining community ; and he was hence- 
forth recognised as an authority on geological and mining 
questions. Owners of mining property, directors of min- 
ing companies, and mining agents sought his assistance in 
their difficulties. A new career as a surveyor was thus 
opened out to him. He may be said to have fully entered 
upon his duties as a mine surveyor in 1810 ; he retired 
into private life in 1833, His professional course thus 
extended over twenty-three years, exclusive of the time 
during which he acted as agent for Sir Thomas Blackett 
and Colonel Beaumont. As compared with the averaee 
duration of professional careers, his was a short one ; but, 
if measured by the amount of work accomplished, it is 
justly entitled to be considered a long one. During those 
twenty-three years he surveyed, mapped, and reported 
upon, mining fields in Cumberland. Westmoreland, the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Shrop- 
shire, North and South Wales. He also visited Spain 
and North America, for the purpose of surveying mines 
in those countries, He had offers of employment in 
Ireland and Norway, but was unable to accept them. Some 
of his reports and many of his plans are still extant. The 
former are noticeable for their clearness, and for the cm 
prehensive grasp of the subjects with which they deal ; 
the latter are remarkable for their order and neatness. 

The second edition of the " Strata " appeared in 1821. 
Among the subscribers to this edition were Dr. Buck- 
land, author of the " Bridgewater Treatise on Geology " ; 
Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society ; the 
Duke of Devonshire ; the Earls of Darlington and Strath- 
more ; Dr. Barrington, Bishop of Durham ; Professor Mill- 
inifton, of the Royal Institution ; Dr. Thompson, Regius 
Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow, and Col. Beaumont. 

In the same year in which the second edition of the 

"Strata " appeared, Forster went down to Somersetshire, 
where he surveyed some mining property, and directed 
the efforts of a company who were interested in a new 
colliery. During the years 1825 and 1826, he surveyed, 
sketched, and reported upon mining properties in 
Cardiganshire, Merionethshire, Glamorgan, Monmouth- 
shire, Pembrokeshire, Montgomeryshire, Denbighshire, 
Shropshire, and the Isle of Man. He sailed for North 
America in April, 1830, and returned in May, 1831, bring- 
ing with him a series of sketches which he had made 
during his stay on that continent. That he visited Spain 
during the interval between May, 1831, and April, 1833, 
is more than probable. 

In his retirement at Ivy House, Garrigill, Westgarth 
Forster found such occupation as failing health permitted 
in outdoor sketching and planning when the weather was 
favourable, and in colouring plates of unsold copies of the 
"Strata " when outdoor work was impracticable, busying 
himself at the same time in the affairs of the village, and 
keeping up a correspondence with Professor Sedgwick, 
Hugh Lee Pattinson, and other friends of his prime. 
These congenial employments were, however, of but brief 
duration. During the summer of 1835 be was seized with 
a fatal illness, and on the 9th of November in that year 
he died. 

Though half a century has elapsed since the grave 
closed over Westgarth Forster's remains, his name still 
continues a household word among the people of Alston 
Moor, Weardale, and the two Allendales. He lives in 
their minds as a clever though somewhat eccentric man, 
different in many respects from the ordinary run of man- 
kind. Local mining agents and local geologists are 
familiar with his name; mining agents and geologists 
who have a reputation which is more than local still 
continue to quote him as an authority on mining and 
geological questions. His " Section of the Strata " is 
still the standard work on the geology of the two 
Northern Counties, and it was never more highly prized 
by miners than it is now. Though the book was written 
when the science of geology was in its initial stage ; when 
even people of education recognised no distinction 
between one kind of rock and another ; when such terms 
as "stratified" and "unstratified," "aqueous" and 
"igneous," seldom appeared in print, and were scarcely 
ever heard ; when the great works of Buckland, De la 
Beche, Philips, Lyall, Murchison, Sedgewick, and other 
geologists had not yet appeared, the classification of the 
strata which it contains is the one still in use. 

[The foregoing narrative is condensed from an apprecia- 
tive memoir of Mr. Forster (prefixed to a third edition of 
the "Strata "), by the Rev. William Nail, M.A.] 

Sacred to th Memory of William Garret, who for 
forty years devoted himself to the interests of the free- 
men, and was ever ready to defend their rights and 

March 1 
1891. I" 



privileges. He filled the office of Chairman of the 
Stewards of the Incorporated Companies for a long 
period, and was Steward of the Skinners' and Glovers' 
Company. He also contributed to our local literature by 
editing a black-letter manuscript of the Battle of Flodden, 
and compiling an account of the principal Floods in 
Northumberland and Durham. Died 28 December, 
1857, aged 63 years. Erected by the Skinners' and 
Glovers' Company, and private friends of Mr. Garret, in 
commemoration of his public services. This stone was 
erected in its place on the 31st March, I860. Monumental 
Inscription in Jesmond Cemetery. 

A generation of Novocastriaus that has scarcely yet 
passed away, was familiar with William Garret, whose 
portly form, fluent speech, and imperious bearing gave 
him a distinct individuality in the town forty to fifty 
years ago. Champion of the freemen of Newcastle 
against their civic rulers, and far-searching collector of 
every available chip that could exemplify or scrap that 
could illustrate the workmanship of Thomas Bewick, be 

CWL&7 1 

figured for many yeara as a minor light in local adminis- 
tration on the one hand, and as a bibliophile and relic- 
hunter of wide-spreading repute on the other. The 
highest official position to which he attained was that of 
Chairman of the Stewards of the Incorporated Com- 
panies ; his commercial status was that of a bookseller ; 
yet, in the thirties and forties of the present century, one 
could not be many days in Newcastle without hearing of 
William Garret. 

Born in 1793, the son of John Garret, a hairdresser, 
who carried on his business first in the Groat Market and 
afterwards in the Bigg Market, William Garret received 
good education, for his father was a man of advanced 

ideas, a promoter of the Royal Jubilee School, and a 
supporter, to the extent of his means, of other institutions 
designed to encourage menial and social improvement. 
Developing studious habits and exhibiting bookish ten- 
dencies, he was bound apprentice, in or about the year 
1807, to his father's neighbour, the famous bookseller, 
Emerson Charnley. Soon after his term of servitude 
expired, on the 3rd November, 1814, he was admitted to 
the freedom of the Stationers' Company, and thencefor- 
ward became qualified to exercise his calling in any way 
most conducive to his wishes. He chose to remain at the 
famous shop wherein he bad acquired his business know- 
ledge, and for thirty years he continued with Mr. 
Charniey, rising from the position of 'prentice lad to that 
of assistant, and from the post of assistant to that of 

During the early days of his engagement with Mr. 
Charnley, Mr. Garret indulged in mild literary recrea- 
tions on his own account, encouraged thereto, without 
doubt, by his fnend and pastor, the Rev. William Turner. 
The formation of the Newcastle Typographical Society, 
in 1817, provided him with the temptation to see himself 
in print, and he contributed between that year and 1822, 
the following tracts to the society's series : 

An Elegy to the Memory of Her Royal Highness the 
Princess Charlotte of Wales, 1817. 

An Account of the Great Floods in the Rivers Tyne, 
Tees, Wear, Eden, &c., in 1771 and 1815. With the 
Names of the Principal Sufferers in Northumberland, the 
Amount of their Estimates, and of the Damage done in 
each Township ; Also an Account of the Subscriptions 
made for their Relief, in 1771. To which is added an 
Account of the Irruption of Solway Moss. Newcastle : 
Printed for Emerson Charnley, 1818. Four Bewick Cuts. 
[Dedicated to John Adamson. 

The Battle of Flodden Field. Reprint, in black-letter, 
of a rare tract originally issued by Richard Fawkes, 
printer, about 1514. Newcastle : Printed for Emerson 
Charnley, 1822. With one Bewick Cut. [Dedication of 
three pages to John Trotter Brockett.] 

Nothing more appears to his credit in local literature 
till the election of 1830, when he issued a well-known 
broadside entitled " The Gathering of the Whigs in Sir 
Matthew White Ridley's Committee Room," commenc- 

Little wot ye wha's comin, 
Dan o" Blagdon Ha's comin, 
Harry's comin, Scaife's comin, 
Henderson and a's comin, 

and running on through nine other verses of the same 
character. By this time more absorbing, and perhaps 
more useful, work than the compilation of local tracts had 
been found for Mr. Garret to do. At an early period of 
his freedom he had been elected steward of his company, 
and now he was engaged in continuing the work which 
Joseph Clark had begun, of denouncing municipal ex- 
travagance, and demanding a restoration to the freemen 
of their alleged rights and privileges. Those who consult 
"The Corporation Mirror," "The Northern John Bull," 
and other ephemeral periodicals of the time will read re- 
ports of the noisy guild meetings that preceded the Great 



I March 
1. 189L 

Reform Bill, and be able to gauge the height and depth of 
the agitation that ensued in favour of a similar measure 
for securing Municipal Reform. At all those meetings 
Mr. Garret was one of the guiding spirits ; through all 
that agitation he was a chief spokesman ; sometimes lead- 
ing the attack, sometimes conducting the defence. At the 
Municipal Inquiry held in Newcastle during the early part 
of November, 1833, he took the lead in cross-examining 
the representatives of the Corporation, and in addressing 
critical remarks to the Commissioners. Mr. John Clay- 
ton, the Town Clerk, principal witness for the civic 
authorities, received a regular fusillade of questions 
from the freemen's chief inquisitor, and the genial way 
in which he turned the tables on his interlocutor formed 
a subject of admiration and amusement for long after. 

The passing of the Municipal Reform Act in 1835 
settled most of the disputes between the Corporation and 
the freemen. Several of the latter found their way into 
the Reformed Town Council : but Mr. Garret, although 
nominated by both wards of the parish of St. Andrew, 
did not enter the charmed circle. He remained outside, 
and, as chairman of the Stewards of the Incorporated 
Companies, led the freemen through many a wordy fray 
and convivial encounter, for which, later on, they re- 
warded him with the customary "handsome piece of 

In 1844 (the year before Mr. Charnley died), Mr. 
Garret left the famous book mart in the Bigg Market, 
after thirty years' service, and started in business on his 
own account in Mosley Street. He began with a goodly 
number of local books, and before long he had one of the 
largest stocks in town. Bewick's blocks and illustrations 
were the principal objects of his search. His first cata- 
logue contained six copies of the "Birds," six of the 
"Quadrupeds," four of the "Select Fables," and three of 
"jEsop," with several separate cuts, prints, and draw- 
ings. In little more than a twelvemonth he sent out a 
catalogue in which were no fewer than 108 entries under 
the name of Bewick, and an announcement that, besides 
these, he had in stock " upwards of one thousand speci- 
mens " of the " minor and early " work of that great 
engraver. Local curios and relics also added interest to 
his collections. Among other objects that he offered for 
sale were : 

Saint Nicholas' Church : A beautiful Model in Wood, 
upwards of eight feet high, "accurate by Measurement in 
all its Parts." 

Lord Derwentwater's Wine Glass : A curious old 
"Party Glass," engraved "F. R.," surmounted by a 
coronet on one side, and " Success to Prince Charles " on 
the other. 

Lord Derwentwater's Girdle Purse: An old Leather 
Double Purse, the Tassels fringed with Silver Lace. 

Wine Pant : A Tin Model, 19 inches high, of the Pant 
that ran Wine on the Sandhill, Newcastle, at the corona- 
tion of George IV. 

A Fine solid Plaster Bust of William Martin, the 
Natural Philosopher. 

Sixty Saxon Stycas found at Hexham. 

Seven Pairs of very old Leather Shoes made in New- 
castle, in fine condition, and very curious. 

Fruit Piece by George Gray, " admitted to contain 
some of the ripest fruit he ever painted." 

Devotion to Bewick brought Mr. Garret into com- 
munication with that enthusiastic collector the Rev. 
Thos. Hugo. In the preface to the first volume of his 
"Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of Thomas and 
John Bewick," Mr. Hugo attributes to two men in New- 
castle William Garret and John Bell his chief success 
in gathering together the vast and unique collection 
which bore his name. The book itself is full of notes 
from Mr. Garret's pen, giving little histories of the 
objects enumerated, bits of gossip about the workmanship 
of them, or stories concerning their previous owners. 
Besides these jottings, Mr. Garret does not appear to 
have added anything to his early efforts in literature. 
He issued the "Fisher's Garlands " in 1844 and 1845, and 
afterwards made up a few sets of those charming songs 
with a title page dated 1842. He gathered together 
handbills, broadsides, and tracts relating to special sub- 
jects, and bound them in unique volumes, like those of 
John and Thomas Bell, with title pages and occasional 
notes volumes prized by local collectors, and now rarely 
obtainable. Beyond this class of bookmaking he did not 

Four or five years after Mr. Garret started in business 
for himself, some local dispute with the Stationers' Com- 
pany led to his withdrawal frem the fellowship. The 
Skinners' and Glovers' Company, taking into considera- 
tion his extensive knowledge of Corporate affairs, ad- 
mitted him an honorary member, and on the resignation of 
Mr. George Halliday, they appointed him the Glovers, 
Steward. Towards the close of his life, finding book- 
selling less remunerative, and his natural powers failing 
him, he accepted the position of deputy-registrar of 
births and deaths for the district of St. Nicholas and St. 
John. Occupying that office, he died on the 28th 
December, 1857, and was buried in Jesmond Cemetery. 

Stye (StbsioniS of Deijjam anb tonecroft, 


That part of the Tyne valley above which the renerable 
Abbey Church of Hexham rears its time-worn tower, has 
been, for three hundred years, the birthplace and the 
home of a family bearing the ancient patronymic of 
Gibson. Their pedigree commences with Richard Gib- 
son, who obtained a grant from the Crown of lands at 
Hexham, and settled there in the latter part of the 
sixteenth century. Public interest in them begins a 
hundred years later, when Richard, son of George Gibson, 
of Hexham, adding to his patrimonial inheritance other 
property in the town, and acquiring lands at Corbridge, 
laid the foundation of a goodly estate. To him were 
born three sons, two of whom, George and William, 
choosing the religious life, joined the order of St 
Dominic, while the other son, Thomas, remained at 
home, married, and perpetuated the race. 

1S91. / 



George Gibson, the eldest of these three brothers, was 
professed at the Dominican Convent of Bornhetu, near 
Malines, in 1673, where he taught philosophy and theo- 
logy, and for a year occupied the responsible position of 
tub-prior. From Bornhem he went to Rome, where he 
rose to the more exalted office of prior in that great house 
of his order which bore the united names of St. John and 
St. Paul. In the summer of 1686, he was sent to 
England as chaplain to the Claverings of Callaly, with 
whom he remained till 1693, when his brother Thomas, 
having acquired the estate of Stonecroft, near Hexham, 
put him in charge of a mission there. At Stonecroft he 
died on the 17th of December, 1696, and was buried in 
Newbrough churchyard. 

William Gibson, born in 1668, professed at Bornhem in 
1687, and ordained priest at Rome in 1692, taught 
philosophy at Aglia, in Piedmont, till upon the death of 
his brother George he took up the work of the Stonecroft 
mission. At Stonecroft he remained till 1712, when he 
was obliged to leave the country. He had solemnized a 
marriage, and for that heinous offence an information 
was laid against him, and warrants were issued for his 
apprehension. Flying to Bornhem, he was welcomed by 
the brethren, who made him Professor of Theology, 
Master of Novices, and Spiritual Director of secular 
students, and in May, 1714, elected him to be their Prior. 
Three years later he became confessor to the Dominican 
house at Brussels. In 1719, having received his degree of 
S.T.M., he returned to England, and was appointed 
chaplain to one of the foreign embassies in London, where 
he died on the 7th June, 1724, aged 56. 

Thomas Gibson, brother of the two Dominicans, 
married Bridget, daughter of Jasper Charlton, of Hawk- 
hope. Through this alliance he acquired a moiety of 
Hawkhope ; later on he purchased from his wife's sister 
the other half, and thus became possessed of the whole 
estate. He bought, also, Stagshaw Close House from Sir 
William Blackett; Stonecroft and Nuubush from 
William, Lord Widdringtou ; and Housesteada from the 
Armstrong family. Two of his sons were men of mark, 
as well as marked men. George, the heir, was out with 
the Earl of Derwentwater and General Forster in 1715, 
was captured at Preston, tried and condemned for 
treason, and would have suffered, like many others, but 
for an outbreak of fever in Newgate, which carried him 
off before the date fixed for his execution. Another son, 
Thomas Gibson, born September 29, 1688, was ordained 
priest at Douay, and shortly after the death of his 
brother in Newgate received an appointment to the 
Catholic mission in Newcastle. By the attainder of the 
Earl of Derwentwater the mission had been deprived of 
its chapel a part of the old residence of the Radcliffe 
family, situate in a court or yard, known long after as 
Bell's Court, Newgate Street ; but Mr. Gibson found a 
home and raised his altar on the opposite side of the 
way, in the Nun's Gate. There he officiated in peace 

(being also Archdeacon of Yorkshire) till the second 
Rebellion that of 1745 broke out. Newcastle and 
Gateshead were intensely loyal to the Hanoverian 
dynasty, and when the Duke of Cumberland came over 
the Tyne, marching to the victory of Culloden, the 
populace evinced their gratitude by burning the Catholic 
chapel at Gateshead, and wrecking Mr. Gibson's in New- 
castle. For some time the ousted priest went in fear of 
his life ; but, resorting to various disguises, even adopting 
women's attire, he was able to visit his flock till the 
storm blew over. Meanwhile, the old Radcliffe mansion 
in Newgate Street had fallen into Catholic hands again. 
It was occupied by Mary, widow of Albert Silvertop 
(daughter of Joseph Dunn, of Blaydon) ; and one of her 
daughters being married to a nephew of Mr. Gibson's, 
she invited the persecuted ecclesiastic to return, like a 
wandering shepherd, to the old fold, and he accepted the 
invitation. For nearly twenty years after the return of 
the mission to its former domicile Mr. Gibson remained 
in charge, and, dying on the 20th January, 1765, aged 76, 
was buried in All Saints' Churchyard. 

A third son of Thomas Gibson, and, therefore, brother 
of the " rebel " and of the Newcastle priest, bore the name 
of Jasper. He married, September 26, 1719, Margaret, 
daughter of Nicholas Leadbitter, of Nether Warden, by 
whom he had two-and- twenty children. Four of his sons 
entered the Catholic priesthood, and two of them rose to 
be bishops. George and Richard were the two sons who 
remained priests ; Matthew and William were the 
brothers who donned the mitre. 

George Gibson, the eldest of the four, born in March 
1726, was educated at Douay, and for some years remained 
in the college there as general prefect. Upon his return 
to England he was appointed to the misson at Hexham, 
where he established a manufactory for spinning wool to 
provide employment for the children of the poor. He 
died at that place, on the 3rd December, 1778, aged 52. 

Richard Gibson, the youngest of the four, born in 1739, 
was ordained at Douay. After leaving the college, he 
assisted in a school at Standon, in Hertfordshire, and was 
successively appointed to Hare Street and Old Hall, in 
the same county. About the year 1784, he removed to 
Mawley Hall, the seat of Sir Walter Blount, in Shrop- 
shire, where he spent the remainder of his life, "much 
respected and beloved by the family and his congrega- 
tion, notwithstanding his constitutional roughness and 
apparent harshness." He died there on the 13th Septem- 
ber, 1801, aged 62. 

Matthew Gibson, fourth son of Jasper, was born in 
1734, and, like his brothers, was sent to Douay to be 
educated for the priesthood. After his ordination he 
occupied for four years the chair of Philosophy, and 
afterwards, for six years, the professorship of Divinity. 
Returning to England in 1768, he entered into the general 
work of the mission, and two years later was chosen 
Archdeacon of Kent and Surrey. In 1776, under Bishop 



\ 1891. 

Walton, Vicar- Apostolic of the Northern District, he be- 
came Vicar-General, and the following year received the 
higher appointment of Special Vicar. When, through the 
death of Bishop Walton, a vacancy occurred in the 
supreme office of Vicar-Apoatolic, the Pope, approving 
his zeal for the faith, his success in propaganda, and his 
undoubted abilities in administration, appointed Mr. 
Gibson to be Bishop Walton's successor. He was con- 
secrated in London, September 3, 1780, by the title of 
Bishop of Comana in Cappadocia, and a few days after- 
wards entered upon the onaroi.rf duties of his office. How 
onerous these were may be inferred when it is explained 
that the Northern District, mapped out in the reign of 
James II., and unaltered till 1840, comprised the counties 
of Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, Westmore- 
land, York, Lancaster and Chester, and therefore ex- 
tended, at a time when railroads had not been invented, 
from the Tweed in the North, to the Humber and the 
Mersey in the South. 

Up to the date of Matthew Gibson's appointment the 
Catholics of Northumberland and Durham saw their 
bishops at long intervals only, and their vicars-general 
as seldom. The Rev. W. Maire, of Lartington, who 
acted from 1767 to 1769 as coadjutor to Bishop Petre, and 
was buried at Romaldkirk in the latter year, formed the 
only exception to this rule. Bishop Gibson, being a 
Tynesider, not only paid frequent visits to his native 
county while discharging subordinate functions, but four 
years after his consecration he came to the North to 
reside. There was a Catholic mission at Stella, founded 
a hundred years before by the Tempests, and worked 
from their ancestral home, Stella Hall; Under the pro- 
tection of the Widdrington family, successors of the 
Tempests, the mission had been continued, the officiating 
priest sharing the hall with the agent of the estates, and 
celebrating mass in a chapel attached to it. Thither, in 
the spring of 1784, Bishop Matthew Gibson took up his 
residence with the priest of the mission, the Rev. Thomas 
Eyre, and from thence he governed his extensive charge. 
Upon Tyneside his life was quiet and unobtrusive. In 
no public capacity outside of his spiritual functions did 
he appear ; nor did he contribute much to ecclesiastical 
literature. Nothing is known to have issued from his pen 
but a revised edition of "The London, or Little Cate- 
chism, "and a Pastoral Letter on a proposed oath to be 
taken by "Protesting Catholic Dissenters." He died 
at Stella Hall, on the 19th May, 1790, aged 57, and was 
buried among his relatives at Newbrough. 

William Gibson, fifth son of Jasper, born in February, 
1738, was educated and ordained at Douay, where he took 
the college oath, November 3, 1755, Returning to Eng- 
land, he took up his residence at Minsteracres, as 
domestic chaplain to the Silvertops. He was appointed 
President of Douay in 1781, and remained there till 
the death of his brother, whom he succeeded as Vicar- 
Apostolic of the Northern District, with the title of 

Bishop of Acanthos, in 1790. This Bishop was the 
founder of the great Catholic College of Ushaw. He had 
resigned the presidency of Douay to assume the mitre, 
and when, three years later, that famous French training 
house of English priests, and its companion establish- 
ment at St. Omer, had been broken up by the French 
Revolution, he devoted himself to the task of gathering 
together the scattered students, and carrying on in Eng- 
land the educational work which the Republic had sup- 
pressed. Some of the refugees were provided for at Old 
Hall Green, Herts; others were placed for a time in a 
lay school at Tudhoe. In 1794, Bishop Gibson obtained 
a lease of Crook Hall, ancient seat of the Bakers, in the 
parish of Lanchester, and opened it as the first Catholic 
college established in England after the Reformation, 
Thither students flocked in annually increasing numbers, 
until Crook Hall became inadequate to their accommoda- 
tion. Then the Bishop took in hand a project of greater 
magnitude the founding of an institution which, in size 
and teaching power, might campare with the college at 
Douay. He applied to Sir Edward Sinythe to sell him 
a farm of 300 acres, situated near the village of Ushaw, 
four miles west of Durham ; the price being arranged, the 
land was purchased, and a scheme drawn up for a large 
collegiate edifice. Early in the year 1805 the first stone 
was laid of a quadrangular building, enclosing a large 
open court, surrounded by corridors. Three wings of the 
college were so far completed in the summer of 1808, that, 
on the 19th July, the President sent the first body of 
students to take possession of their New Alma Mater. 

Residing generally at York, but occasionally at Dur- 
ham with the resident priest, the Bishop managed to 
conduct the business of his huge district without flinch- 
ing, and without neglecting any part of it. " For many 
months," he wrote, "I administered the sacrament of 
confirmation three or four times a week, and as often 
preached sermons before Catholics and Protestants. My 
journeys were very long and fatiguing. In Lancashire I 
confirmed about 8,000, and almost all of those confirmed 
received the holy communion." It was not until the 
seventeenth year of his episcopate that he obtained the 
services of a coadjutor. After that time, his health gave 
way under the weight of years and the burden of his 
office. He died at Durham on the 2nd of June, 1821, 
aged 83, and was buried in the college cemetery at 
Ushaw. His literary work comprises a translation of a 
French book, "The Truth of the Catholic Religion, 
proved from the Holy Scriptures," published at New- 
castle by Edward Walker, in 1799; a "Charge, "delivered 
on the passing of the Act of 1791, which freed Catholics 
from various declarations and disabilities; the joint 
authorship of an encyclical letter in 1791, and of a 
Pastoral Letter in 1793, and a " Conversation between 
the Right Hon. Edmund Burke and Dr. W. Gibson," 

March \ 
1891. / 



STft* Jfirrft 


JINDREW WHITE, of Frederick Lodge, Sun- 
derland, and Tunstall Lodge, county Durham, 
first and three times Mayor of Sunderland, 
Member of Parliament, Borough and County Justice, 
and a Deputy-Lieutenant for the county of Durham, 
was born in Sunderland in the year 1788. He was 
a son of John White, of Thorny Close, Durham, the 
most extensive shipowner in Sunderland at that time, 
a colliery owner, and the proprietor of the Bishopwear- 
mouth Iron Works a gentleman of large means and 
philanthropic spirit, who built at his own cost the 
Wesleyan Schools in Hendon Road. 

After receiving a sound education (he was a pupil of 
Rev. John Hayton), Andrew White early entered upon a 

business and public career. Together with his brother 
Richard, he was taken into partnership by his father, 
and the firm became John White and Sons. Endowed 
with more than average ability, and the happy possessor 
of a genial and polished manner, he was not long in 
making his influence felt in the good town of Sunderland. 
When in 1835 an agitation arose for taking advantage of 
the Municipal Reform Act, he was the chosen champion 
of the Municipal party. Although Bishop Morton had 
in 1634 vested the government of the town in a "Mayor, 
twelve Aldermen, and Commonalty" all duly elected 
and acknowledged by the State the charter had fallen 
into disuse, and a strong faction now objected to the 
formation of a council without a special Act of 
Parliament. Mr. White, however, presided at a 
meeting on the 16th December, 1835, and, strength- 

ened by the opinion of the then Attorney-General, 
the meeting unanimously resolved to take advan- 
tage of the Act. An opposition meeting was held on the 
17th, when Mr. R. Pemberton, Mr. Fenwick, and Mr. 
Featherstonehaugh, together with some of their friends, 
strongly opposed the resolution adopted at the previous 
meeting. Their objections were, however, overruled, and 
on December 26, 1835, the first election of councillors for 
the newly-constituted borough of Sunderland took place. 

The subject of our sketch was returned at the head of 
the poll for two wards the Bishopwearmouth and the 
West Wards his brother Richard being returned for the 
Ward of St. Michael, also at the head of the poll. 

The first meeting of the Council was held on December 
31, and at a subsequent meeting on New Year's Day, 1836, 
Mr. Andrew White was chosen first Mayor, and Mr. 
Ritson Town Clerk. On this occasion the ladies of 
Sunderlaud presented the Mayor with an elaborate silken 
banner on which was emblazoned in letters of gold the 
statement that he was "the pride of his native borough." 
This banner, at a later date, Mr. White presented to the 
Corporation, and it now occupies a conspicuous position in 
the New Municipal Buildings. 

The chief magistracy, however, was not to be an 
enviable position, for on the first occasion that Mr. 
White took his seat at the head of the Bench he 
was hustled, and a demonstration was made, more 
against the office than the occupier of it. The county 
magistrates declined to recognise the Mayor's authority, 
and the battle waged long and furiously; but Mr, 
White held his court at a different hour to the 
opposition until he was left in undisputed possession of 
the field. He was re-elected Mayor on the 9th Nov., 
1836, but retired in July, 1837, to fill the more important 
position of Member of Parliament for the borough. The 
new member sat in the Whig interest, his colleague 
being Mr. Thompson, a Conservative. As showing the 
contrast between past and present elections, it may be 
mentioned that Mr. White's election expenses on that 
occasion amounted to 16,000 ! 

From this time new honours came thick and fast. Mr. 
White was made a deputy-lieutenant of his county, was 
present at the coronation and marriage of his Sovereign, 
and presented her with a congratulatory address from 
the borough of Suaderlaud on the occasion of the birth of 
the Princess Royal. For many years he held a prominent 
position in the county, taking a leading part in all 
philanthropic movements. It was an annual custom of his 
at Christmas time to entertain to dinner in his town 
house, Frederick Lodge., the whole of the chimney sweeps 
of Sunderland a portion of the community at that time 
in anything but affluent circumstances. 

Severe losses in winning coal came upon him in the 
closing years of his life, and he retired from all public 
work. Mr. White, who died in 1856, had no offspring, 
and the only male representative of his family in the 



/ March 
\ 1891. 

North of England is Mr. John White, of Claremont 
Terrace, Newcastle, who is the only son of Andrew's 
brother and partner, Mr. Kichard White (Mayor of 
Sunderland in 18W). Some younger brothers went to 
reside in the South of England early in life, and many of 
their progeny now occupy exalted positions in the Church 
and Army. 

Our portrait is taken from an engraving of Bewick's 
painting of Mr. White whilst Member for Sunderland, 
now in the possession of his great-nephew, Mr. J. Holmes 
White, of Newcastle. 

, aitDr 

JEW parts of the North of England so well 
repay a visit as that fertile tract of 
Nortbumberland called Glendale, of which 
Wooler is the capital, and Doddington and 
Milfield are neighbouring villages. Wooler itself can- 
not be said to raise any enthusiasm ; it is a dull, unin- 
teresting market town, with no feature of attraction in 
itself. The accompanying view of a bit of the town is taken 
from as good a point of view as any. It includes, besides 
the fountain in the middle of the street, a distant view of 
the church, and, what is now somewhat of a curiosity, 
a chemist's shop marked by the sign of the serpent. 

The town was described thirty years ago as follows : 
" Wooler is such a town as you would expect to see in the 
heart of a country, decidedly rustic, with roofs of thatch 

here and there to temper aspiring notions, with shops 
that remind you of the days of George IIL, but yet with 
indications of homely prosperity. The parson preached 
in the thatched church till it was burnt down about 100 
years ago." The thatched roofs mostly disappeared at 
the time of the second fire at Wooler in 1862, when a 
great part of the town, notably High Street, was de- 
stroyed. There is nothing intrinsically attractive in the 
parish church of St. Mary, a plain building at the north- 
east of the Market Place. It dates back to 1765 only, the 
former edifice, which, like most of the churches round 
Glendale, had a thatched roof, having been destroyed by 
the fire of 1722. It is supposed that the mother 
church was at Fenton, some five miles to the north, 
where its ruins still may be found. But, on the 
other hand, it is contended that Fenton was probably a 
separate and independent parish, and existed before that 
of Wooler. In 1882, however, the township of Fenton was 
incorporated with the parish of Doddington, through an 
exchange between the incumbents of Wooler and Dodding- 
ton, the townships of Humbleton and Earle being in 
return connected with the parish of Wooler. 

Behind Tower Hill Church (Presbyterian) is found 
about the only bit of antiquity in the town, this being the 
ruins of an old tower, which, like most of the minor 
towers in the district, has an uncertain history. In the 
time of the Muschamps it was described as "a certain 
waste fortress." In the reign of Richard II. it was used 
as a hospital, and latterly was made a place of refuge and 
safety from the rough Borderers. 

The village of Doddington contained at one time, 
and up to as late as 1734, like most of the ancient 

1891. j 



vill.-xges of Northumberland, a large number of small pro- 
prietors, who held copyhold houses and lands, and had 
rights on the extensive common. As an example of the 
general prosperity of those days, it may be stated that, 
on one occasion, forty of these lairds, each mounted on 
his own horse, attended the funeral of a deceased fellow- 

"It is remarkable," says Marks, speaking of Dodding- 

beautiful natural fountain at the base of a freestone rock ; 
but in 1846 the present fountain and cross were erected, 
chiefly through the exertions of the then incumbent, th? 
Rev. William Proctor. 

Milfield is an ancient place, where British remains 
have been found. It was once the residence of the 
Saxon kings of Beruicia. After the death of Edwin, 
the royal palace of Yeavering was forsaken, and another 
made "atMelmin, but at this day Melfield." On the 
south aide of the beautiful plain to the east and south- 
east of the village, a large body of Scots, under Lord 
Home, were defeated by Sir William Bulmer, of Brauce- 
peth Castle, commander of the forces of the Bishopric of 
Durham. Four hundred Scots were killed, and over two 
hundred made prisoners, among them Lord Home's 
brother. This skirmish took place a month before 
Flodden, and it was regarded as of ill omen, the road 
through the plains being afterwaids called "the ill rode." 

at titt 

ton, "for one of the largest and best springs in the 
country, which sends out a current sufficient to turn a 
mill." Of the four large springs in the immediate 
neighbourhood, the Dod Well yields about 72 gallons 
per minute ; Cuddy's Well, 60 yards east of the Dod 
Well, about 20 gallons ; Bhmty or Blinty Well, near the 
village, about 24 gallons ; and a little less than this is 
given by the Blind Well. At one time Dod Well had a 

||NLY a few short memorials are extant of a 
distraught occupant of an old house in Redes- 
dale, long since demolished, called the Hock- 
ing Tower. These particulars were communicated to Mr. 
Robert "White by Robert Beighet, of Otterburn Waulk 
Mill, who died at an advanced age about sixty years ago. 
The Rocking Tower, which had been an old peel-house, 
stood upon the left bank of the Reed, about a mile north- 
east of Otterburn, on the opposite side of the stream from 
the Dow Craig, and near the present farm-steading of 
Hope Foot. This old peel-house was the residence, some 



I 1891. 

hundred and thirty years since, of a small farmer or 
cottager named Nimmo. He was a stupid, inactive, 
inoffensive man, endowed with such a small amount of 
energy that his wife Marjory, "a rallying, magisterial 
woman, got the heavy end of the barrow to carry, " as the 
neighbours said. Their son John, a lad of ten or twelve 
at the time of our story, had some of his mother's stout 
heart in him ; and, as there was little work for him at 
home, he was hired as a cowherd to a neighbouring 
farmer, living at Elishaw, a mile or two further up the 
river. John set off in bonnet and plaid, accompanied by 
his dog Moss, heartily bent on his new work, which was 
the first thing to make a man of him. 

After a little time, a report got to his mother's ears 
that his master's pantry was not very full, and that her 
son Jack was scantily fed. Without inquiring into the 
truth of the story, Marjory sent off her husband to set 
things to rights by bringing the starveling home, telling 
him twice over before she let him go what he had to do 
when he got to Elishaw. On reaching that place, the 
simple old man found his boy following his milky charge, 
as brisk as a bee, plaiting, for his amusement, a rush cap, 
and " lilting like a lintwhite " the well-known old Border 
song, "Wha daur meddle wi' me? "which is recorded to 
have been the last sung by the accomplished poet and 
Orientalist, John Leyden, when roused on his deathbed 
at Batavia, in Java, by the news of the battle of Barossa, 
wherein Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, 
achieved one of the most glorious triumphs of the Penin- 
sular war. The lad was quite surprised at his father's 
errand, and declared that he would not leave his master 
till his time was un, for he was well treated and got 
plenty to eat. The dog Moss, however, was too glad to 
see his old master to be willing to stay where he was ; and 
so, after fawning upon him, as he had often] done, he 
trotted home along with him. The following is Mr. 
White's account of the dialogue that ensued between 
Nitnmo and his wife on his return to the Rocking 
Tower : 

"Weel, where has tu John?" inquired Marjory, as her 
husband entered the house. 

"Oh ! he says he gets plenty o' meat," replied Nimmo, 
" an' winna come hame, for a' I can eyther dey or say." 

"Then thou's get tin thy labour for thy pains," said the 
dame in a bantering mood; "thou's gane a' the way to 
'Lisha an' back, an' no a hair the better." 

"Nay, gudewife, no just saebad as that, eyther," inter- 
posed Nimmo, looking at Marjory and directing her eye 
to the dog. 

"Oh! thou's brought hame Moss, has thou?" she ob- 
served, darting a still more displeased glance at her 
husband; "an 1 thou's left the callant by his ainsel'? 
Should the stickin bull o' the Stobbs come down amang 
the kye, an' they gang a' wrang, an' he hae na dog to 
hound them wi', he may rin, puir thing, till he burst his 
vera heart ! Dye, thou's o' nae use, an' naebody '11 miss 
thou, if thou'll just get a rape an' hang thysel' at yence. 
Mercy me ! was ever woman like mysel' i' this world 
pestered wi' sic a Backless, dozen'd creature as thou? " 

" Wey, eudewife, sae nae mair about it," replied 
Nimmo, in an unmoved tone, for practice had perfected 
his forbearance. " I did the thing for the best ; but I'll 
tak' back the dog to the callant again to please ye. Only, 

when I was at 'Lisha, kennin' that Moss was our ain aa 
weel as Jack, I brought the poor tyke away, thinkin' it 
better to save ane than lose two, 1 " 

Nimmo's stupidity was shown in almost every act he 
performed. Thus, when killing a sheep, he would first 
cut the shanks from the unfortunate animal to prevent its 
getting away, and then bleed it leisurely to death. 

These memorials, trifling in themselves, may be of 
interest to those who know Redesdale as it now is, and 
care to cast a backward glance on what it formerly was. 


anil Capture Jtrf 

jjNE of the most important incidents in the 
great Civil War was the siege and sack of 
Newcastle by the Scots in 1644. The town 
was conspicuously loyal. The Scots Coven- 
anters, who had been the first to declare openly against 
the unfortunate Charles, were the objects of mingled 
hatred and contempt there. The bulk of the gentlemen 
of Northumberland and Durham shared heartily in these 
feelings. When Charles visited Newcastle in May, 1639, 
on his march northward against the Scots, he was 
magnificently entertained by the Mayor and magistrates. 
'All the town," writes Rushworth, "seemed but as one 
man against the Scots in case of an invasion." The 
Mayor, Mr. Alexander Davidson, and the Town Clerk, 
Mr. Thomas Riddell (son of Sir Thomas Riddell, the Re- 
corder), were knighted by his Majesty. The town had 
previously been fortified at the charge of the inhabitants, 
according to the practice of former times. There were 
1,500 men able to bear arms in the town and suburbs, 
besides the trained bands, and it was expected that at 
least a thousand more would corne from the outlying 
districts for their own safety. Further, there were a 
troop of 100 horse, consisting of Northumbrian gentlemen 
of good estates and fortunes, who, all gallantly mounted. 
went to warfare at their own charges, not putting the 
King to any expense for their maintenance. 

Never on earth, perhaps, since the days of Gideon and 
Judas Maccabeus, did so pious an army take the field as 
that of the Scots Covenanters when they invaded 
England, under Alexander Lesley, afterwards Earl of 
Leven, in the month of August, 1640. At every captain's 
tent-door colours were flying, with the Scots arms upon 
them, and this motto in golden letters, t " For Christ's 
Crown and Covenant." There were daily sermons from 
their ministers, and prayers morning and evening, under 
the canopy of heaven, to which the men were called by 
tuck of drum ; and, besides this, reading the Scriptures 
aloud, praying and psalm-singing were to be heard in 
every tent. Both in numbers and discipline the Scots 
were likewise superior to the English. The battle of 
Newburn, in which the Covenanters defeated and routed 





the Royalists, spread panic among the English soldiers. 
In a council of war held at Newcastle, at twelve o'clock 
the night after the defeat, it was determined that the 
place was untenable, and Lord Conway accordingly forth- 
with abandoned it, and marched south into Yorkshire, 
leaving all the royal stores and magazines collected there 
as a prize to the victors. The occupation of the town, 
which the Scots entered the next day, gave them military 
possession of both the two North-Eastern Counties. The 
inhabitants were panic-struck, and offered no sort of 
opposition ; and the magistrates seem to have merely con- 
sidered how to make the bast terms they could. At this 
time, writes Rushworth : 

Newcastle and the coal mines, that has wont to employ 
10,000 people all the year long, some working under 
ground, some above, and others upon the water in keels 
or lighters, now not a man to be seen, not a coal wrought, 
all absconding, being possessed with a fear that the Scots 
would give no quarter ; 400 ships using to be here at a 
time in the river, not a ship durst come in ; an hundred 
and odd coming to the mouth of the haven the day after 
the fight, and hearing the Scots had possessed Newcastle, 
returned all empty, and tradesmen in the town for some 
days kept their shops shut ; many families gone, leaving 
their goods to the mercy of the Scots, who possessed 
themselves of such corn, cheese, beer, &c., as they found, 
giving the owners thereof, or some in their stead, some 
money in band and security for the rest, to be paid at 
four or six months' end in money or corn ; and if they 
refuse, said the Scots, such is the necessity of their 
army that they must take it without security rather 
than starve. 

Durham was in like manner deserted and occupied. 
The bishop forsook his flock and fled. For four days 
After the fighting not one shop in the city was open. Not 
one house in ten had either man, woman, or child in it. 
And not one bit of bread was to be had for money, for 
the King's army had eaten and drunk all up in their 
march into Yorkshire. At Darlington much the same 
state of things existed. His Majesty's troops swept the 
whole land north of the Tees of comestibles before they 
left it to its fate. They also ordered all the upper mill- 
stones to be broken or buried, everything of a movable 
nature to be removed, and the cattle and sheep to be 
driven off. It was to little purpose that the inhabitants 
petitioned the King for relief, and represented that they 
and their posterity were likely to be "ruinated and 
undone." The King could not help them, and the Scots 
might harry them to their heart's content, without let or 
hindrance. And so it was that the Scots compelled 
Durham to pay them 350 a day, Northumberland 300 
a day, and Newcastle 200 a day, besides furnishing 
them with great quantities of hay and straw. Between 
the two contending parties, then, the people were 
woefully tested. 

Early in August, 1641, the Scots, having received from 
the English Parliament a large sum of money, or the 
promise of it, quitted Newcastle. A few days after their 
departure, the King passed through the town, journeying 
North to pacify the malcontents across the Border, 
whence (having neither pleased his friends nor con- 

ciliated his enemies) he returned by the same route in 
November. By this time civil war was seen to be 
inevitable, and both parties were anxious to secure pos- 
session of Newcastle. An order to this effect was issued 
by the House of Commons ; but the Royalist party were 
in the ascendant upon Tyneside, and the order was dis- 
obeyed. William Cavendish, Earl of Newcastle, being 
appointed governor of the town by the King, was warmly 
welcomed, and generously helped to put the district in an 
efficient state of defence. So highly gratified were the 
burgesses with both King and Earl that they lent his 
Majesty 700, and gave the Earl their honorary freedom. 

In the month of January, 1644, another Scottish army, 
consisting of 18,000 foot and 3,000 horse, commanded by 
the same experienced general as before, crossed the 
Tweed to the assistance of Parliament in the midst of a 
severe storm. The King's forces in Northumberland, 
under Sir Thomas Glenham, were very inferior in 
number, and their leaders laboured under the disadvan- 
tage of being of various ways of thinking. The York- 
shire gentlemen voted for devastating the country before 
the invaders, while the Northumbrians were naturally 
averse to seeing their estates laid waste, and proposed to 
return a conciliatory answer to the propositions of the 
Scots Commissioners. All agreed that it was impossible 
to meet the Soots in the field, and the result was that the 
King's troops fell back, first over the Aln, and then over 
the Coquet, after some desultory skirmishes ; and the 
Scots experienced no serious difficulty till they arrived 
under the walls of Newcastle, except such as bad roads 
and wretched weather occasioned. 

General Lesley came before the town on Saturday, the 
3rd of February, and summoned the place the same day. 
The Mayor and Corporation returned a resolute answer. 
In the evening the suburb of Sandgate, a poor place 
without the walls on the east side of the town, was set on 
fire to prevent the enemy from making his advances 
under cover. This was on Saturday night, and the suburb 
continued burning all Sunday and Monday. After 
three weeks' waiting, seeing that the siege, or rather 
blockade, was likely to be a long and wearisome affair, 
Lesley determined to waste no more time. So he broke up 
his camp and marched to Heddon-on-the-Wail, leaving 
behind him only six regiments of foot and some troops of 
horse to hold the garrison in check. On the 28th of 
February the Scots crossed the Tyne, without opposition, 
at the three several fords of Ovingham, Bywell, and 
Eltringham. The next day they passed the Derwent at 
Ebchester, their foot crossing the river, which was both 
deep and rapid, being greatly flooded, in single file, over 
a bridge of trees. Two days afterwards they crossed the 
Wear, at the new bridge near Lumley, and on Monday, 
the 4th of March, they entered Sunderland. Marching 
and counter-marching up and down North Durham, with 
skirmishes at South Shields, Hylton, and other places 
filled up the time till the second week in August. Mean- 



\ 1891. 

while, the battle of Marston Moor had completed the 
ruin of the King's affairs in the North ; and the surrender 
of York to the Parliamentarians left Newcastle the last 
bulwark of the Royal cause in this part of the kingdom. 
The Earl of Crawford and other Royalists had thrown 
themselves into the town. But General Lesley, having 
been joined by the Earl of Callendar, with a reserve army 
of 10,000 Scots, determined to make himself master of the 
place, and accordingly sat down before it on the 13th of 
August, beleaguering it on all sides. 

The chief Scottish engineer, William Hunter, had 
formed a new kind of great guns, never before discovered, 
which were made purposely for this design, "above three- 
quarters of a yard long, or some a yard, that would carry 
a twelve-pound bullet, to do good execution at a good 
distance, and yet so formed that a horse might carry one 
of them." The Scots also brought with them one hun- 
dred and twenty other great guns, and a train of ammuni- 
tion, "very full and large." We learn from "A True 
Impartial Relation of the Taking of Newcastle," pub- 
lished by authority in 1644, and reprinted in 1825 as 
one of the Newcastle Typographical Society's Tracts, that 
no fair means were unessayed to invite the townspeople 
for their own safety to surrender themselves " unto the 
Obedience of King and Parliament." In a letter from "the 
Committee of both Kingdomes" to "the Mayor, Alder- 
men, Burgesses, and Common Councell of the towne," the 
latter were adjured not to trust to rotten reeds and 
broken staves, which would suddenly bring the town to 
ruin, but to acquit themselves like rational men. 
Numerous copies of a letter from " a well-wisher to the 
town " were cast over the walls, in order that they might 
come into the hands of the inhabitants, who were 
therein told that it was "no more wisdome, nor 
Honour, but extreame madnesse, any longer to hold 
out, when the danger was "present and certain," and 
when all hopes of relief had failed them. But " when all 
thece waves could nothing prevaile against the obstinacy 
of the Enemy, the Army having endured much hardship 
with patience, and the Mines and Batteries being in 
readinesse,"it was resolved without loss of time to send 
in a peremptory summons. A courteous correspondence 
followed, in which the parties designated each other as 
"loving friends," and both professed the utmost anxiety 
to shun the effusion off Christian blood. The result was 
the appointment, "after many shiftings and delays," of 
three gentlemen, besides a secretary, to arrange with 
the Earl of Leven the terms of a treaty. Sir John 
Marley (the Mayor), Sir Nicholas Cole and Sir George 
Baker, Colonel Charles Brandling, Lieut-Colonel Thomas 
Davidson, and Captain Cuthbert Carr, late Sheriff of 
Newcastle, were named as hostages on th part of the 
town for the safety of the Scots Commissioners who went 
in to treat ; and the trio accordingly went out to the 
Sandgate. But, as the "true and impartial relater" 
says, " the time appointed for Treaty was very improfit- 

ably spent." The Newcastle gentlemen "would not 
suffer any propositions to be put in writ, but used high 
and intollerable expressions against the power of Parlia- 
ment, and their own power to stand out, and nothing ap- 
pertaining to the businesse of that meeting. And after 
three or foure houres' debate, all they would resolve upon 
was to send out Propositions to the Lord General within 
two or three dayes, and in the meantime they declared 
that whatever should be the conditions of their agreement, 
they would onely give Hostages to render the Towne 
after twenty days, if reliefe came not." Whereupon the 
Scottish Commissioners, finding themselves deluded and 
delayed by the governor, who was "void of all candor, 
and tyrannized so absolutely over the mindes and fortunes 
of the people that none durst expresse their inclinations 
to peace and happinesse," were "forced to part and 
desert the Treaty, the Governor refusing to doe so much 
as seeke a continuation thereof while to-morrow." He 
"evanished so farre in his owne conceit, that be thought 
the Army would have taken a summe of money, and have 
beene gone, and himselfe have been desired to be a 
Mediator betwixt the King and Parliament. But all 
hopes of accommodation failing, the Commissioners and 
the hostages were mutually returned ; and thereupon 
orders were given to the whole Army, and at the sevarall 
Batteries, to be in a posture ready for action the next 
day, early in the morning, seeing all fair meanes were 

Further delay was desired by the besieged, but Lesley 
refused to give it. Then Sir John Marley, in bin own 
name alone, sent this imprudent message to the Scottish 
camp, addressed to Lord Sinclair : 

My Lord, I have received divers Letters and Warrants 
subscribed by the name of Leven, but of late can hear of 
none that have seen such a man ; besides, there is strong 
report he is dead ; therefore, to remove all scruples, I 
desire our Drummer may deliver one letter to himself; thus 
wishing you could think on some other course to compose 
the differences of these sad distracted Kingdomes than by 
battering Newcastle, and annoying us who never wronged 
any of you ; for if you seriously consider, you will find 
that these courses will aggravate and not moderate dis- 
tempers ; but I will referre all to your owne consciences, 
and rest Your friend, JOHN MABLBV. 

Sir John Marley's foolish epistle bears date the 19th, 
and was probably written shortly after midnight on 
Friday, the 18th of October. Barely had the drummer 
who bore it returned to his place within the walls, when 
the final assault began. 

During the siege, Lord Leven, with the forces imme- 
diately under him, beleaguering the west and north-west 
parts of the town, was quartered at Elswick, then a 
village about a mile west of Newcastle. Lord Sinclair's 
regiment lay to the east, separated from the main body by 
Shieldfield Fort belonging to the town. The Earl of Gal- , 
lendar, with his division, was stationed at Gateshead, on 
the bridge, and at the glass-houses, below which he had 
thrown a bridge of "keill boats" over the river, for the 
passing and repassing of his forces, to both sides, and 

1891. / 



also for the use of the country people, who brought in 
daily provisions for the army. The bridge itself, being 
duly guarded by Lord Kenmoor's regiment at both ends, 
and a strong sentry set at each of them, with two 
redoubts, had also there a " watery guard " of " keill 
boats," tied with cable ropes from bank to bank, to secure 
it from any sudden surprise. The besiegers were domi- 
ciled on the Town Moor, Leazes, and elsewhere in huts 
composed of turf, clay, straw, and wattles. On the other 
hand, a round tower in the Castle Garth, called the Half- 
Moon Battery (on the site of which the Assize Courts 
were long afterwards built) was used by Sir John Marley 
to secure the Close and the Quayside ; and the Castle, 
which had been suffered to fall into a very ruinous state 
since the union of the crowns, he put into good repair. 
The walls are described by William Lithgow, an eye- 
witness of the siege on the Scottish side, as being a great 
deal stronger than those of York, and "not unlike the 
walls of Avignon, but especially Jerusalem." As for the 
inhabitants, he says, " the richest or better sort of them, 
as seven or eight common knights; aldermen, coal mer- 
chants, puddlers, and the like creatures, " were "altogether 
malignants, most of them being Papists, and the greater 
part of all irreligious Atheists ; the vulgar condition being 
a mass of silly ignorants, living rather like to the Berdoans 
in Libya (wanting knowledge, conscience, and honesty) 
than like to well-disposed Christians, pliable to religion, 
civil order, or church discipline." 

On the morning of the 19th of October Lord Leven 
ordered his batteries to be opened all round the town. 
The besieged made a gallant defence, and the Scots 
suffered considerable loss, yet still they pressed on. Af tr 
some hours' desperate fighting at breaches which they 
had made near the White Friar's Tower, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Sandgate, the Scots forced an entry, made 
themselves masters of the gates of Newgate and Pilgrim 
Street, and, being joined by comrades who had entered at 
other breaches in the walls, effected the capture of the 

The Milbank Manuscript adds several particulars of 
the defence from the Royalist side. "The Newgate 
Ward, which was under Captain Cuthbert Carr, ' was 
taken by the enemy, who entered at the White Fryer 
Tower and Sandgate, and encompassed (hem before and 
behind ; and Pilgrim Street Gate was maintained by 
Captain George Errington, Lieutenant William Kobson, 
and Ensign Thomas Swan, who fought and killed very 
many, they themselves not having one hurt, until they 
were encompassed by the enemy before and behind ; and 
even then would not parley with the Scots who fought 
against them from without, but did capitulate with 
"Lieutenant-Colonel Sinclair, who loved and honoured 
them, and kept his agreement well with them, that not 
one of them was robbed of bis clothes or money, nor were 
any of his men suffered to give any evil word ; and it was 
the great blessing of God that all that time there was not 

one man slaine nor hurt, although that company consisted 
of nine score men, all tradesmen ; and there were divnri 
sallies made out at that gate, for it was the largest of all 
the gates of the town, it being barrocaded and shut up. 
And after they had surrendered, and the enemy was 
called over at that breach, they durst not approach, but 
shot at their friends that called them, and would not 
believe that the town was taken." 

Edward Man, Merchant Adventurer of Newcastle, was 
on the side of the Parliament, and was made Town Clerk 
after the capture (an office which he retained down to his 
death in 1654). On the day that the town was stormed 
and taken, he wrote off to a Member of Parliament, 
informing him of the fact. "The storm lasted," said he, 
" two hours or thereabouts. It was very hott, and 
managed bravely on both parts, till the towne was over- 
mastered. I am happie God made me a spectator of the 
fall of those wicked men who were born to vacuate so 
famcus a towne. The Maiors house, or some other 
adjoyning, are burning ; yet my Lord Generall hath 
given order for the staying off the fire, if possible." 

The Scots wondered at their own moderation in the 
hour of their triumph. If there was some pillage, there 
might have been more. There would have been less if 
the ruling authorities could have had their own way. 
"Then began the whole armic, " writes Lithgow, "com- 
manded and uncommanded -(observing King David's 
ancient rule that they who stayd with ths baggage and 
they who fought in the field should share the booties 
alike) to plunder, I say, for twenty-foure houres time, 
being an act of parmission, although to no great purpose. 
And why ? Because the common souldiers, being only able 
to plunder the common people (although they might have 
justly stretched their hands further), had for the greatest 
part of them small benefite," getting little "excepting 
only household stuff, such as bedclothes, linens, tanned 
leather, calve skins, men and women's apparel, pots, 
pans, and such like common things." The store of 
victuals and ammunition within the town was found to 
be almost spent, so that they could not have holden out 
ten days longer, " unless the one half had devoured the 
other." After the lapse of a day, further plundering was 
prohibited under pain of death ; but the Scots are said in 
the meanwhile to have rifled the town's hutch, and 
destroyed most of the deeds and documents belonging to 
the Corporation. 

A news-sheet, entitled "Perfect Occurrences," bears 
witness to the religious discretion observed by the 
soldiery : " They have not taken anything' from any 
godly persons, men or .women, that they finde never acted 
or carried themselves against the Parliament ; and they 
do so piously that they show them all the respect that 
maybe." Still, saints and sinners al! suffered. "Loot- 
ing " fell not only on the ungodly, but pretty impartially 
on all who had anything to lose. Even the globes of the 
Trinity House, terrestrial and celestial, were seized by 



\ 1891. 

warriors who would "make the best of both worlds," 
and turned them into ten shillings the sum accepted for 
their ransom. 

The ballad mongers were not behind in turning a penny 
by the sack of the town ; and their candid rhymes confess 
that the pillagers were no respecters of persons. 

Straightway to plundering we did fall, 
Of great and small, for we were all 

Most valiant that day ; 
And Jenny in her silken gown, 
The best in town from foot to crown, 

Was bonny and gay. 

While Jenny flaunted in ill-gotten silk, there was Te 
//i tint sung. Both sides claimed the favour of God. 
Lord Leven and his comrades went to church " to give 
thanks to God that He was pleased, even according to the 
words and wishes of their enemies, to prosper and bless 
His people, according to the justness of their cause.' 
Sir John Marley, the defeated commander, who had now 
cause to believe in Lord Leven's presence without the 
evidence of a drummer, addressed his lordship on the 21st 
from the Castle, of which he still held possession. He 
desired that he and chose with him might have liberty to 
stay, or go out of the town, with His Excellency's safe 
pass, to His Majesty's next garrison not beleaguered, with 
their horses, pistols, and swords, and have fourteen days' 
time to dispatch their journey, so many as pleased to go. 
"And truly, my Lord, "says he, "I am yet confident to 
receive so much favour from you as that you will take 
such care of me as that I shall receive no wrong from the 
ignoble spirits of the vulgar sort ; for I doubt no other. 
I must confesse, I cannot keep it [the Castle] long from 
you ; yet I am resolved, rather than to be a spectacle 
of misery and disgrace to any, I will bequeathe my soul 
to Him that gave it, and then referre my body to be a 
spectacle to your severity. But, upon the tearmes above- 
said, I will deliver it to you." Upon his surrendering 
himself, he was almost torn to pieces by the mob ; was 
committed to his house, under a strong guard, to protect 
him from the fury of the people ; and, not being con- 
sidered safe there, was cast, writes Lithgow, "into a 
dungeon within the Castle, where now that presumptuous 
Governor remaineth, till the hangman salute his neck 
with a blow of Strafford's courtesy." Parliament and 
Army were, however, more lenient. His life was spared, 
and he shared the exile of Charles and Clarendon, and 
lived to enjoy their Restoration. 

Many were the ccmpanions-in-arms of Sir John Marley 
who suffered death in the defence of the town. Con- 
spicuous among the fallen was Sir Alexander Davison, 
whose mansion was on the Sandhill, opposite the Ex- 
change. Under its roof, in all probability, he received 
from the King, during his second mayoralty, the honour 
conferred upon him in 1639. At the siege, he fought on 
the walls as a lieutenant-colonel, with his son Joseph by 
his side as captain. Father and son were borne away 
wounded, and did not long survive the defeat of their 

cause. They died, and were buried in the church of St. 
Nicholas, the former being laid in his temb on the 25th, 
and the latter on the 29th of October. On the llth of 
November, the eldest son of the fallen knight placed in 
St. Mary's Porch a mural monument recording the 
manner of their death. 

There is a tradition that the Scottish general threatened 
the Mayor, during the siege, that if the town was not 
instantly delivered up, he would direct his cannon so as 
to demolish the beautiful steeple of St. Nicholas. Sir 
John Marley thereupon promptly ordered the chief of the 
Scotch prisoners to be taken to the top of the tower, 
below the lantern, and returned Lord Leven an answer, 
that if the structure fell, it should not fall alone, as his 
countrymen were placed in it And so St. Nicholas' 
Church was saved. 

) (garlatttr 


thor of this ditty, modelled from Scott's 
famous gathering ode "The Pibroch of 
Donui Dhu," was born at Little Harle 
Well-House, in the parish of Kirkwhelpington, in 
1759, and died at North Shields, aged 65 years, in 
1824. He was a teacher in. his youth, and kept a school 
for a few years at Backworth, after which he removed 
to North Shields, where he practised as a notary public 
for the long period of thirty-five years, and also be- 
came secretary to several Marine Insurance Clubs of 
the Port of Tyne. He was endowed with keen literary 
tastes, and cultivated the Muses to good purpose during 
his leisure hours. 

Mr. Richardson was likewise a great admirer of the 
music, songs, and tales of the Northumbrians, and an 
authority in all that pertained to the antiquities of the 
county. But his most important literary work was a 
translation of the Odes of Anacreon, in chaste, smooth, 
and elegant verse. 

The "Gathering Ode of the Fenwyke " first appeared 
in the "Life of James Allen," published by Eneas Mac- 
kenzie, second edition, 1818. The air to which it was 
intended to be sung is "Lochiel's March," also well- 
known as the " Pibroch of Donui Dhu." Written for the 
Northumberland Regimental Bagpipes, the ode was 
"respectfully inscribed to a descendant of the warlike 
band of Fenwicke." 

Pipe of North-um-bria, sound ! War pipe of Aln-wyke, 

1891. / 



Wane the wild hills a round ! Sum-mon the Fen-wyke I 

Per cy at Pay-mro war. Fen -wyke stands fore-most, 

Scots in ar - ray from far Swell wide their war-host 


See, fierce from the bor - der, Wolf-like he rushes, Drives 



0- J 


y XI 


r ' 





m m 



south-ward the War-der, Gore-stream forth crushes. Come, 

1* S 





--/ V 

Spear-man, come, Bow-man, Come, bold-heart-ed True- wyke, Re- 

pel the proud foe-man ; Join li - on - like Bew - yke. 

Pip of Northumbria, sound ! 

War pipe of Alnwyke ! 
Wake the wild hills around ; 

Summon the Fenwyke ! 
Percy at Paynim (1) war, 

Fenwyke stands foremost. 
Scots in array from far 

Swell with their war-host. 

See, fierce from the Border, 

Wolf-like he rushes 
Drives southward the Warder 

Gore-stream forth gushes. 
Co-Tie, Spearman, come. Bowman, 

Come, bold-hearted Truewyke, (2) 
Repel the proud foeman, 

Join lion-like Bewyke ! 

From Fenwyke and Denwyke, (3) 

Harlow and Wallington, 
Sound buele at Alnwyke, 

Bag-pipe at Wallingtou f 

(1) An inroad of the Scots is supposed to have taken place in the 
absence of the Percy in Palestine, warrinp; against the Paynims, 
Saracens, or Infidels. 

(2) Spearman, Bowman, Truewyke, and Bewyke were names of 
clans that were retainers and vassals of the Earls of Northumber- 
land, and allies of the Fenwyke, the most powerful of the old 

(3) Hamlets in Northumberland owned or occupied oy the Fen- 

On Elf-hills th' Alarm Wisp (+) 

Smoulders in pale ray ; 
Maids, babes that scarce can lisp, 

Point trembling the bale-way. 

Leave the plough, leave the mow, 

Leave loom and smithie ; 
Come with your trusty yew, 

Strong arm and pithy ; 
Leave the herd on the hill, 

Lowing and flying ; 
Leave the vill, cot, and mill 

The dead and the dying. 

Come, clad in your steel-jack, 

Your war-gear in order, 
And down hew or drive back 

The Scot o'er the Border. 
And yield ye to no man ; 

Stand firm in the van-guard ; 
Brave death in each foeman, 

Or die on the green sward. 

JJOMBINING in an eminent degree all the ele- 
ments of the picturesque, the ancient town 
of Richmond is a veritable artist's paradise. 
Whether we view it from the vicinity of the 
bridge leading to Leyburn and Hart Leap Well (im- 
mortalised by Wordsworth), from various points on the 
footpath that skirts the south shore of the river Swale, 
from the elevated sylvan terrace to the east, or from 
the northern suburbs, the prospect is always beautiful, 
often romantic, never commonplace. 

Ever since Turner reproduced, with his magic pencil, 
the salient features of the old castle and its surroundings, 
the place has been a favourite haunt for painters, who all 
coincide in the opinion that its natural charms are not 
surpassed by any town in the North Country. There 
is here every object that is imperative in a grand pic- 
ture noble ruins, a dashing river with a waterfall, grace- 
ful and varied foliage, and an extended perspective. 

Richmond is supposed to derive its name from the 
fertility of the district and the excellence of its situation ; 
hence, Rich-mount. But there are writers who aver that 
the name may have been borrowed from a castle of the 
same title in Brittany, or from the Anglo-Saxon Eeced, 
a dwelling, modified by the prevalence of the Norse or 
Danish in Swaledale into Beiki ; thus we arrive at Reced- 
mund, Reiki-mund, the dwelling or settlement on the 
mound or dike. The dike referred to is the Scot's Dyke, 
an entrenchment bisecting the country from the Swale 
near Richmond to the Tees at Barforih or Old Richmond. 

Before the Norman Conquest that portion of the North 
Riding of Yorkshire known as Richmondshire was the 
property of Earl Edwin, a Saxon noble. When William 
of Normandy was distributing favours to his prominent 

(4) The Elf Hills or Hills of the Fairies, near Cambo, on which a 
watch used to be kept and a beacon was fired In cast of alarm. 
The vvisp was a weeze of straw or tow, steeped in tar, set on fire, 
and mounted on the point of a spear, and carried in the direction 
taV-en hy the raiders, to rouse the country to the "hot trod." 



I March 
i 1891. 








March I 
1891. I 







\ 1891. 

adherents, he bestowed the vast estate upon Alan Niger, 
or Rufus, one of the sons of the Earl of Bretagne. But 
though he held the title, Alan soon found that it would be 
no easy matter to enter into possession. The vassals of 
Earl Edwin, in common with the general population of 
the North, detested the Normans. Alan, therefore, 
selecting a suitable situation overhanging the Swale, 
erected thereon a fortress of impregnable strength, well 
calculated to overawe the hostile population. Probably 
commenced about 1071, the massive structure was not 
completed until about 1100. 

One of our illustrations is taken from the High Terrace 
to the east of the castle a favourite promenade of the in- 
habitants. The bridge seen to the left is that leading 
from the railway station to the town. The Free Grammar 
School, or Tate Memorial, seen to the right, was erected 
to commemorate the virtues and scholarly attainments of 
the Rev. James Tate, known in the literary world as " Mr. 
Tate of Richmond." Appointed to the position of head- 
master of the Grammar School in 1769, he retained that 
position for thirty-seven years, during which time a long 
list of finished scholars, destined to rank amongst the 
most distinguished men of the day, were sent into the 

Above the line of the houses in the distance is seen the 



upper portion of the beautiful tower of Grey Friars, of 
which a separate drawing is given, showing its elegant 
proportions. The tower of the Grey Friars is in a re- 
markable state of preservation, more especially when 
compared with the ruins of Easby Abbey and St. 
Agatha's Abbey in the same neighbourhood. After the 
Norman Keep, which dwarfs all other buildings through 
sheer preponderance of bulk, the tower of Grey Friars is 
the greatest architectural ornament of Richmond. The 
name of the consummate artist who designed it is 
unknown, and its history is somewhat obscure. The 
house, which was founded in 1257 by Ralph Fitz Ran- 
dulph, Lord of Middleham, appears to have been prosper- 
ous for about three hundred years. At the Dissolution of 
the Monasteries in 1539, it was surrendered to the tender 
mercies of the King, who treated the brethren with 
considerable severity, owing to their opposition, and since 
then the building has passed through several hands. It 
is now in the possession of a gentleman whose desire it is 
to preserve the tower from further decay. 

Another illustration gives a fair view of Richmond's 
Market Place. From the number of stalls and vehicles 
gathered around the town cross, it may safely be assumed 
that the drawing was made on a Saturday, the market 
day, the only day in the week when there may be said to 

-_ be any "throng on." At no time very 

flourishing, the trade of Richmond has recently 
become somewhat depressed. Fortunately, 
the town is gradually becoming popular as a 
health resort. 

Anent the old church which figures in the 
drawing, it may be affirmed that few (if any) 
sacred buildings are so peculiarly constituted. 
Under the north gallery are three lock-up 
shops ; there is another shop between the church 
and the steeple, while a fifth occupies the base 
of the tower. Above the latter place of busi- 
ness is the residence of the Town Crier, wha 
has the rare option of ringing the curfew bell 
(placed in the church steeple by order of the 
Conqueror) from his bed on cold frosty morn- 
ings. The curfew bell is tolled twice a day, 
but the sound has, of course, for centuries 
ceased to have any significance to the good 
people of Richmond. The old church has, 
indeed, suffered from neglect. Erected on the 
site of a more ancient structure, all vestiges 
of which have disappeared, it was only rebuilt 
when its former importance had been usurped 
by the new parish church beyond the walls. 
The south aisle has disappeared, several houses 
occupying its site. Other portions of the 
old fabric remained for a considerable time in 
ruins, and during this condition of things 
it is probable that the incongruous shops came 
into existence. In 1740, the Corporation of 

1691. / 



Richmond, being desirous of obtaining a benefaction from 
the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, repaired the 
church, and since that time divine service has regularly 
been performed in it. The church was restored in 186+ 
by Messrs. Austin and Johnson, architects, of Newcastle. 
Henry Greathead, the builder of the first lifeboat, was 
a native of Richmond. 

itr Jptmtrerlantr 

j]BOUT noon on Thursday, the 13th of June, . 
1839, the people of Sunderland were thrown 
into a state of excitement by a rumour that 
the body of a murdered man bad been found 
in the river Wear. The body was discovered by a keel- 
man, named James Alderson, about thirty yards from the 
north shore. Alderson saw the head in the water, and 
giving the alarm to the people on board a ship lying near, 
with their assistance he raised the body, which was found 
to be tied to a large square piece of limestone, weighing 
upwards of seven stones. The rope, which was of foreign 
make, and seemed to have been used in the running 
rigging of a ship, was tied tightly round the waist of the 
murdered man, and both ends had been safely knotted, in 
sailor fashion, about the stone, leaving some four feet of 
rope between the stone and the corpse. On the body 
there was no other apparel than a pair of stockings, a 
flannel shirt, and a cotton shirt torn open, and marked at 
the bosom with red cotton, " J. B. 1." Attached to the 
neck was a small camphor bag, and on the fourth finger 
of the left hand a plain gold ring. 

The body was soon afterwards recognised by the crew 
of the brigantine Phoenix, of Stettin, as that of their 
captain, John Frederick Berckholtz. This ship, which 
was in ballast from Leith, had been lying for some days a 
considerable distance below where the body was found. 
The captain had spent the previous Tuesday evening 
on board a Prussian vessel lying alongside, and he left to 
go on board his own vessel about eleven o'clock at night. 
The account given by his crew was that he went ashore 
about half-past four on the following morning, at the 
ferryboat landing on the north side of the river, dressed 
in a new pilot coat, new silk hat, &c., and wearing a 
watch and gold chain and seals. From that time, they 
said, they never saw him alive ; but his absence excited 
no uneasiness till the Thursday morning, when the 
Phoenix was in turn for coals, for it was supposed that he 
had gone over to Newcastle on a visit to some captains of 
his acquaintance, then in that port. 

The right side of the frontal bone of the skull, and the 
orbit of the right eye, had been driven in upon the brain 
by a violent blow, and over the right eye was a deep 
horizontal cut, about an inch and a half in length, which 

appeared to have been inflicted with some sharp instru- 
ment. There was also a smaller cut on the forehead, and 
some trifling bruises about the face and the left hand ; 
but the surgeon who examined the body, a gentleman 
named Dodd, pronounced the injury done to the skull 
sufficient to have caused instant death. Round the neck 
there was the mark of a cord, by which the body had been 
dragged, or rather hoisted, as it seemed likely, from the 
cabin or other place where the murder had been com- 

The superintendent of police, Mr. Brown, when he 
went on board the Phoenix, and entered the captain's 
cabin, was struck with the circumstance that the bed had 
been neatly made up, a cap placed on the pillow, and the 
clothes turned down, while the sheet appeared clean and 
smooth, as if it had not been slept on. On drawing down 
the sheet and turning over the pillow, which was without 
its case, he found on the tick a large blood stain, and 
about it a roughness and dampness as if a wet sponge had 
been employed upon it. The wood-work at the head of 
the bed seemed as if a handful of blood had been dashed 
against it. The floor, near the bed-head, had been newly 
and hastily washed ; but on the skirting-board, as well 
as under the bed, were splashes of blood. On making 
further search the superintendent found a linen shirt of 
the captain's, marked at the bosom " J. B. 5," and on the 
upper part of the collar was a large stain of blood. He, 
therefore, requested two officers who were with him to 
detain the mate in the cabin, and, going on shore, 
returned with a sufficient force to apprehend the whole 
crew, consisting of the mate, three seamen, and two boys, 
all foreigners, who were immediately taken out of the 
ship, and locked up in different cells. 

The principal facts of the case were soon elucidated. 
In the first place, the appearance of the wounds on the 
captain's body showed that he had been murdered. 
Next, the place in which the body was found, a sand 
bank, proved that it had been deposited there by persons 
unacquainted with the river. The rope by which the 
body had been tied to the stone had evidently been used 
on board of a ship, and the knot upon it was such as none 
but a sailor would tie; the presumption, therefore, was 
that the deed had not been done by a landsman. The 
weight of the stone precluded the idea that it could have 
drifted to the place, or have been deposited there by one 
person. The next inquiry was, were the perpetrators of 
the crime Englishmen or foreigners? The make of the 
rope was foreign. Captain Berckholtz had been seen to 
go on board his vessel on the night of Tuesday, and the 
only persons who said they had seen him afterwards were 
Jacob Friedrich Ehlert, the mate, a man twenty-nine 
years of age, hailing from Bahrt on the Binnensee, in 
Pomerania, and Daniel Friedrich Mueller, of Ganserin, 
aged eighteen, elder apprentice (German, jung mann) on 
board the Phoenix. These two men implicated them- 
selves, Ehlert through having, in the hearing of Pust, one 



\ 1891. 

of tbe seamen, and Eichstaedt, the cook, called up 
Mueller at four o'clock on the Wednesday morning to 
put the captain on shore; and Mueller through having 
declared that he had done so, pointing out the particular 
part of the north-shore gangway on which he said the 
captain landed a falsehood on the face of it, for the 
gangway at four o'clock was at least seven feet under 

On the prisoners being brought before the magistrates, 
it was considered desirable, for the purposes of justice, 
that Mueller, the apprentice, should be kept from having 
the slightest communication with his shipmates. Accord- 
ingly, five only were first brought forward, viz. : Ehlert, 
the mate ; Eichstaedt, the cook ; Pust and Guenthersohn, 
the two seamen ; and Weidemann, the other apprentice. 
The gentlemen on the bench were Joseph Simpson, Esq. 
(Mayor), John Lotherington, Esq., Joseph Brown, M.D., 
Edward Backhouse, Esq., and Richard White, Esq. The 
Prussian vice-consul, Mr. George Booth, was present 
during the examination, in his official capacity, to see fair 
and equal justice done to the subjects of his Prussian 
Majesty. One gentleman, named Bleck, was sworn as 
interpretor for the Crown, and another, Wassermann, for 
the prisoners, The superintendent of police and others 
gave evidence as to the finding of the body and the blood 
stains in the captain's cabin. The five men were than 
remanded, and Mueller was introduced. The evidence 
against him was precisely the same as that against the 
others, but he was charged with being a principal, be- 
cause he was at watch upon deck the whole of the night, 
and he had stated that he put the captain on shore at four 
o'clock in the morning. 

Shortly after the examination, it was communicated to 
tbe magistrates that Weidemann wished to make a state- 
ment of all he knew respecting the transaction. Accord- 
ingly, he told a straightforward, circumstantial story, to 
the effect that the cook having found Mueller in possesion 
of six five-franc pieces on the Wednesday, and asked him 
where he got the money from, Mueller said the mate had 
given it to him ; the mate came and said the boy had 
stolen it from his trunk ; the cook told him he was a liar, 
for "the money," said he, " belongs to the captain, and I 
will keep it till the captain comes on board"; the mate 
then said he knew it was the captain's, but he had found 
it behind the looking-glass, and was keeping it safe ; the 
cook rejoined that he would keep it himself till the 
captain came; whereupon Ehlert said, "It seems to me 
as if the captain would never come on board again." The 
mate, Weidemann likewise said, must have washed the 
cabin floor himself, for when in the morning he was re- 
quested to clean it he found it all wet. 

Very soon after the close of this lad's examination, the 
magistrates were again summoned, having been informed 
that Mueller, unable to bear the torture of concealed 
guilt, had voluntarily offered to make a full disclosure of 
all the circumstances attendant on the horrid affair. 

When brought into the Mayor's chamber, before Messrs. 
White and Backhouse, Mueller told his tale with remark- 
able clearness, though, at the same time, says Mr. George 
Hardcastle in his report of the case, " his demeanour was 
entirely free from anything bordering on the reckless 
audacity of a hardened villain." The purport of the 
confession was that the mate called him to go down into 
the master's cabin to hold a lighted lantern which he gave 
him ; that Ehlert struck the captain on the head with a 
hammer, three blows, while he was lying asleep ; that he 
(Mueller) wanted to run away, but the mate kept hold of 
him ; that he put the body into a sailcloth bag, cut a 
long cord from the gear, tied it round the body, pulled it 
up the skylight, hand-over-hand, then took it up in his 
* arms, and threw it into the water, over the vessel's stern. 
Then, desiring Mueller to bring round the boat, he went 
into it with the end of the line, which he fastened to the 
boat ; forced the lad to take an oar and help to row to the 
south side of the river, where he went on shore and got a 
square stone ; afterwards pulled up the river a good way, 
and then told Mueller to lay the oar by ; let the stone 
and the body go into the water, where they disappeared ; 
returned on board the ship ; instructed Mueller to say he 
had been called up to set the captain on shore ; if be 
'peached, he would kill him ; if he did not, he would give 
him three hundred pounds. 

At the inquest Mueller repeated his statement, which 
Ehlert said was all a lie. Each then loudly accused the 
other of being the murderer, producing a singular scene. 
The balance of evidence, however, seemed against the 
mate, and so the jury brought in a verdict of wilful 
murder against him, and he was committed for trial at 
the assizes. 

The trial took place at the Durham Assizes in July. 
Counsel for the prosecution, Mr. Ingham and Mr. 
Granger ; solicitors, Messrs. Kidson and Son. Counsel 
for the prisoner, Mr. Knowles; solicitor, Mr. Thomas 
Burn. On Mueller being brought forward to be sworn, 
the judge warned him that, if he did not speak the truth, 
he would be put on trial himself. He made nearly the 
same statement as before. When cross-examined, how- 
ever, he prevaricated a good deal. The other members 
of the crew repeated their former evidence. 

The learned judge, in summing up, said it was impos- 
sible to regard Mueller in any other light than as a willing 
accomplice in the case ; but his statement, he conceived, 
was strongly confirmed by the conduct of the prisoner 
himself, who had evidently exerted himself most zealously 
to conceal the murder. Eight minutes after retiring 
the jury came back with a verdict of "Guilty." In 
answer to. the usual interrogatory, what he had to say why 
sentence of death should not be passed on him, Ehlert 
said he was not guilty. Sentence of death was then for- 
mally pronounced, and he was removed from the bar pro- 
testing his innocence. 

After his condemnation, Ehlert evinced much distress 

March 1 
1891. j 



of mind, and shed tears in abundance in his cell. He 
continued, moreover, to asseverate that it was Mueller 
who committed the murder, and that he concealed it, after 
discovery, out of compassion for the lad. When not 
engaged in writing, which occupied great part of his time, 
he was intent on reading his Prayer-book and Bible, and 
was assisted in his devotions by the Rev. Mr. Salvin, of 
Gateshead, a clergyman of the Church of England, who 
was acquainted with the German language. 

We shall not give the disgusting details of the execution, 
which took place on the morning of Friday, the 16th of 
August, 1839, in presence of a vast crowd of spectators, a 
very large portion of whom were women, who did not 
seem to mind the rain, though it fell in torrents, 

JJAMILIAR in the mouths of many Tynesiders 
was the name of "Whisky Jack" some 
thirty or forty years ago. It was the name 
that was popularly given to John Kane, 
an adroit and active smuggler of the time and neighbour- 
hood. Although noted for this character, nothing else 
to his detriment was ever really known against him. 

John Kane was a native of Norfolk, and the son of 
a gardener. When he was a boy, a considerable amount 
of smuggling was practised on the Norfolk coast 
and up the estuary of the Wash. Heavy war duties 
were then levied on imports, and smuggling was a 
dangerous, but nob altogether an unprofitable business. 
Small vessels containing contraband goods were accus- 
tomed to run between that part of the coast and 
Flushing and other continental ports. Their cargoes were 
deposited in some cases in the woods and in others 
in the gardens adjacent to the coast. Kane's father, 
along with others, was engaged in assisting smugglers in 
concealing the goods that they had managed to land. In 
time, however, the revenue authorities made it very hot 
both for the smugglers and their friends on shore ; and, 
shortly afterwards, the passing of Sir Robert Peel's Act 
rendered the profits of the business so small as -not to 
warrant the risk. 

Whether Kane's father was dismissed, or had to escape, 
I do not know. But his son certainly left the district, 
and for several years found occupation, at one time 
as a gardener, and at another time as a farm 
hand and forester. In pursuit of his vocation, he 
travelled, or rather tramped, all through Lancashire and 
the North of England to the extreme North of Scotland. 
For some time he lived in Sutherland. Afterwards he 
returned to the Borders, where, falling in with some illicit 
distilleries, his early interest in smuggling revived, and 
he, first an associate with others, subsequently became sole 
owner of a still. But the Border districts did not appear 
to be favourable for his enterprise, and so he came to 

the mining districts of Northumberland and Durham. 
For some years he carried on his smuggling in different 
localities between the Coquet and the Tees. He found 
this neighbourhood favourable to his operations, because 
the country afforded abundance of convenient nooks for 
placing his stills, and the contiguity of mines and 
factories supplied him with a suitable market for his 
whisky. Jack led a very adventurous but harmless 
life during his residence in the North of England. But 
misfortune overtook him in 1855. He had a still at 
that time along Derwentside, and not very far from where 
it was placed a cruel murder was committed. A young 
doctor named Stirling, whilst on his way from the Spen 
to Burnopfield, was found shot dead on the roadside. 
There was great mystery attendant upon the occurrence. 
After some delay, Kane, along with others, was arrested 
and tried for the crime, but acquitted. 

It would serve no good purpose to recall the painful in- 
cidents of the outrage and the trial. Suffice it to say that 
great sympathy was aroused for the unfortunate gentle- 
man who was murdered, and his relatives. And this, 
along with the mystery attaching to the crime, created a 
very strong prejudice 'against the persons who were 
accused. The fact that Kane was a smuggler was suffi- 
cient, it seemed, to justify almost any charge against 
him. But his case was put before strangers and 
responsible persons, who, upon investigation, found that 
both he and his companions had a complete defence. 
When the accused were brought to trial, the lawyers 
decided that the case against' them was so feeble that 
it was not necessary to adduce the evidence on their 
behalf which had been prepared and would have been 
forthcoming. The prejudice against both men amongst 
ignorant people, however, did not readily die out, and 
there was an attempt made to hunt Kane from the dis- 
trict. Wherever he sought employment, stories to his 
detriment were circulated. He was driven from one place 
to another, and he found it difficult to get the means of 
living. Mr. Joseph Cowen thereupon took him into his 
employment, and for thirteen years he was gardener for 
that gentleman. During that time, Kane justified to 
the fullest extent the confidence that was placed in him. 
He was a sober, industrious, honest, and reliable man. 
The effects of his roving life, however, began to tell 
upon him in course of time. In 1868 he was disabled 
by rheumatism, and, believing that a sea voyage 
and a trip to a warmer climate would remove it, he went 
to Australia. He carried with him letters of intro- 
duction to influential people in Melbourne, where he soon 
got work. At first the disease from which he suffered 
was abated, but ultimately it returned ; and the last of 
many letters received from him said that he was extremely 
ill. That is some years ago. No )mmunication has 
since been received from him, and the inference is that 
"Whisky Jack " died in Australia, 

These are the facts so far as the life of John Kane is 



I March 
\ 1891. 

concerned. The idea that he was drunken or cruel, that 
he kept a gun near his still and a revolver on his person, 
or that he hung about public-houses and led a dissipated 
life, is altogether absurd. He probably was not a 
teetotaler, but ha was an extremely temperate man. 
And when he lived in Blaydon he took an active 
part in public matters in the village. Amongst 
other things he was an ardent co-operator when 
co-operation held a very different position in public 
estimation from what it does to-day. He talked often, 
many thought wildly and extravagantly, about co- 
operators growing their own corn, grinding their own 
flour, growing their own tea, owning their own ships, 
and in fact advocated the system in much the same 
manner that it has developed. He could read and write 
and keep accounts fairly well, but his book knowledge 
was not extensive. On the other hand, his knowledge of 
the habits of birds and animals, agriculture and garden- 
ing, was considerable. He had a great penchant, too, for 
mechanics and chemistry ; and one of the crazes of his 
latter days was that he he had found perpetual motion. 
He had had many hair-breadth escapes and peculiar 
adventures with the excise officers and police, and, in a 
distorted form, some of these escapades have found their 
way into novels. 

Although not an expert in books, nor much of a 
politician, he had a shrewd appreciation of the situation 
of the unenfranchised. Once, when brought before the 
magistrates and accused of illegal practices, he defended 
himself in this wise : He said it was true that he made 
whisky and sold it without paying any duty. He did not 
deny that, but held that he bad a right to do so. The still 
was his own. He had bought it and paid for it. The 
sugar and other material that he used in making the 
whisky had been bought and paid for by him. All the 
labour that had been given in its production and distilling 
he bad given himself. And he held that, this being the 
case, no accusation of dishonesty could be levelled against 
him. It was true, he said, that he had avoided the excise 
law, but then the Government of the country did not re- 
cognise him. He was practically an outlaw. He had 
not a vote. The doctrine of the English Constitution 
was that representation and taxation should go 
together. And as he was not represented, he did 
not see why he should be taxed. He contended, further, 
that there was no greater offence in evading the payment 
of duty on the whisky that he made with his own 
materials than there was in wealthy merchants, manu- 
facturers, and tradesmen returning incorrect statements 
of their incomes to the Revenue Office. There was a cer- 
tain shrewdness as well as sarcasm in this statement. 
But, while it amused the persons to whom it was ad- 
dressed, it did not save him from paying the penalty of 
infraction of the Excise laws. 

It is only necessary to add that the mystery connected 

with the murder of which poor Jack was accused has 
never been unveiled. J. 


j]OME time ago, a note was contributed to the 
Weekly Chronicle on the present custom, 
at Sandringham, of weighing visitors at the 
hall on their coming and going. The 
writer supposed the fashion was introduced by his 
present Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales ; but in 
this the correspondent errs. In the last century, a 
" weighing machine" stood regularly in the hall of Seaton 
Delaval, for the purpose of weighing visitors and others ; 
and on the hall table, in like manner, as the visitors' 
book now lies in most large mansions, there was a book 
recording the weights. Whether the custom originated 
with the Delavals, or when they first adopted it, does not 
appear certain ; but it is more than likely that the gay Sir 
Francis introduced the fashion, although the earliest date 
recorded in the existing book, which I have had the privi- 
lege of seeing, is seven years after his death. Here are 
some of the weights : 

1778. Aug. 13. Sir J. H. Delaval, Bart., 14s: 21bs. 

Lady Delaval, 15s: 4|lbs. 
Sep: 20. Lord Algernon Percy [1st Earl of 

Beverley] 8s: 81bs. 
Lady Algernon, 8s: 91bs. 

1779. Feb: 17. Mrs. Shaw [housekeeper] 19s: 91bs. 

Nov. 14. Mr. Blake [a child, afterwards^rd Bart, 
of Twizell], 2s: 9ilb. 

1780. Feb: 2. Miss Kitty Dace, a dwarf [where of ?] 

4s: 71bs. 
Mr. Oxley [agent for Delaval estates] 

.. July 29. Earl of Tyrconnel, 13s: 4ilbs. 

Lady Tyroonnel, 8s: lib. [Sarah Hussey 

Delaval was married to the Earl of 

Tyrconnel the 3rd of same month]. 
Mr. Jadis, 9st. 3ilbs. 
Master Henry [Jadisl 2s: 3lbs. 
Mrs. Jadis [Sophia Delaval] 10s: 3ilbs. 
Lady Audley, 7s: 31bs. 
Lord Audley 9s: ?ilbs. [Elizabeth Delaval 

was married to Lord Audley, 19 May 

previously. J 
Captain Stanhope with Boots and Spurs, 

9s: lllbs. 
Master Charles Saville, 4s. lib. ; Hon: 

H. Saville, lls. Oilbs. [brothers of the 

Earl of Mexborough]. 
Countess of Mexborough [sister of Lord 

Delaval] 8s: lOilbs. 

Rev. Mr. Hardcastle [her second hus- 
band] 12s: 31bs. 

Lord Mexborough [her son] 12s: D^lbs. 
Mr. Farrer I of London firm of family 

lawyers] 12s: lljlbs. 
Mrs. Cawthorne [Frances Delaval, wife 

of J. F. Cawthorne, M.P.] 10s: 41bs. 
Lord Percy [2nd Duke of Northumber- 
landl 10s: lOilbs. 
Lady Percy, 7st: llilbs. 
Captain Delaral [son of Sir F. B. Delaval 

by Mrs. Roche] 14st: 61bs. 
Mrs. Delaval [Mary E. Carpenter, his 

wife] lOst. 21bs. " 

1781. July 23. 

, Aug. 17 

1782. Sep: 26 
1784. Octr. 7. 

I 1891. 



1784. Octr. 7. Mra. Huthwaite [Frances, daughterof Sir 

F. B. Delaval, by Mis. Lydia Davison] 
14st: 21bs. 

1785. Sep: 28, Mrs. Hicks [mistress of Lord Delaval, 

whose portrait, painted about this 
time, by Reynolds, hung for 25 years 
in her dressing room at Seaton] 10s 
Mr. [Samuel] Huthwaite [husband of 

Frances Delaval above] 14st: 91bs. 
Deer. 4. Mr. Hay [16th Earl of Errol] 10st:l|lbs. 

1786. Aug. 8. Charlotte Knight [then domestic, after- 

wards mistress and eventually wife of 
Lord Delaval] 9st: 21bs. 

Octr. 13. Mr. Coulthurst [of London firm of 
family lawyers] lOst: Oilbs. 

1788. Octr. 29 Miss [sic] Hicks [as above] in habit, 

12st: Olbs. 

1789. Novr. 7. Miss Touchett [daughter of Lord Audley] 

3 st: 13ilbs 
Lady Susan Carpenter [Marchioness of 

Waterford] 2st: 13ilbs 
N.Y. Sep: 8. Miss H. Huthwaite, 3s: Eilbs. 

1790. May 30. Mr. Williams, in shoes, and after dinner 

and five weeks' gay life at Seaton [an 
amateur actor] 13s: 91bs. 

1790. Octr. 21. Miss Warkman, 8s: 81bs ; Mr. Wark- 

man [vicar of Earden and rector of 

Ford] in boots, 13s: 71bs. 
R. W. Spearman 18s: lib. 
Big Ben [a noted prize fighter] 15s: Olbs. 
Miss M. Warkman, 6s: 3^1bs. 
., Novr. 28. Miss E. Warkman, 8s: 31bs. 

1791. Octr. 17 Miss A. M. Hussey Delaval, 4st: lib. 

Captain Delaval [again; her father] 15s: 

Although it does not appear in this book, it is elsewhere 
recorded, and may be worth noting here, that Sir F. B. 
Delaval was not only the heaviest member of his family, 
but turned the scale at 20 stones. It is very probable 
that in Lord Delaval's later years, so far as Seaton 
Delaval isconcerned, thecustora fell into abeyance, for when 
an inventory of the goods there was taken after his death 

1808, the only reference to the machine appeared in an 
item of the contents of a lumber room " 1 Fir case sup- 
posed for weighing machine." The machine itself had 
evidently been removed or got rid of. 


all the villages of Northumberland Ford is 
probably the most sweet and comely. It 
stands on a steep hill which rises from the 
Till. But no good picture of it can be 
made, because the trees amidst which it is hidden com- 
pletely prevent any general view from being obtained. 
It is a village to be seen, not depicted or described. 
And, once seen, it is not likely to be soon forgotten. 

The inhabitants owe much of the comfort and beauty 
which characterise their homes to the fostering care of 
successive occupants of Ford Castle, of whom none has 
taken greater interest in the welfare of the villagers 
than the present Marchioness of Waterford. For the 
younger generation her ladyship hung in the school-room 
a number of pictures, the product of her own artistic 
conception and workmanship, while the elder generation 
have a lasting memorial of her thoughtfulness in the 
cosy reading-room she has provided for them. 

Ford is one of the somewhat numerous prohibition 
estates in Northumberland. There is, however, a little 
cottage where modest refreshment of a non-alcoholic 
nature may be purchased. The principal apartment in 
the cottage has been furnished by Lady Waterford with 



I 1891. 

a beautiful collection of china. This ware, much of 
which is old and valuable, is arranged all round the 
room, while screens and other articles of furniture go 
to give it a most unique appearance for a house of that 
description in a little country village. 

Ford Forge, as will be seen from our illustration, is an 
ideal country smithy. The entrance, constructed of 
stone- work," represents a gigantic horse-shoe. The forge 
is situated about a mile and a half from the village. 
Built in 1769, it was once celebrated for the manufacture 
of spades. 

The bridge over the Till is, in the Summer, with all 
the green foliage about it, a pretty sight, and from it may 
be had, as seen in the accompanying picture, a good view 
of the Cheviots in the distance to the west, with Flodden 
about a mile and a half away. 

For an account and illustration of Ford Castle, around 
which the modern village has been reared, see the 
Monthly Chronicle for 1887, p. 455. 

j|NE of the most famous of those terrible 
Danish sea-kings, who, in the eighth, ninth, 
and tenth centuries, ravaged the coasts of 
Britain, and particularly that of North- 
umberland, was Regner Lodbrog, whose proper name 
was Regner Sigurdson. Regner's real history is over- 

laden with manifest fables ; but enough is certain, or at 
least credible, after these latter have been brushed away, 
to justify the narrative here. 

Regner annexed Jutland to his kingdom of Scania and 
Zealand ; overran Sweden, Norway, Esthonia, Livonia, 
Finland, and Northern Russia; and harried the best 
parts of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Flanders. He 
had the hardihood to sail up the Seine as far as Paris, 
plundering, slaughtering, and burning all the way. 
He even ventured through the Straits of Gibraltar into 
the Mediterranean, plundered Africa, Sicily, and the 
Isles ot Greece, and landed on the shores of the Helles- 
pont, whence he brought away a rich spoil. But, on his 
return from the expedition, the fifth which he had made 
into the West Sea, he found that he had to cope with a 
formidable insurrection of his Danish subjects, raised by 
a competitor to the crown, supported by the Emperor 
Louis the Pious. This rival bad adopted the Christian 
faith, which he had promised to introduce into Denmark. 
Regner, on the contrary, was an obstinate heathen, 
and upheld the worship of Odin, Thor, and Freya 
as stoutly as he did the invincible raven banner. He 
forbade the Christian converts to meet for public worship, 
and drove the German missionaries out of the land, on 
the ground that they were spies of the Emperor. 

Ella, son of Hama, King of Britain (so designated in 
the Danish sagas), had dared to raise his head again in 
Northumberland, after his father's submission to Regner's 
arms; and the irate sea-king accordingly set sail for 
England to chastise the rebellious prince. Despising hi 

March 1 
1891. J 



insolent Anglian viee-gerent, or rather vassal, Regner 
hastened off with only five hundred men, on board of 
two ships. His wife Aslog, who was a wise woman, 
deeply skilled in the runes, warned him against venturing 
into a hostile country with so small a force, especially 
since he might have a whole fleet of long ships to accotn 
pany him ; but he answered that the fewer ships and 
men he had the greater would be the glory he should 

Regner's ships were separated and driven ashore during 
a dreadful storm on the Northumbrian coast ; neverthe- 
less, he got safe to land with a handful of people some- 
where near the reouth of the Tyne or Wear. Ella had 
collected a large army against him, so that Regner found 
himself caught in a trap. Narrowly hemmed in, with no 
means of retreat by land or sea, he made a desperate 
stand on what proved to be his last field. Overwhelmed, 
with his little band, he was taken into the presence 
of Ella, but refused to tell who he was. He was 
accordingly thrown into a dungeon infested with venom- 
ous snakes; but so much afraid was Ella of bringing 
down upon himself the vengeance of Regner's sons, whose 
fame for martial exploits already rivalled their father's, 
that he gave the guard orders to set the prisoner free 
at once, if he should turn out to be Regner. 

None of the snakes, if we may believe the saga, would 
fasten on the king so long as the enchanted helmet re- 
mained on his head ; but when that was pulled off, they 
fixed themselves instantly upon him on all sides. Dread- 
ful was tbe agony Regner suffered, but no exclamations. 

groans, or sighs escaped from his lips, and he still reso- 
lutely suppressed his name. It was only when a snake 
forced its fangs into his left side, close to his heart, that 
he cried with a loud voice: "Grind your tusks, ye wild 
pigs ! The old boar is done for !" Then the men recog- 
nised who their 'logged prisoner was, and they would 
. fain have delivered him from the snakes, but it was too 
late. Regner was already on his way home to the Hall 
of Odin, to sit there enthroned among kindred heroes. 

Local tradition has it that the scene of the conflict in 
which Regner fell was Tunstall Hope, about a mile and a 
half from Sunderlancl. There is a farm nftar the head of 
the valley, called Ella's Hope, shortened into Elstob, and 
it is supposed to have taken its name from the North- 
umbrian king. 

We have said that Regner is to a great extent a mythi- 
cal character. Antiquaries have been very much puzzled 
to reconcile the legends regarding him with the facts of 
history. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Ella 
usurped the throne of Northumberland in the year 862, 
whereas Regner's death is placed by Suhm in 794, and by 
other writers at a still earlier date. Indeed, some split 
up Reifner into three distinct persons, and manufacture 
two successive Ellas to kill three successive Lodbrogs. 
There are thus difficulties on every side, which will per- 
haps never be solved. 

Volumes have been filled with Regner's adventures, 
and with disquisitions thereon. He was not only a great 
here, but a famous poet, bard, or skjald. Many of his 
poems were long preserved in the North, and several may 

jtfS f 



\ 1891. 

be found inserted in the Danish accounts of his life. 
Olaus Wormius, in his book on Runic literature, gives 
what purports to be his funeral song, in a Latin transla- 
tion from the Norse original, which has since been printed 
several times with more or less careful editorial super- 

The poem, entitled the " Lodbrokarquida et K.ra- 
kemal," that is to say, "Lodbrog's Torment," is under- 
stood to be the composition of a skjald of the ninth 
century, probably a contemporary of the hero of it, or at 
least belonging to the next generation after him. In the 
first strophe, Regner is made to relate how he won his 
first wife, Thora Borgehjort (Hart Castle) on the shores 
of Gothland. She was the daughter of the king of that 
country, whose name was Herod, and she was held in 
captivity, in a high tower, by a pair of monstrous 
dragons, heath serpents, or ling eels, as they are called in 
the original. The poisonous breath of these horrid 
creatures infected the whole neighbourhood with the 
plague ; and the old king, with a view to getting rid of 
them and freeing his hapless daughter, promised the 
princess's hand to the daring champion, whoever he 
might be, that should slay the monsters. Regner under- 
took the task, and in order to protect himself from the 
serpents' teeth, he got a pelisse or cloak made of un- 
dressed lamb skins, and a pair of breeches of peculiarly 
shaggy material, of which the dragons could not get a 
fast 'hold, and in which he could easily turn himself. 
The weather was freezing cold, and on his way to the 
place of conflict he dived under the water, and saturated 
bis shaggy dress so that he was all bristling with sharp 
icicles. The saga tells us, in a quiet vein of humour, how 
the king and his courtiers ensconced themselves as safely 
as possible in the innermost recesses of the court, or on 
the highest pinnacles of the palace. But Regner de- 
fended himself from the teeth of the dragons with his 
shield, while his frozen coat protected him from their 
venom; and, watching the first opportunity, he transfixed 
both of the monsters with his spear at one blow. They 
tried to envelope him with their tails and crush him to 
death, but his shaggy breeches saved him, and he came 
off conqueror unwounded, like More of More Hall, who 
slew the dragon of Wantley ; the heir of Lambton, who 
cut the worm in pieces ; the Daft Laird of Larriston, who 
killed the worm of Ormiston ; and their still more famous 
classic prototype, Perseus, who freed Andromeda from 
the sea monster on the coast of Palestine. Ever after 
this exploit, for which he was rewarded with the Princess 
Thora's-hand, Reener was known by the cognomen of 
Lodbrog, that is, Shaggy Breeches. 

Dreadful was the retribution that followed Regner's 
death. When his three or four surviving sons Iver or 
Ingoar, the Legless Boar, so called from some congenital 
deformity ; Sigurd Snake-eye, otherwise called Ubbe ; 
Bjorn, the iron-ribbed; and some add Halfden the 
Terrible heard of their father's fate, they at once deter- 

mined on wreaking the most speedy, summary, and signal 
vengeance on his murderers. They soon collected what 
old historians have termed "a mighty torrent of vin- 
dictive fury," composed of Danes, Jutes, Swedes, Nor- 
wegians, Frisians, and other nations in short, all the 
strength and valour of the teeming North. The avengers 
of their father's blood, accompanied by four or five other 
kings and twenty earls, sailing out of the Baltic, arrived 
safe on the East Anglian coast, among their countrymen 
settled there, with whom they stayed over the winter. 
Next spring they borrowed horses from the East 
Anglians, and marched across Mercia into Northumber- 
land. The misfortune of England at that time was that 
every one of its petty kingdoms was splft up into factions 
destitute of public spirit. In Northumberland, as one 
party after another prevailed, the kings, who were, in 
truth, only the puppets of these parties, were expelled or 
restored, hailed as monarchs, or slain as traitors and 
usurpers ; and the greater part of these shadowy poten- 
tates had no title or claim to authority but what their 
courage or their cunning gave them. Had the Northum- 
brians and the Mercians cordially joined at this crisis 
with the first Saxons, whose leader was nominally king of 
all England, their united forces would have sufficed to re- 
pel the invaders. But even the imminent danger to which 
they were exposed failed to produce any great degree of 
union. The Northumbrians, as usual, were employed in 
contending amongst themselves, the kingdom being 
divided between Osbert, who seems to have been the 
legitimate king, and Ella, the prime object of the wrath 
of the brothers, who was styled a usurper. These two 
saw plainly, it is true, that their situation was desperate 
if they did not join their forces. They accordingly sus- 
pended their rivalry and marched against the Danes, 
who, after ravaging Lindsey, near Lincolnshire, had 
taken possession ot York. 

Accounts differ as to the particulars of the campaign, 
but the result was speedily fatal to both the Northum- 
brian kings. The Danes had fortified themselves in 
York, and made themselves masters of the surrounding 
country. Osbert and Ella challenged them to come out, 
and the challenge was accepted. Upon the ample folds 
of the standard which floated at the head of the Pagan 
host was depicted the raven, the bird of Odin. This 
magic banner had been woven and worked by the 
daughters of Regner Lodbrog in the course of a single 
day, and the Danes believed that it was endowed with 
prophetic power, imparted to it by Queen Aslog, who was 
the daughter of Sigurd Fafnisbana, a famous mythical 
hero. If victory was to follow, the raven stood erect .and 
soaring before the warriors ; but if a defeat was impend- 
ing, he hung his head and drooped his wings. On this 
occasion we may infer that the omen was favourable, for 
victory at length declared for the Danes. 

This battle was fought under the walls of York on the 
21st of March, 867. The brave Osbert was slain on the 

1891. / 



field, while Ella, more unfortunate, was taken prisoner. 
The victors treated him with an amount of barbarity 
uncommon even among savages. They cut the figure of 
an eagle on his back, threw salt on the lacerated flesh, 
and divided his ribs to tear out his lungs. 

Simeon of Durham, in his Chronicles of the Angles, 
tells us that Ella and Osbert brought this terrible judg- 
ment on themselves, wholly irrespective of the death of 
Regner. They had both, it seems, been guilty of sacri- 
lege, having deprived St. Cuthbert of a good part of his 
patrimony, viz., Warkworth, Tilmouth, Billingham, 
Aycliffe, and Wycliffe. 

According to some accounts Iver or Ingoar, accom- 
panied by Hubba, landed at Berwick, and marched south 
instead of marching north from East Anglia with the 
rest, as others state. Halfden seems likewise to have 
landed at the mouth of the Tweed, and to have ravaged 
the rich country adjacent. Tynemouth monastery was 
utterly destroyed by these fierce marauders. 

After this melancholy epoch, Northumberland appears 
no more in history as an Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Iver 
assumed the title of king, not of it only, but of all 
England ; and as soon as he found himself firm in the 
saddle in these northern parts, he and Sigurd first overran 
Mercia (A.D. 868), then Lindsey (869), and, finally, East 
Anglia (870). The Danes thus became sole rulers over 
the north-eastern half of England, bounded by the Wat- 
ling Street, and reaching as far north as Edinburgh. 

Bjorn, the Iron-ribbed Bear, returned to Norway, and 
ruled for some years over that kingdom, with the govern- 
ment of which he had been entrusted during his father's 
life ; and Sigurd Snake-eye was chosen King of Denmark 
by the unanimous vote of the Landsting or National 
Assembly. Thus all Regner's sons attained the rank of 
kings, including Halfden, who was the most illustrious of 
sea kings, though he had no distinct kingdom on land. 

||HERE are few places so full of interest as a 
second-hand book shop, especially when it 

happens to be owned by an enthusiastic 

collector. I am acquainted with a model store of 
these literary curiosities, and with a man who seems to 
have been made for their efficient control. Both are to be 
found in Great Queen Street, London standing cheek 
by jowl with the Freemasons' Tavern and it is difficult 
to say whether the establishment, or its proprietor, can 
be regarded as the greatest attraction. Such hesitancy, 
however, applies only to casual visitors. Those from 
Tyne or Wearside can have no reasonable doubt on the 
subject, seeing that Mr. John Wheldon,* the founder of 

* The portrait of Mr. Wheldon is copied from a photograph by 
T. 0. Turner and Co., 17, Upper Street, Islington, London. 

the show, is a native of Newcastle ; that he is over 80 
years of age ; and that the valuable treasures around him 
have sprung from the smallest of small beginnings. Look- 
ing at his premises now, the idea of a modest start seems 
almost incredible. The building is so full of stock that it 
is barely possible to secure travelling way from one room 
to another. Long stretches of shelving are crowded with 
double layers of books, while heaps of papers and 
periodicals strew the floors and tables. In a similar 
fashion, the entrance hall is reduced to half its natural 
width ; the staircase is lined with towering piles of 
prints ; and the cellars and garrets, as well as the small 
sanctum of the chief, are inconveniently packed also. 

Like many other North-Countrymen, the proprietor of 
this old book shop has been thepioneer of his own fortunes. 
He sprang from humble parents, had no influential friends 
to help him, and was left, when quite a young man, to 


map out a career for himself. The method, at the outset, 
did not seem particularly promising. It was something 
like this : Young Wheldon would walk into an old book 
shop, inquire what volume or set of volumes the collector 
most particularly desired to possess, and, on receipt of the 
information, at once commenced a search for the missing 
works. For every successful quest he was paid liberally ; 
while for some lucky hits the honorarium might be 
described as munificent. While thus earning his 
livelihood, he was steadily adding to his knowledge of 
books, and soon began to accumulate a stock of his own. 
Slowly, but very surely, his position improved. In 
course of time the diligent searcher was transformed 
into a sagacious master-man, who gave his attention 
principally, though not exclusively, to historic and scientific 
works. Mr. Wbeldon now enjoys an almost unique posi- 




tion in these branches of literature. His stock, as I have 
shown, is enormous ; it is insured for many thousands of 
pounds ; and its actual selling value can hardly be esti- 
mated. Years hence, perhaps, when his present lease 
expires, it may be necessary to sort and catalogue all the 
treasures that the place contains. This prospect strange 
as the confession may seem is one of the venerable gentle- 
mnn's greatest troubles. "I only possess this place for 
nine years more," he says, " and I am afraid the landlord 
may then want to disturb me." As this is along look 
ahead especially for a veteran of 84 it is sincerely to be 
hoped tbat some satisfactory solution of the difficulty may 
be discovered. 

Though a Newcastle man by birth having been born 
in Pilgrim Street on the 9th of April, 1807 Mr. Wheldon 
has spent the bulk of his time in London. He was 
taken there when quite an infant, and, except in his 
early years, baa adhered faithfully to the metropolis. It 
is concerning a northern visit, made during his boyhood, 
tbat the old bookseller retains his most pleasurable 
reminiscences. When 18 years of age he accompanied his 
father to the Fame Islands in order to assist in fixing the 
lantern for the Longstone Lighthouse. He was nine 
weeks engaged on this duty, and afterwards spent a 
couple on the Brownsman, where William Darling and his 
daughter Grace were then residing. 

It was here that the young visitor made friends with 
the girl, and became deeply impressed by her character. 
After twelve or thirteen years had passed away, there 
came news concerning the wreck of the Forfarshire, 
coupled with that " deed of daring " which has made the 
name of Grace Darling famous for all time. The enthu- 
siasm of the capital found an echo in every quarter of the 
civilised globe ; but in no bosom did it arouse a feeling of 
greater pride than in that of Mr. Wheldon. He had 
known the brave lassie ; he gloried in her achievement ; 
and, what is more important, he still continues to sing 
her praises as loyally as he did half a century ago. It is 
his belief, to-day, that there is no person now living who 
shared his labours at the Longstone light. He feels 
absolutely certain that he must be the only human being 
who can boast of an acquaintance with the girl before her 
memorable exploit. 

There is something very touching about Mr. Wheldon's 
fidelity to his sea-girt friends. Their acquaintance seems 
to have formed one of the most pleasurable incidents of 
his youth, and he looks back upon it as only kindly 
bachelors can. This accounts for many of bis subsequent 
inquiries. He was aware, of course, that Grace died four 
years after her memorable achievement; but, notwith- 
standing this fact, he was always anxious to renew his 
acquaintance with her family. It was not until 1864 that 
this desire could be gratified. By that time he had be- 
come thoroughly established in business. He was, in 
fact, a man of financial substance well able to extend 
the scope of his operations and he accordingly attached 

himself to the Naturalist Field Clubs of Berwick and 
Newcastle. Being in the North on the eve of 
one of their excursions, he indulged himself with a 
run to Bamborough. As William Darling was then a 
resident in the village, Mr. Wheldon availed himself of 
the opportunity for a friendly call Though the two men 
had not seen each other for forty years, a few questions 
were quite sufficient to revive their earlier intercourse. 
The ex-lighthouse-keeper remembered the London work- 
man very well, and had a cordial greeting for the warm- 
hearted boy who accompanied him the "friend of little 
Grace." As the youth of 18 had developed, during the 
interval, into a man of 58, there were many questions to 
ask as well as much to tell on both sides. At the close 
of an edifying interview, Mr. Darling produced a small 
book, in which he asked his guest to place his autograph. 
The request was cheerfully complied with, and, under the 
date of August 25th, 1864, Mr. Wheldon wrote his name, 
occupation, and place of business. 

The whereabouts of this " visitors' list " has latterly 
been the subject of many inquiries ; but its history could 
not be traced. By the merest accident, however, I am 
able to add a few words concerning it. During the 
rambles of Mr. W. H. Atkinson, a gentleman residing at 
Starbeck, near Harrogate, it was lately discovered in the 
possession of Grace Darling's niece. It is to the courtesy 
of Mr. Atkinsen that I am now indebted for a few 
memoranda from the interesting little volume. The title, 
which is in the handwriting of the old lighthouse- 
keeper himself, appears to have been drawn up on the 
2nd of August, 1861, after he came to reside at " Wynd- 
ing House, Balmburgh." The first signature, inserted 
eleven days afterwards, was that of Dr. John Strutbers, 
of Edinburgh. Amongst those who succeeded him were 
the Venerable Archdeacon Bland, in 1863 ; David Dunbar, 
the Dumfries sculptor, in 1864 ; Sir Walter James and 
Lord Hardinge, in 1865 ; Captain and Mrs. Stafford 
Northcote, in 1866 ; and Mr. Tom Taylor, in 1868. Some 
of these visits were subsequeut to the death of Mr. 
Darling, which took place in 1865; but they were 
prompted, no doubt, by a .desire to see his home, his 
journal of experiences on the Fame Islands, and the many 
similarly interesting records of a long and valuable life. 
But the entry of greatest note is undoubtedly that of Mr. 
Wheldon, for it is followed by a postscript which says 
" He was one of the workpeople sent from London to the 
erection of the Longstone Lighthouse in the years 1825 
and 1826." 

March 1 




Cite Castle &$tctvt \ a: 

its parts. 

j]T would be too much to expect that a tale 
handed down by oral tradition, through at 
least ten or twelve generations, and pro- 
bably far more, should be consistent in all 
The innumerable legends connected with old 
castles, abbeys, and hermitages in Durham and North- 
umberland, as in most other parts of Britain, would be 
placed by critical writers of local history in the same 
category with the lives and adventures of King Arthur 
and the Knights of the Round Table. Still, they are 
interesting and worthy of preservation, bringing before us, 
as they do, obsolete manners and customs, and ideas, 
beliefs, and superstitions once prevalent among the 
common people, but now in great part abandoned and 
forgotten. The castle spectre is one of the commonest 
of those imaginary beings whose appearance from time to 
time frightened the inmates of old fortalices in different 
parts of the world, from the hill forts of India to the 
strongholds of Scandinavia ; and it may safely be asserted 
that there is not a single building with any pretensions to 
remote antiquity that has not been honoured in time 
past by the possession of its peculiar goblin, whether 
akin to the German " hoffgespenst " or the Irish "ban- 

Haughton Castle, situated on the North Tyne, is re- 
puted to have once had a spectre of its own, said to have 
been the ghost of one of those daring mosstroopers who 
made life and property on the Borders unsafe, both before 
and subsequent to the Union of North and South Britain. 
The story goes that in the reign of Henry VIII., when 
Lord Dacre of Gilsland was Warden of the Middle 
Marches, a loud complaint arose in the Northern Counties 
against his lordship's administration, on account of his 
being more than suspected of taking bribes, directly or 
indirectly, from the more influential of those freebooters, 
such as the chiefs of the clans Armstrong, Elliot, Scott, 
Kerr, and Graeme. The fact was, that during a great 
part of his wardenship, the mosstroopers, especially 
those of the Scottish side and the Debatable Land, were 
more troublesome than they had ever been before. No 
man's horses or cattle were safe unless he submitted to 
the ignominy of paying " blackmail " to some notable 
hard-riding chieftain, thus purchasing exemption from 
the operations of professional and skilled "lifters" that 
is, horse, cattle, and sheep-stealers, true " minions of the 
moon " like Johnnie o' Gilnockie, Wat o' Harden, or 
Kinmont Willie. It was first whispered, then loudly 
proclaimed, and by-and-by universally believed on both 
sides of the Border, that Lord Dacre knowingly and 
willingly connived at the robberies committed by these 
masterful rough-riders, several of whom, it was known, 
had been allowed to escape when the warden had them in 

his power. In more than one instance, it was alleged 
that Lord Dacre 's retainers had interfered actively to 
effect the rescue ot mosstroopers, when captured by some 
of the plundered people. This might or might not have 
been true, but it was unhesitatingly asserted, and never 
positively denied ; and it was remarked that of all the 
miscreants who profited by the Lord Warden's tolerance, 
the Armstrongs seemed the most favoured. This was 
accounted for by Lord Dacre's being deep in love with 
Helen Armstrong, the sister of the chief of her clan. 
Dark-eyed Nelly, as she was commonly called, is said to 
have been a charming woman. No sooner had Lord 
Dacre beheld her, during a time of truce, then he fell a 
victim to her fascinations. The discontent of the honest 
gentlemen and yeo men, whose effects were thus at the 
mercy of the unscrupulous raiders, ere long rose to such 
a pitch that an association was formed amongst them 
for the double purpose of protecting themselves against 
the mosstroopers and of exposing the guilty connivance 
of Lord Dacre to the king. 

The Lord of Haughton Castle, Sir John de Widdring- 
ton (in some versions of the story it is said to have 
been Sir Thomas Swinburne, but the Swinburnes had 
ceased to have any connection with Haughton long be- 
fore the date specified) was one of the most energetic 
men in this movement for the redress of grievances. He 
is reported to have been a learned and clerkly man, 
though as gallant a knight as any in the whole North 
Country ; and it was accordingly he who was entrusted 
by the gentlemen of the district to draw up the 
memorial stating their case for presentation to 
the king or his chief minister his Eminence the 
Lord Cardinal Wolsey, who was Chancellor and 
Legate a Latere, as well as Bishop of Durham and Arch- 
bishop of York. This distinguished prelate being then on 
a visit to York, it was judged to be a favourable 
opportunity for laying the memorial before him, and so 
the Lord of Haughton Castle and two or three other 
gentlemen proceeded to that city for the express purpose. 
It happened, however, that on the eve of their setting out 
the Lord of Haughton's people had managed to capture 
the leader of a gang of mosstroopers no less a personage 
than the chief of the Armstrongs, and the brother of 
Lord Dacre's fair Helen. The prisoner was brought in 
triumph to Haughton, and safely lodged in the deep, dark, 
underground dungeon of the castle. Then, after two 
days' hard riding, the deputation duly arrived at 
York, where they were to be presented to the Cardinal 
on the second day afterwards. On that morning, 
they were on their way to the Archiepiscopal Palace, 
when it all at once flashed across the Lord of 
Haughton's mind that he had quite forgotten, before 
leaving home, to give his servants any instructions 
as to how they should treat his prisoner, and he found 
likewise, to his utter consternation, that he had brought 
away with him the key of the dungeon, which he usually 



I 1881. 

carried attached to his girdle. Being a truly humane 
man, as well as a firm supporter of law and order, he was 
horror-struck at the possible consequences of his neglect ; 
for it was now the fourth day of Armstrong's confinement, 
and during the whole of that time he could not have 
received either meat or drink. 

Without waiting to see the Cardinal, he turned that 
instant the face of his horse northwards, and galloped 
away as hard as he could so hard that before he reached 
Durham, sixty-seven miles off, his horse dropped dead 
under him. To borrow another steed was the work of a 
few minutes ; and this horse he urged to its utmost speed, 
so that by the middle of the night of the day on which he 
left York, he was thundering at the outer portal of his 
own castle. Soiled and stained with the mire of the 
roads he had traversed, his face flushed with a fearful ex- 
citement, and his voice nearly gone, he could only ejacu- 
late, on the gate being opened, in a hoarse, harsh, raucous 
tone, "The prisoner ! " The domestic could only answer 
that they had heard nothing of him for the last four-and- 
twenty hours, though before that he had been very noisy. 
"Bring me a torch !" was his master's instant exclama- 
tion. The light was at once brought, the key was turned 
in the lock, the door was thrown open, grating on its rusty 
hinges, and Armstrong was found lying on the steps 
leading down into the gloomy vault, stark dead, either 
starved to death or suffocated by foul air. In his mortal 
agony, he had gnawed the flesh from one of his arms, and 
his features were contorted in such horrid fashion as to 
strike terror into those who looked on him. 

How his mortal remains were disposed ef we are not 
told, nor has tradition preserved the issue in the case of 
the delinquent Lord Warden ; but, as in all such mediaeval 
tragedies, even when the death of the victim was unpre- 
meditated, the voice of his blood, like that of Abel, cried 
unto the Lord from the ground. In other words, as a 
matter of course, the spectre of the unhappy man haunted 
the castle. In the dead of night, shrieks of the most 
agonising kind were heard issuing from the dungeon, and 
piercing and resounding through every room in the place. 
The consequence was that no servant would stay within 
its precincts, and the family were at their wits' end how 
to get peace and rest o' nights. At length the Rector of 
Simonburn exorcised the ghost, by means, it is said, of a 
black -lettered Bible, whether of Coverdale, Matthew, or 
Cramner's editien we cannot take it upon us to say. And 
so long as the sacred volume remained in the castle, the 
ghost continued quiet; but on one occasion, during the 
reitm of the graceless Charles II., the Bible having been 
taken away to London for re-binding, or some other un- 
defined purpose, the ghost took advantage of the sacred 
talisman's absence to return and avenge itself for its long 
enforced silence. 

So one night in the winter of 1681, when the menials of 
the castle were assembled in the servants' hall after the 
day's work was done, the conversation somehow fell on 

the subject of the reappearance of departed' spirits. While- 
some expressed their belief in the doctrine and others 
their disbelief, all at once, when the conversation had 
slackened, a horrifying shriek rose, as [it were, out of the 
earth, pierced through the brains and hearts of those who 
heard it, and pealed and reverberated through every 
room in the castle, after which it gradually sank into 
an agonising moan, and finally died away in a wail of 
inexpressible anguish. Fear, or rather horror, petrified 
the company. No one of them, we are told, could cry 
out. That there was some dreadful supernatural presence 
in the room even the most sceptical could scarce doubt, at 
least for the time being ; but one or two of them by next 
day had managed to get rid of their fears, and professed 
to believe that the sounds they had heard were nothing 
more nor less than the howling of one of the watch dogs 
baying the moon. 

However this may have been, no time was lost in 
getting the black-lettered Bible restored, so as to pacify 
the servants ; and never since that time that is, for more 
than two hundred years past has the ghost of the 
famished freebooter troubled the inmates of Haughton- 


EACON HILL is an eminence about a mile 
and a half to the north-east of the town of 
Penrith. Here a square stone building, 
erected in 1719, occupies the site of the beacon fires that 
were lighted on the approach of an enemy in the times of 
Border feuds. Penrith Beacon was one of a fiery line of 
communications extending from Lancashire to Edin- 

1891. / 



burgh. Sir Walter Scott refers to the blazing beacons in 
his " Lay of the Last Minstrel" in the following terms : 

A score of fires 

From height, and hill, and cliff were seen, 
Each with warlike tidings fraught. 
Each from each the signal caught ; 
Each after each they glanced to sight 
As stars arise upon the night. 

Standing some 1,020 feet above the level of the sea, the 
Beacon commands extensive views of the surrounding 
country. On the west are Blencathra and Skiddaw ; on 
the south Shap Fells ; on the east Crossfell and the 
Yorkshire hills ; and on the north Carlisle and the 
distant Scottish mountains. 


>h0r untltrr 

OSEPH BLACKETT was born in 1786, at 
Tunstill, a village not far from Richmond, 
in Yorkshire. He was the son of a day 
labourer, and the youngest but one of twelve children. 
He received such elementary education as was open to 
the poor a century ago ; but in 1797 his schooldays were 
terminated, and he went to London ("in ten days on a 
waggon ") as apprentice to his brother, who was a ladies' 
shoemaker there. He gratified his taste for reading by 
the perusal of works like Eusebius's "Ecclesiastical 
History," and Foxe's "Book of Martyrs." The year 
1804 was marked by two important events. He was 
led to the study of Shakspeare by seeing Kemble in 
"Richard III.," and he also married a wife, who, how- 
ever, died of consumption in 1807. 

Blackett came under the notice of the printer Mar- 
chand, who thought so well of his poems that he 
gratified the author by setting them up in type for 
nothing, and did him an even more substantial service 
by introducing him to the publisher Pratt. "The 
Maecenas of shoemakers and preface-writer-general to 
distressed versemen ; a kind of gratis accoucheur to 
those who wish to be delivered of rhyme, but do not 
know how to bring forth," this was Byron's charac- 
teristic description of Capel Lofft, who had introduced 
Robert Bloomfield to the public. Pratt thought 
Blackett deserving of a similar service, and brought 
his protegi before the public in a detailed comparison 
of the relative merits of his own poet and Lofft's. This 
was in 1808, and Byron, who published his "English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers " in the early spring of the 
following year, belaboured both patrons and both pro- 
tegts with all the characteristic vigour of a satire which 
is far more suitably typified by the bludgeon than the 
rapier. He attacks the glorification of poetasters as fol- 
lows : 

When some brisk youth, the tenant of a stall, 
Employi a pen more pointed than his awl, 

Leaves his snug shop, forsakes his store of shoes, 
St. Crispin quits, and cobbles for the muse. 
Heavens I how the vulgar stare I how crowds applaud, 
How ladies read, and literati laud ! 

Poor Blackett's fame was only a November sun he 
still felt the shivers while he stood in the shine. He 
does not appear to have unduly neglected his trade, but 
he never emerged from a poverty which was soon aggra- 
vated by chronic ill-health. 

Pratt and other friends found him the means necessary 
for a sea voyage, which was recommended for the benefit 
of his health. He accordingly set sail in 1809 for Seaham, 
where his brother-in-law was then gamekeeper to Sir 
Ralph Milbanke. Here he found abundant encourage- 
ment, not only from Sir Ralph and Lady Milbanke and 
their daughter, the future Lady Byron, but also from the 
Duchess of Leeds, who exerted herself to procure support 
for his "Selections from the Poetry of Joseph Blackett." 
These kindly attentions may have soothed the end of 
poor Blackett, but they could not retard it, for he died 
on August 23rd, 1810. He was buried in Seaham Church- 
yard, and his tomb is inscribed with the concluding lines 
of his "Reflections at Midnight " : 

Shut from the light, 'mid awful gloom, 
Let clay-cold honour rest in state, 

And from the decorated tomb 
Receive the tribute of the great. 

Let me, when bade with life to part, 
And in my narrow mansion sleep, 

Receive a tribute from the heart. 
Nor bribe the sordid eye to weep. 

Byron, who was at Malta when he heard the news of 
the death of "Cobbler Joe," wrote the following satirical 
epitaph : 

Stranger ! behold, interred together, 
The souls of learning and of leather. 
Poor Joe has gone, but left his all : 
You'll find his relics in a stall. 
His works were neat, and often found 
Well stitched, and with morocco bound. 
Tread lightly where the bard is laid 
He cannot mend the shoe he made ; 
Vet is he happy in his hole, 
With verse immortal as his sole. 
But still to business he held fast, 
And stuck to Phrebus to the last. 
Then who shall say so good a fellow 
Was only " leather and prunella "? 
For character he did not lack it ; 
And if he did, 'twere shame to "Black-it." 

The references to Blackett in Byron's letters are rather 
heartless; but they are worth quoting as excellent 
examples of his trenchant and vivacious epistolary style. 
In a letter written to Dallas on board the Volgate frigate 
at sea in June, 1811, he says: "I see that yours and 
Pratt's protegi, Blackett the cobbler, is dead in spite of 
his rhymes, and is probably one of the instances where 
death has saved a man from damnation. You were the 
ruin of that poor fellow amongst you. Had it not been 
for his patrons, he might now have been in very good 
plight, shoe (not verse) making, but you have made him 
immortal with a vengeance. Who would think that 



r March 
1 1891. 

anybody could be such a blockhead as to sin against an 
express proverb ' Ne sutor ultra erepidam ' ? 

But spare him, ye critics, his follies are past. 
For the cobbler is come, as he ought, to his last." 

Pratt, however, was still faithful to his fa-otegi, and 
made the deceased poet tell to the world the story of his 
life in two volumes of letters, which also included his 
poetical remains. The publication of these volumes in 
1811 provoked from Byron another fierce and pungent 
diatribe : " This well-meaning gentleman (Capel Lofft) 
baa spoiled some excellent shoemakers and been accessory 
to the political undoing of many of the industrious poor. 
Nathaniel Bloom6eld and his brother Bobby have set all 
Somersetshire singing ; nor has the malady confined 
itself to one county. Pratt, too (who once was wiser), 
has caught the contagion of patronage, and decoyed a 
poor fellow named Blackest into poetry ; but he died 

during the operation, leaving one child and two volumes 
of remains utterly destitute. The girl, if she don't take a 
poetical twist, and come forth as a shoemaking Sappho, 
may do well ; but the tragedies are as rickety as if they 
had been the offspring of an earl or a Seatonian prize 
poet. . . . Certes, these rakers of ' Remains ' come 
under the statute against ' resurrection men.' What does 
it signify whether a poor, dear, dead dunce is te be stuck 
up in Surgeons' or in Stationers' Hall ? Is it not better 
to gibbet his body upon a heath than his soul in an 
octavo ? ' We know what we are, but we know not what 
we may be,' and it is to be hoped we never shall know, if 
a man who has passed through life with a sort of eclat is 
to find himself a mountebank on the other side of Styx, 

and made, like poor Joe Blackett, the laughing stock of 

If we can imagine the gentle spirit of the unfortunate 
shoemaker poet meeting the grim shade of the Chelsea 
philosopher in those dim regions, poor Joe may be 
comforted, for Carlyle thought very little more of Byron 
than Byron did of Blackett. J. L. GAEVIN. 

ILLIAM DAVISON, otherwise known in 
Gateshead as "Billy Fine-day," died at 
Gateshead Workhouse on the 27th of January, 
1891. "Billy," who had been for 38 years an inmate of 
the Workhouse, was a character in the borough, and 
there were few men, women, or children in Gateshead 
who were not familiar with his appearance. He was 
originally a miner at Wrekenton and Sheriff Hill, and 
was the only survivor of an explosion which took place 
at the King Pit, on April 5th, 184-3. A Dissenter in his 
youth, Billy could often be found in recent years preach- 
ing and singing to a group of urchins. It often happened 
that he found, when he had finished, that his barrow had 
disappeared. While in search of it, he would say to 
everyone he met. " Gie us a bit weed. Hes thoo an aad 
knife te gie Billy ?" One of his peculiarities was, what- 
ever the state of the weather, to accost his friends thus 
" It's a fine day ; he' ye onny weed ? " If anyone asked a 
loan from him, he would say in reply, " Oh, aye, it's a 
fine day. De as aa de : get aall ye can, and luik for 
mair." Mr. and Mrs. Penrose, the master and matron of 
the Workhouse, were extremely kind to the poor fellow. 
If Billy's stock of tobacco became exhausted, he would 
say " Aa knaa the maister will giv us sum ; if he disn't, 
the wife will." The well-known local song, "Billy Fine- 
day, "written and sung by Rowland Harrison, will keep 
alive his memory for at least a little while. 

|]T was announced last month that Mr. Henry 
Tennant had resigned the office, which he had 
held for many years, of general manager of 
the North-Eastern Railway Company. The directors 
appointed as his successor Mr. George S. Gibb, who had 
been solicitor to the company since 1882. At the half- 
yearly meeting of. the company at York, on the 6th of 
February, the retiring manager was awarded a gratuity 
of 10,000. Mr. Tennant is a native of Wensleydale. 
Educated at Ackworth, he came early in life to New- 
castle, and entered the service of the old firm of Messrs. 
Bragg and Co., drapers, Pilgrim Street. On leaving that 

1S91. / 



employment he entered the railway service, joining the 
staff of the Brandling Junction Railway about 1845. A 
little later he removed from Tyneside, but returned to 


Newcastle as accountant to the North-Eastern Company, 
removing to York on his promotion to the office of general 
manager in 1871. 

airly C0tmni>ntaru0. 


Lady Peat, whose strange, eventful history is recorded 
in the Monthly Chronicle, 1887, p. 149, died on the 26th 
of November, 1842, at Villiers Street, Sunderland, 
leaving much landed property and personal estate. 
The latter, being valued at something over 250,000, 
was divided between her solicitor (Mr. Gregson) 
and the authorities at Ushaw College. The landed 
property was divided between Edward Taylor, of Sunni- 
side Park, near Tow Law, butcher and farmer, son 
of Edward Taylor and his wife, a cousin of Lady Peat's, 
and Edward Leadbitter, wine and spirit merchant (?), 
Gateshead, and another distant relative of the eccentric 
lady, to both of whom she acted as godmother. The 
former received the farms of Stobbilee, near Satley, the 
residence of Lady Peat, when in this neighbourhood, and 
her supposed birthplace. Her ladyship's home, an old 
black thatched building, long used as a byre, was pulled 
down in 1885. Hole House the residence of Lady Peat's 
steward, John Flounders Throstle Nest, Colpike Mill, 
all in the Browney valley ; Iveston Farm, at Iveston ; 
High and Low West Houses, and High, Middle, and Low 
Hedleyhopes, in the valley of the Deerness, were included 
in the estate. Mr. Leadbitter received Flass Hall and 
Hall Farm, High Wooley, Cock House, all between Esh 
and Crook, and the estate of Osmondcroft, near Newsham, 

Staindrop. On acquiring possession of the estates, both 
Mr. Taylor and Mr. Leadbitter assumed by Royal license 
the additional name of Smith. 

J. W. FAWCETT, The Grange, Satley. 


The following is copied from the Universal Magazine 
for November, 1782 : 

One of the Kings of England, being in the North, was 
entertained by the Bishop of Durham, at his palace there. 
Among many of the clergy at that time with the bishop 
there was the then Rector of Elwick Hall, near Hartlepool. 
His Majesty was very particular in inquiring about the 
North, and asked the Rector of Elwick Hall if there was 
anything remarkable in his parish. The rector replied 
there was, for in his parish there was not either town, 
village, surgeon, apothecary, midwife, schoolmaster, 
schoolmistress, blacksmith, shoemaker, cartwright, joiner, 
house carpenter, chandler, grocer, mason, bricklayer, 
public-house, tailor, weaver, barber, baker, butcher, or 
brewer; nay, scarce one day labourer, and frequently 
neither a funeral nor a marriage for twelve months. His 
Majesty listened to all this with great attention, and 
laughed heartily when the rector had finished his long 
string of names. What is extraordinary is, that the 
parish at this day (1782) is nearly in the same state. The 
living, which is worth 400 per annum, is now vacant. 
The whole parish contains about seventeen or eighteen 
farmhouses, situated in various parts of the parish, 
and the former rectors have often entertained all the 
parishioners at their tables. NIGEL, York. 


I am indebted to an old and worthy Newcastle man 
for the following particulars concerning "General" 

According to the Nottingham Evening News, William 
Booth was born in Booth Street, Nottingham, April 10, 
1829, the street taking its name from his father, who held 
most of it, and being until quite lately owned by a mem- 
ber of the family. He commenced his career in a pawn- 
broker's shop, and .his first religious associations were 
with Wesley Chapel, Broad Street, Nottingham. He 
was a member of the Wesleyan body until the 
agitation arose with respect to Everitt, Dunn, and 
Griffith, who were ultimately expelled from the con- 
nexion ; and although it could hardly be said that 
the "General " was similarly treated, yet it is a fact that 
he was "dropped" also by th* Wesleyans about this 
period. He laboured with the above-named seceders for 
about twelve months, after which he joined the New 
Connexion. He remained a little while under the late 
Dr. Cooke, was recommended by the London circuit 
to Conference for travelling preacher, and entered on 
his probation at the New Connexion Conference in 1854. 

Mr. Booth was subsequently appointed to the London 
first circuit, and during the next two years he held special 
revival services at various places. At the end of his third 
year he married. His first appointment after he was mar- 
ried was at Halifax. He became the superintendent 
minister of the Gateshead New Connexion Circuit in 
1858. He travelled the circuit three years (the full term 
at th time), and was very popular throughout the whole 
district, especially for the vigorous manner in which he 
encouraged open-air services. It was in Bethesda Chapel, 
Melbourne Street, Gateshead, that he ministered when 
not on circuit. 

At the conference in 1861, he requested to be made a 
New Connexional evangelist, but the Conference did not 
see its way to give him such a position at that time ; 
and he was appointed superintendent of the Newcastle- 
on-Tyne Circuit instead. He moved "over th water" 
from Gateshead, and resided in Richmond Street, New- 
castle ; but he shortly afterwards resigned, and com- 



t 1891. 

menced as an evangelist on his own behalf. He visited 
Cornwall atfter leaving Newcastle, and in 1865 went to 
London, where he was induced to start the "Christian 
Mission " in the East End, from which, as all the world 
knows, came the present huge organization known as the 
Salvation Army. 

According to the Nottingham journal above named, Mr. 
Booth is not to be credited with originating the idea of 
the Salvation Army, that being an adaptation of the 
Hallelujah Band, which Mr. James Dupe, a Nottingham 
evangelist, who is still living, started in what is now 
known as St. James's Church, Nottingham, and in which 
Mr. Dawe had the assistance of the notorious Bendigo, 
the prize-fighter. FULHAM. 


George Watson, formerly a well-known mathematician 
of Chester-le-Street, was born in the city of Durham in 
1796, and was the son of humble parents, his father being 
a shoemaker. When nine years of age, he was sent to 
school, but only for a short time. He was apprenticed to 
a shoemaker of the name of Pickering at Chester-le- 
Street. Of studious habits, he spent most of his spare 
time in self-tuition, and frequently, whilst at work, had 
an open book by his side, to which every now and then he 
gave glance, committing something to memory. 

Before he was out of his apprenticeship the press gang 
got hold of him, and compelled him to be a sailor. How- 
ever, in 1815, when only nineteen years of age, he was 
again on land, and in that year became a married man ; 
but the day after his marriage he resumed his seafaring 
life. Some time afterwards he returned home and 
settled down at Chester-le-Street, where he eventually 
opened a private school, teaching, besides "the three 
R's," mathematics and navigation. He died in 1857, and 
is buried in Chester-le-Street Churchyard, where a monu- 
ment stands erected to his memory by one of his pupils, 
the present Sir George Elliot. 

As an expounder of mathematics and navigation, Mr. 
Watson occupied a high position, and corresponded largely 
with men of like abilities. He was also a sound educa- 
tionist, a staunch Churchman, and a person of great in- 

J. W. FAWCETT, Satley. 


Perhaps the following record of a mountaineering feat 
in the English Lake District, culled from the West 
Cumberland Times, may prove interesting to the readers 
of the Monthly Chronicle : 

About twelve years ago there appeared in the Man- 
chester and Liverpool papers a brief account of a walk 
that had been accomplished by four gentlemen living in 
the Lake District, who climbed four of the highest 
mountains in England, namely, Bowfell, Scawfell, Skid- 
daw, and Helvellyn, in one day. It was regarded at the 
time as a wonderful instance of pluck and endurance, the 
temperance organs being particularly enthusiastic on the 
subject, as the walk was achieved entirely on non-alcoholic 

Although it is somewhat late in the day to do so, I am 
in a position to be able to give a more accurate and 
detailed account than has yet appeared of a performance 
that has seldom if ever been beaten. 

Prior to the year 1878 there had been much talk in the 
Lake District, around Grasmere and Ambleside, of a feat 
accomplished by a gentleman, a well-known Alpine 
climber, who, accompanied by the equally well-known 
guide, Mackeretb, of Dungeon Ghyll, had ascended the 
four mountains already referred to within twenty-five 
hours. In the neighbourhood this was looked upon as an 
unparalleled performance, and the feat was established as 
a record. 

In June, 1878, four brothers named Tucker, living in 
Westmorland, all of them painters for Alfred Robert 
Tucker, now the Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, 
had not then taken holy orders determined to beat the 
record established by the gentleman before mentioned, 
and announced their intention to ascend the four moun- 
tains within twenty-four hours, and without a guide. 

It is needless to say that their determination to eclipse 
what was looked upon as such a wonderful achievement 
was received on all sides with, at any rate, mild derision 
and scepticism. People who had spent all their lives in 
the land that Wordsworth loved so well, declared that 
the thing was next to impossible, and the attempt folly. 
Nothing daunted by the adverse comments freely ex- 
pressed on every hand, the four young men proceeded to 
carry out their intention. 

At four o'clock a.m., one bright June morning, after 
partaking of a substantial breakfast, the brothers started 
from their home at Elterwater, some five miles west of 
Ambleside (those readers who know the Lake District 
will be able to follow the excursion point by point) 
making their way through the beautiful and 
picturesque valley of Langdale towards Bowfell (2,960 
feet), the first and least important of the mountains 
they intended to conquer. This point was reached at 
about eight o'clock, and from thence, without resting, the 
next point, the summit of Scawfell (3,208 feet), was made 
for. Between these two summits the route, although not 
precipitous, necessitates incessant and most fatiguing 
climbing, not ten consecutive yards along the ridge that 
joins them being on the level. Nevertheless they stood on 
the tops of Scawfell shortly after nine o'clock, gazing over 
the intervening country into the sea, where in the remote 
distance, like a speck upon the horizon, lay the Isle of 

They had now achieved what to the majority of British 
mountaineers would have been considered a very fair 
day's work, but which was merely a preliminary canter 
compared with what was to come. 

The next point to be made for was Skiddaw, twenty 
miles away. By this time the sun had commenced to 
beat down fiercely, and the heat was oppressive. They 
carried nothing with them but a small quantity of beef 
tea, and when that was gone contented themselves with a 
drink from the brooks they passed on the way. No time 
was to be lost. Straight, or, at least, as straight as the 
circuitous paths would permit, through Rosthwaite, down 
along the valley of Borrowdale, where Grange nestles, a 
poetic picture painted by Nature. Still farther on to 
where "the waters come down at Lodore," skirting 
Derwentwater, on to Keswick. Thence a long, mono- 
tonous toil to the top of Skiddaw (over 5,000 feet), which 
was reached shortly after one. Twenty miles in a little 
over four hours ! The journey is now nearly half over, 
and, to celebrate the event, sixteen bottles of ginger beer 
are consumed. 

The return journey is commenced. Once more passing 
through Keswick, the Vale of St. John is traversed, and 
on arriving at the King's Head Inn the first halt is called. 
Tired feet are plunged into water as hot as can be borne, 
and the inner man is refreshed with bowls of bread and 
milk. The last effort is about to be essayed, and ten 
minutes are spent in the preparation. Helvellyn still 
remains, and a start is made. Again a long gradual 
ascent js battled with and conquered, and as the sun is 
beginning to set the self-imposed task is practically 
finished. The four mountains have been climbed in lesa 
than fifteen hours, and a proposition is made to add yet 
another mountain, viz., 1'airfield, to the list ; but wiser 
counsels prevail, and, acting on the principle that 
"enough is as good as a feast," the descent to Grasmere 
is made. 

1891. ) 



From Grasmere to Elterwater is slightly over four 
miles ; but, as one of the Tuckers lived at Ambleside, his 
three brothers determined to see him home, thus doing 
nine miles instead of four. 

The clock is striking eleven as they reach their house 
at Elterwater, having walked, as nearly as can possibly 
be gauged, seventy miles and climbed over 12,000 feet in 
nineteen hours, beating the previous record by six hours, 
and at least an extra ten miles. 

I cannot tell whether this achievement has ever been 
beaten; but it lives in the memory of many "Lakers" 
as a truly wonderful walk. J. C., Carlisle. 

The following curious advertisement was published in 
the Cumberland Packet, 1811 : 

May no miscarriage prevent my marriage ! Matthew 
Dowson, in Bothel, Cumberland, intends to be married 
at Holm Church on Thursday before Michaelmas Day, 
when that may happen, and return to Bothel to dine. 
Mr. Reed gives" a goose to be Roasted ; W. Elliot gives a 
hen to be Roasted ; Jos. Gibson gives a Pig to be Roasted; 
W. Hodson gives a Calf to be Roasted ; and in order that 
the Roast meat should be well Basted, do you see, Mary 
Pearson, Betty Hodson, Mary Bushby, Matty Fisher, 
Mary Bride, and Betty Porthouse, to each give a pound 
of Butter. The advertiser will provide everything else 
suitable to so very festive an occasion, and hereby gives 
notice to all young women desirous of changing their con- 
dition that he is at Present Disengaged, and he advises 
them to consider that tho' there may be Luck in Leisure, 
yet in this case Delays are Dangerous, for with him he is 
Determined First Come First Served. 

So come along Lasses, who wish to be Married. 
Matt Dowson is vexd that so long he has Tarryd. 

FORD POTTERY, Newcastle. 


A few years ago a pitman received a telegram from an 

official whom he knew to be a very bad caligraphist. 

"Begox," he exclaimed as he opened the missive, " that 

can nivvor be his writing ; he must ha' got a secretorry !" 


"De ye like yor new boose?" asked a woman of her 
friend who had lately changed her place of residence. 
" Weel, it's not se pleasant as the other," was the reply, 
" 'caas aa could stand at the door and watch aall the 
funerals gan along the chorchyaird !" 

A man was trying hard in a house at one of the 
Northern collieries to get a leather washer on to a tap. 
"Hang it aall," he exclaimed, "aa wonder if a drop 
whisky wad myek hor slip?" "Varry likely it wad," 
rejoined his wife, "it myeks lots of ye foaks slip at times, 
onnyway 1" 


A party of Blyth men, including a philosopher from 
that quarter, were recently on a visit to North Sunder- 
land, when a flock of birds flew overhead. "Bless me, 

what's them bords?" cried one of the excursionists. 

"Thor vultures," said a native. "Vultures," exclaimed 

the Blyth philosopher, "they^ee they? Wey, 
they waak iboot wor plyace !" 


A steamer was tugging a sculler boat under the Swing 
Bridge, when an applewoman, observing them, exclaimed 
"Begox, isn't that like natur? Even the varry steam- 
boats hes little uns ?" 


A short time ago a crowd gathered on the Tyne Bridge, 
and for some moments attention was directed to certain 
moving objects in the river. A woman approached 
"Tommy on the Bridge, "a well known local character, 
and asked: "What's up, thor. Tommy?" "Oh," was 
the reply, "it's oney a boat race wi' twe dogs !" 

Not long ago, during stormy weather, a man and his 
wife went down to Tynemouth. They were watching the 
waves beat upon the shore, and the good man seemed to 
be impressed with the angry character of the scene. He 
was about to give vent to his feelings, when his wife, her 
eyes fixed on the sea, quietly remarked: "O Geordy ! 
isn't it like soapsuds ?" 


A certain pitman having entered a barber's shop to get 
shaved, the barber, knowing Geordy to be a tippler, com- 
menced to admonish him, and to give him some sound 
advice upon temperance, when the pitman exclaimed, 
" Aa'll tell ye what it is, friend ; drink's the ruin of all 
evil, but a small whisky and a lemon dash, she's grand 
when yor dry !" 


Two miners went into the waiting-room at Castle Eden 
Station, when something caught the eye of one of them. 
Some texts of Scripture were hanging against the wall 
"God so loveth the world," &c. After endeavouring to 
make out the words, he turned to his companion and 
asked, " Hi, Geordie man, whaat 's this aboot ? Is't a 
dog race?" 


Some pitmen, who were passing a shop in Newcastle, 
stopped to look at an egg-hatching machine exhibited in 
the window. This novelty so astonished one of the party 
that he exclaimed, " By gox ! what 'styordinary things 
they de get up nooadays ! Thor'll be ne cayshin noo for 
folks te keep hens or cocks owthor. Aa'll they'll want '11 
be yen o' them clockin' thingamies ! " 


This was the subject of a discourse at a revivalist meet- 
ing in Gateshead one Sunday night, at which two pitmen, 
uncle and nephew, were present. The following morning 
the uncle observed to his nephew : " Aye, Josh, aa agree 
wi' the preacher chep ; thor's nowt impossible." "Aa 
think thoo's wrang," said the other ; " aa could hev tell't 
him something that was impossible." "Wey, Josh, 
thoo'll sartinleesbe a clivvorer chep then aa tyuk thoo for, 



\ 1891. 

ifthoooan de that. Wey, what is't ?" " Aa wad hev 
axed him to inyek wor clock strike less nor yen !" 

Mr. William Stainsby, post-master of West Hurtlepool, 
succumbed to an acute attack of paralysis, on the llth of 
January. He was about 55 years of age. 

On the 13th of January, the death was announced, as 
having taken place at Buninyong, Victoria, Australia, 
of Mr. Claude Thomas Stanger, only surviving son of the 
late Mr. John Stanger, for many years publisher of the 
Newcastle Chronicle, 

Mr. Edward Sword, stationmaster at High Shields in 
the days of Gearge Hudson, the "Railway King, "and 
subsequently stationmaster at Wetheral, died on the 14-th 
of January, at the age of 82. 

Mr. Peter Borrie Blair, connected with a marine en- 
gineering firm at Stockton, died on the 15th of January. 

The death took place on the same day of Mr. Robert 
Burnside, a member of the Darlington Town Council. 

Mr. W. J. Capper, a gentleman well known to the 
older generation of commercial travellers, died suddenly, 
on the 15th of January, at Hexham, with the religious 
and philanthropic institutions of which he had for many 
years been intimately identified. 

Police-Constable Charles Keene, one of the firemen 
who was injured in the disaster at Messrs. Mawson and 
Swan's, Mosley Street, Newcastle, died on the 17th of 
January, at the Police Barracks, Pilgrim Street, aged 27, 
his death being the fourth in connection with that calamity. 
(See Monthly Chronicle, 1890, p. 525.) 

On the 18th of January, Mrs. Fenwick, widow of Mr. 
Henry Fenwick, who sat in the House of Commons as 
one of the members for Sunderland from 185+ to 1866, 
died at Grasse, Alpes Maritimes. She was a daughter of 
Mr. Cookson, of Meldon Park. Mr. Fenwick died on the 
25th of April, 1868. 

The Rev. T. A. C. Armbrister, late Rector of St. 
Thomas's Parish, Middle Island, St. Kitts, West Indies, 
and formerly curate at New Seaham, died in Newcastle, 
whither he had returned in a state of bad health, on the 
19th of January. 

On the 22nd of January, the Rev. William Gorst 
Harrison, Rector of Easington, died after only a few 
days' illness. He was in his 85th year, and was a justice 
of the peace for the county of Durham. 

On the 23rd of January, the death was announced of 
Miss Elizabeth Darling Thompson, of Berwick-on-Tweed. 
She was a descendant of an ancient family of Berwick 
freemen, and was in the 98th year of her age. 

Mr. Thomas White, who formerly carried on an exten- 
sive grocery business in Durham under the style of White 
Brothers, and who was an ex-Mayor of that city, died 
very suddenly on the 24th January, aged 70. 

Mr. John James Kayll, J.P., Mayor of Sunderland in 
1866, died at Staines, Middlesex, on the 25th January, at 
the age of 70. 

Mrs. Moses, who for many years had resided in Bridge 
Street, Tow Law, and who was stated to have reached the 
age of 103 years, died on the 25th of January. 

Mr. John Ward, veterinary surgeon, and one of the 
oldest standards of Hexham, died there on the 28th of 
January, at the age of 68 years. 


On the 28th of January, Mr. John Dixon, a well- 
known engineer, and* a 
native of Newcastle, 
died at East Croydon, 
near London. The de- 
ceased gentleman was 
the engineer who super- 
intended the opera- 
tions connected with 
the transport of Cleo- 
patra's Needle from 
Alexandria to London. 
He was also prominent- 
ly identified with the 
construction of the first 
railway in China the 
line from Shanghai to 
Woosung. Mr. Dixon, 
who was 56 years of 
age, was related to 
Jeremiah Dixon, who 
surveyed Mason and 
Dixon's Line. (See Monthly Chronicle, 1898, page 245.) 

On the 30th of January, Mrs. Macpherson, late of 
Ryton, was interred in Elswick Cemetery, Newcastle. 
Mrs. Macpherson, who was 88 years old, was a relative of 
the famous Dr. Brydon, one of the few survivors of the 
crushing disaster which nearly half a century ago felt on 
the British army in Afghanistan. 

On the 31st of January, Mr. James Crosby Wilson, 
who had been in business as a draper in Sunderland for 
nearly half a century, and who was a leading Wesleyan 
Methodist in that town, died at the age of 69 years. 

On the same day died, at the age of 60, Mr. Joseph 
Paxton, roper, an "old standard " of Hexham. 

Mr. Joseph Temperley, a well-known and highly 
respected corn merchant in Newcastle, died at Corbridge, 
on the 1st of February, in the 76th year of his age. 

On the 2nd of February, Mr. R. T. Wilkinson, one of 
the oldest solicitors in Sunderland, died at his residence, 
Rose Dene, near the Cedars. In addition to his profes- 
sion as a lawyer, he carried on an extensive pottery 
business at Southwick, under the title of Messrs. F. 
Moore and Co., and he had also held several public 
appointments in the district. 

Mr. William Thompson, a native of Newcastle, who for 
upwards of twenty years acted as Teesside representative 
of the Newcastle Chronicle at Middlesbrough, died at 
Clifton, York, on the 3rd of February, aged 48. 

The death was announced, on the 4th of February, of 
Mr. George Barker, of Manor House, Whitwell, near 
Darlington. The deceased, who had attained the age of 
93 years, was born in the house in which he breathed 
his last. 

On the 4th of February took place the death of Mr. 
Henry Maddison, of Darlington, of the firm of Ord and 
Maddison, who was the descendant of an old Weardale 

On the 5th of February, the death was reported of the 
Rev. . Wildon Carr, in early years assistant to the Rev. 
C. H. Spurgeon, of the Metropolitan Tabernacle, London, 
and the pastor, about a quarter of a century ago, of Ryehill 
Baptist Chapel, Newcastle. 

On the 7th of February, it was stated that there had 
just died at Long Lee Farm, near Alnwick, Mr. John 
Craven, farmer, at the age of 82 years. The deceased 

\ 1891. 



was widely known in agricultural circles, and had, in his 
day, performed some marvellous walking feats. 

Mr. Joseph Bell Browell, farmer, and a successful 
stock-breeder, died at Coldcoats Moor, Ponteland, on the 
6th of February. 

On the 7th of February, the death was announced of 
Mr. Jonathan Wardle, who for the last thirty years had 
been a Methodist local preacher throughout the Northern 

On the 6th of February, the Rev. W. A. Hunter, 
second son of Mr. J. G. Hunter, of The Grange, Whick- 
ham, died suddenly in London. The deceased, who held 
the curacies, successively, of Sedgefield and Chester-le- 
Street, was only 29 years of age. 

The Rev. J. P. De Pledge, vicar of Satley, in the 
diocese of Durham, and chairman of the justices for Lan- 
chester and Consett Petty Sessional Divisions, died on 
the 9th of February. He was 64 years of age. 




11. The passenger steamship Britannia, trading be- 
tween Leith and Newcastle, and the steamer Bear, of 
Middlesbrough, were sunk in collision in the Firth of 
Forth. Twelve out of a crew of fourteen belonging to 
the latter vessel, and the chief engineer of the former, 
were drowned. 

In the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, Mr. Robert 
McMillan, honorary secretary of the Liverpool Sunday 
Society, lectured under the auspices of the Tyneside 
Sunday Lecture Society, on '' Morocco and the Moors." 

It was officially announced that the Queen had been 
pleased to approve the nomination of the Right Rev. 
William Connor Magee, D.D., Bishop of Peterborough, 
to the Archbishopric of York. Dr. Magee was born at 
Cork, in 1821, his father being the Rev. John Magee. 

12. The river Tyne at Newcastle presented a singular 
appearance, the entire surface being covered with large 
blocks of ice, which had broken away from the upper 
reaches in consequence of the thaw which set in on the 
previous day. Traffic on the river was greatly impeded. 

Mr. Edward Browne, son of Sir B. C. Browne, 
delivered a lecture on "Persia and the Persians," in the 
lecture room of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical 
Society, in connection with the Tyneside Geographical 

13. The body of Mr. George Broderick Corner, ship- 
owner, was found drowned on the sands at Seaton 

The Right Hon. John Morley, M.P., and Mr. James 
Craig, M.P., addressed a meeting of their constituents in 
the Town Hall, Newcastle, and received a vote of con- 

14. A complimentary dinner was given by his political 
friends, in the Grand Assembly Rooms, Barras Bridge, 
Newcastle, to Mr. James Joicey, M.P.. the chair being 
occupied by Mr. Merley, M.P. 

Between 600 and 700 of the aged poor of Gates- 
head were entertained to tea in the Town Hall of that 

The steamer Carrie, of West Hartlepool, went ashore 
at the mouth of the Tees, but the crew were saved. 

15. A memorial tablet, erected by the parishioners to 
the past vicars of the parish, from A.D. 1190 to A.D. 1884 
(700 years), was dedicated in Newburn Parish Church. 

16, There was a large and fashionable gathering in 
the Banqueting Hall, Jesmond Dene, Newcastle, on the 
occasion of an entertainment given by several well known 
local ladies and gentlemen, in aid of the Diocesan Lodge 
and School of Cookery. 

17. A report appeared of the celebration of the goldeu 
wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Dickenson, of the 
Almshouses, Haydon Bridge. 

The foundation stones of a New Primitive Methodist 
Chapel were laid at Throckley. 

On this and the following day the frost and cold were 
excessively severe throughout all parts of the North of 
England. At the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical 
Institution, the lowest reading of the thermometer be- 
tween the two evenings showed 14 degrees (Fahr.) The 
river Wear at Durham was frozen over for the third time 
this winter. 

18. In the absence of Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M.P., 
who, owing to indisposition, was unable to fulfil his en- 
gagement, Dr. Andrew Wilson officiated as Sunday 
lecturer at the Tyne Theatre, bis subject being "Germs : 
What they do and what they are." 

A demonstration of trades unionists was held in the 
Haymarket, Newcastle, to sympathise with the railway 
men on strike in Scotland. Mr. T. Burt, M.P., presided, 
and among the speakers was Mr. Charles Fenwick, M.P. 

19. An inquest was held at Jarrow touching the death 
of Margaret Bell, 59 years ot age, the finding of the jury, 
based on the medical evidence, being to the effect that 
death was caused by exposure to the cold and want of 
nourishment. On the same day a man named John 
Samul Burlinson, 33 years of age, died from cold at 

An announcement appeared of the appointment of 
Mr. C. C. Moody, of the " Old Guard :> Opera Company, 
as manager of the Blyth Theatre, in succession to Mr. R. 
Fynes, resigned. 

20. A verdict of manslaughter was returned by a 
coroner's jury at Thornley, against Robert Spence, in 
connection with the death of his wife, Jane Spence. 

At a meeting of the Gateshead Children's Relief 
Committee, it was decided, owing to the prevalence of 
suffering through the frost, to supply dinners to dis- 
tressed children for a week, the estimated number being 

No arrangement having been effected in reference to 
the demand by the Cleveland mine owners of a reduction 
of 12^ per cent, in wages, the masters decided to serve 
notices on the men to terminate their engagements. The 
notices were subsequently served accordingly ; but an 
amicable settlement was ultimately effected by the ac- 
ceptance of a reduction of 5 per cent, for the months of 
February and March. 

21. The polling for the election of a member of Parlia- 
ment for the Hartlepools, in the room of the late Mr. 
T. Richardson (Liberal Unionist), took place. Sir 
William Gray, shipbuilder and engineer, was the Liberal 
Unionist candidate, while Mr. Christopher Furness, ship- 
owner and shipbuilder, came forward as champion of the 
Gladstonian Liberals. The poll was declared at 11-40 
p.m. by the Mayor, amid a blinding snowstorm, the 



\ 1891. 

numbers being for Mr. Furness, 4,603 ; for Sir William 
Gray, 4,305. Mr. Furness was accordingly declared duly 

Madame Trebelli, the famous contralto, sang at a 
concert in the Town Hall, Newcastle. 

22. At the annual meeting of the Institute of British 
Manufacturers in London, Mr. John Philipson, J.P., was 
presented with an illuminated address, to mark the suc- 
cess of that gentleman's labours for the modification of 
the carriage- tax. 

23. Mr. J. Rose Troup, late of the Emin Pasha Expe- 
dition, delivered a lecture in the Town Hall, Newcastle, 
under the auspices of the Tyneside Geographical Society, 
his subject being " Stanley's Rear Column." 

Mary Turnbull, aged 12; Matthew Turnbull, 9 
(brother and sister) ; and Thomas Simpson, 12 years, 
were drowned by the giving way of the ice, on which they 
were sliding, in a disused quarry 'at Tughall Lodge, 

24. The sawmill connected with the premises of 
Messrs. Sopwith and Co., cabinet makers, upholsterers, 
and mahogany merchants, Sandyford Road, Newcastle, 
was destroyed by fire. 

Mr. William Cowell, ironmonger, was elected as 
member for Jesmond Ward, in the Newcastle City 
Council, in the room of Mr. R. H. Holmes, promoted to 
the position of Alderman. The unsuccessful candidate 
was Mr. C. D. Hill, and the contest was the first in the 
ward since its separation from Byker. 

25. An interesting discussion on the question "Why 
does the working man not attend church ?" took place, 
on the invitation of the Rev. Mr. Walsh, in the Rye Hill 
Baptist Church, Newcastle. Several members of the 
local Trades Council and certain Nonconformist ministers 
took part. On the following Sunday (Feb. 1) the ques- 
tion was dealt with from pulpits by several Noncon- 
formist ministers. 

Sir James Crichton-Browne M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
and formerly physician at Coxlodge Asylum, Newcastle, 
delivered a lecture in the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, in 
connection with the Sunday Lecture Society. The subject 
was " Brain Rust." 

26. The anniversary of the birth of the Scottish poet, 
Robert Burns (Jan. 25) having fallen on Sunday, the 
event was celebrated to-night, under the auspices of the 
Newcastle and Tyneside Burns Club, by a dinner and 
varied entertainment in the County Hotel, Newcastle. 
The chair was occupied by Dr. Adam Wilson. Dr. J. 
W. Smith, Ryton, gave the toast of "The Memory of 
Burns," while that of "The Scottish Peasantry" was 
proposed by Sir James Crichton-Browne. There were 
also commemorative gatherings at Gateshead and in 
other parts of the North of England. 

Mr. Valentine Smith commenced a season, extending 
over three weeks, of English opera in the Town Hall, 

At a meeting held in York of the committee 
appointed for the purpose of raising a memorial to the 
late Archbishop Thomson, it was decided that a monu- 
mental effigy of the prelate be placed in York Minster. 

Dr. Walsham How, Bishop of Wakefield, took part 
in the proceedings connected with the annual meeting of 
the Newcastle Diocesan Society for the Protection of 
Women and Children ; and on the following day he also 
spoke at the annual meeting of the Newcastle Diocesan 
Society. The Bishop of Newcastle presided on both 

occasions. On the latter evening, Dr. Walsham How 
preached a sermon in St. Nicholas's Cathedral, New- 
castle, on behalf of the Diocesan Home for Waifs and 
Strays at Netherton. 

A verdict of manslaughter was returned at Sunder- 
land against a woman called Mary Ann Quinn, who was 
alleged to have caused the death of another woman 
named Martha Armstrong. 

27. The result was declared of the election, on the 
previous day, of seven members for Wingate School 
Board, the poll being headed by Mr. T. Watson, mining 
engineer, Trimdon. 

At a Convocation at Durham, the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity was conferred upon the Rev. W. E. Nowell, 
vicar of St. Onthbert's, Newcastle. 

Herr Bernard Stavenhagen, the German pianist, 
gave a recital in the Grand Assembly Rooms, Barras 
Bridge, Newcastle. 

28. The Rev. J. P. Glen was ordained to the pastorate 
of St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, Westoe Road, South 

Mr. J. L. Wharton, M.P., Chairman of Durham 
Quarter Sessions, was privately presented with a portrait 
of himself by the magistrates and members of the 
Durham County Council 

The Rev. Father Magill, head-master of St. Cuth- 
bert's Grammar School, Newcastle, was presented, on the 
occasion of his leaving the district, with an illuminated 
address and a purse of gold. 

29. A new bridge over the river Wear at Pensher was 
opened for public use by the Earl of Durham. The 
structure cost about 8,000, which was raised partly by 
the county and local authorities, and partly by private 

The nave and transepts of Durham Cathedral were 
illuminated, for the first time, with the electric light. 
The Cathedral, on the Sunday following (February 1), 
was illuminated by the new light. 

About this time a large number of cattle were killed 
on farms near Stockton, owing to an outbreak of pleuro- 

A strike, which had existed for six months, was 
brought to an end at Coanwood Colliery by the accept- 
ance on the part of the men of the masters' terms. 

30. Mr. W. T. Scarth, of Staindrop, was entertained 
to a banquet, in celebration of the jubilee of his official 
connection with the estates of the Duke of Cleveland. 

31. A woman named Hetty Howells, aged" 52, was 
burned to death by the explosion of a paraffin lamp at 

Mr. Peter Applegarth was returned at the head of 
the poll, on the occasion of the triennial election of five 
members to serve on the Penshaw and Offerton United 
District School Board. 

31. As the outcome of suggestions made in Robin 
Goodfellow's gossip in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle the 
natives of Tyneside resident in Birmingham, to the 
number of 44, held a social dinner at the Swan Hotel, 
New Street, in that town. The chair was occupied by 
Mr. Walter D. Welford, son of Mr. Richard Welford, 
author of " Men of Mark 'Twixt Tyne and Tweed." Mr. 
J. H. Elliott (of Tangye's) officiated as vice-chairman. 

1. Miss Menie Muriel Dowie, a grand-daughter of the 

March 1 
1891. f 



late Robert Chambers, the well-known Edinburgh pub- 
lisher, delivered the weekly Sunday evening lecture at the 

Tyne Theatre, her subject being. "All by Myself in 

2. At a special meeting of the members of the Tyne- 
side Geographical Society, it was unanimously resolved 
to purchase Barras Bridge Presbyterian Church, New- 
castle, for the purposes of the society, the sum agreed to be 
paid being 3,500, with 50 off for repairs and painting. 

It was intimated that Mr. Thomas Burt, M.P., had 
been elected an honorary member of the Eighty Club. 

3. A miner named Thomas Watson, 50 years of age, 
was knocked down and killed by a mineral train between 
Bishop Auckland and Hunwick. On the previous day, 
two men named John Moore and John Stones met their 
deaths in a similar manner, on the railway, near to the 
same place. 

4. The Rev. W. M. Macdonald was ordained as pastor 
of St. Stephen's Pres- 
byterian Church, North 
Bridge Street, Sunder- 
land, in the Presbytery 
of Newcastle. Under 
the auspices of the same 
Presbytery, on the fol- 
lowing day, the Rev. 
Joseph Eorke, of Ber- 
wick-on-Tweed, was in- 
ducted to the pastorate 
of Heaton Presbyterian 
Church, Newcastle. 

5. The annual din. 
ner of the Bewick Club 
was held in the Exhibi- 
tion Rooms, Pilgrim 
Street, Newcastle, the 
chair being occupied by 
BEV. JOSEPH HOEKE. Mr. H. H. Emmerson, 

and the vice-chairs by Mr. Ralph Hedley and Mr. 
Robert Jobling. On the following evening, in the presence 
of a large assemblage, the eighth annual exhibition of 
pictures was formally opened by the Earl of Carlisle. 
The exhibition was pronounced to be one of the best and 
finest held in connection with the club. 

The honorary freedom of the borough of Stockton 
was conferred upon Major Robert Ropner, shipowner and 
shipbuilder, in recognition of his gift of a site of 36 acres 
of land, at a cost to himself of 8,250, for the purposes of 
a public park for the borough. 

A conversazione for poor folk, promoted by Mr. T. S. 
Alder, took place in the Royal Jubilee Schools, City 
Road. Newcastle. 

7. The Rev. A. D. Shafto tendered his resignation as 
chairman of the Durham Board of Guardians. 

The first of a series of lectures arranged by the re- 
cently formed Newcastle Health Society, was delivered 
in the lecture theatre of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society, by Dr. William Murray, the subject being 
" Eating and Drinking." The chair was occupied by the 
ex-Mayor, Mr. Thomas Bell, and there was a crowded 
audience. (See vol. 1890, p. 479.) 

The miners of Northumberland, through their official 
agents, agreed to accept a reduction of 1| per cent, in 
their wages. 

8. Damage to the estimated extent of 2.000 was 
done by a fire which broke out in the premises of Mr. 
Rees, furniture dealer, Middlegate, Hartlepool. 

At the services held in Bath Lane Church, New- 
castle, a letter was read from Mr. Alfred Dennis Jeffrey, 
student at Bradford United College, intimating his 
acceptance of the call to the pastorate of that church, as 
the successor of the late Dr. J. H. Rutherford. 

The subject of the lecture delivered at the Tyne 
Theatre, under the auspices of the Tyneside Sunday Lec- 
ture Society, was " Pom- 
peii, the City of the 
Dead," and 'the lecturer 
was Mr. Whitworth 
Wallis, F.S.A.. F.R.G.S., 
Director of the Birming- 
ham Art Gallery and 
Museum. The accom- 
panying portrait is copied 
from a photograph by Mr. 
Harold Baker, 58, New 
Street, Birmingham. 

A miner named 
William Douglas, 28 years 
of age, was killed by fall- 
ing over the cliffs at Mars- 

9. It was announced 
that probate had been 
granted of the will of the 
late Mr. Robert Spence, 

of Rosella Place, North Shields, and of the firm of 
Hodgkin, Barnett, Spence and Co., bankers, the personal 
estate being valued at 70,232. The personalty under 
the will of the late Mr. Christian Rudolph Fernando 
Thiedmann, of The Cedars, Low Fell, Durham, was 
stated, at the same time, to have been sworn at 




I March 
\ 1891. 

The members of the Northern Amateur Thespian 
Society gave a successful performance of Gilbert and 
Sullivan's opera, "H.M.S. Pinafore," in the Circus, 
Northumberland Road (formerly Bath Road), Newcastle, 
on behalf of the Aged Female Society, and an amateur 
dramatic performance, repeated on the following evening, 
was given in the Banqueting Hall, Jesmond Dene, New- 
castle, in aid of the Diocesan Lodge and School of 
Cookery, Ridley Place. 

The Rev. R. T. Talbot delivered the last of a series of 
six lectures in Newcastle on the English Reformation. 

A reduction of five per cent, was accepted in the 
wages of the Weardale quarrymen. 

10. The usual Shrove Tuesday game of football at 
Chester-le-Street was brought to an abrupt termination 
by the sudden fall of a wooden bridge over the river 
Cone, the whole of the people on the structure having 
been precipitated into the water, and one of them, a 
boy, being severely injured. 

<eiural Occurrences. 


10. News received of the revolt of the Chilian navy 
against the Government. Several towns were bom- 

It. In the course of a dispute between the Speaker of 
the Colorado House of Representatives and certain of the 
members, three officials were shot, one fatally. 

15. It was announced that the Indian War in America 
had come to an end. 

18. An infuriated cow ran into a schoolyard at Nant- 
wich, where a number of children were awaiting the 
opening of the doors of the school, and attacked them 
ferociously. Some of the children were caught on the 
animal's horns and tossed about in all directions, whilst 
others were trampled upon. Although forty of the little 
ones were severely injured, none was killed. 

20. David Kalakana, first King of Hawaii, died at San 
Francisco, where he was temporarily residing for the 
benefit of his health, aged 55. 

About this time the cold was very severe in England 
and on the Continent. In some places 25 degrees of frost 
were registered. 

23. Death of Prince Baldwin, eldest son of the heir- 
apparent to the throne of Belgium, aged 22. 

Death of Mr. George Bancroft, American historian. 

Owing to the publicity given by the newspapers to 
the fact that the cause of death of the Duke of Bedford 
had been withheld from the public, the registrar's cer- 
tificate of cause of death was published, showing that his 
grace had committed suicide on the 14th whilst suffering 
from temporary insanity. 

24. Pierre Vladimiroff, a youthful Russian adventurer, 
was convicted at Versailles, France, of the murder of a 
well-to-do and beautiful widow. He was sentenced to 

twenty years' penal servitude, and ten years' police super- 
vision. The trial caused a great sensation. 

A colliery explosion took place in the Hibernia coal 
pit, Gelsenkirchen, Westphalia, Prussia, and more than 
forty men were killed. 

Death of Mr. John Hampden, a well-known advocate 
of the theory that the earth is flat. 

27. Over a hundred miners lost their lives through an 
explosion of firedamp at the H. C. Frick Coke Company.'s 
works at Mammoth, United States. 

The performance of M. Victorien Sardou's great 
play, "Thermidor, I: produced at the Theatre Francais, 
Paris, on the 24th, was stopped by order of the French 
Government in response to popular clamour. 

A resolution to expunge from the journals of the 
House of Commons the resolution of June 22, 1880, that 
Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M.P., be not permitted to take 
the oath or make affirmation was accepted by the 
Government and unanimously adopted by the House. 
Mr. Bradlaugh, who was lying dangerously ill at the 
time, never knew what had been done, and died four 

30. It was announced that the great strike on the 
Scotch railways had collapsed, the men having returned 
to work. 

A revolt broke out among the troops of- the garrison 
at Oporto, Severe fighting occurred in the streets, and 
several people were killed. 

M. Meissonier, the famous painter, died at Paris, 
aged 76. 

In consequence of a severe defeat in the Italian 
Parliament, Signor Crispi placed his resignation in the 
hands of King Humbert. 


1. A mob of miners surrounded a negro cabin at the 
Carbon Hill Coal Mines, Alabama, U.S., and shot nine of 
the inmates. 

2. It was reported in connection with the revolution 
in Chili, that a great battle had been fought, and that 
Valparaiso had been captured by the Government 

3, Eyraud, the murderer of M. Gouffe, was guillotined 
at Paris. 

The funeral of Mr. Bradlaugh took place at the 
Necropolis, Brookwood, Woking. Three special trains 
were run from London to convey the large number of 
people who attended. The burial took place without any 

7. A dispute in connection with the shipping industry 
was commenced at Hull. The struggle was between the 
Shipping Federation and the sailors' unions. 

10. A new Ministry assumed office in Italy under the 
Marchese di Rudini. 

A petition respecting the treatment of the Jews in 
Russia sent by the Lord Mayor of London to the Czar 
was returned without comment. 

Printed by WALTER SCOTT, Felling-on-Tyne. 





VOL. V. No. 50. 

APRIL, 1891. 


" Ecrltrmt 


HE "BOLDON BUKE" is a Survey of the 
possessions of the See of Durham, made in 
1183 by order of Hugh Pudsey, the powerful 
and magnificent prelate of the time. More 
than a quarter of a century ago, it was edited by the Ev. 
William Greenwell, M.A., now Canon Greenwell. for the 
Surtees Society, and forms the twenty-fifth volume of its 
imaluable series of publications. 

" Boldon Buke," which (says the editor in his preface) 
" may be called the Domesday of the Palatinate," derives 
its name from the village of Boldon, near Sunderland, in 
the county of Durham. The services and returns of 
many of the Bishop's manors were the same; and the 
compilers, after enumerating those services and returns 
under Boldon, when the same occurred elsewhere during 
the progress of the inquisition, were satisfied to describe 
them as the same with those of Boldon. The name of 
Boldon, therefore, repeatedly occurring, the record itself 
became popularly spoken of as the " Buke of Boldon." It 
sets forth, in its opening words, that at the feast of St. 
Cuthbert in Lent (March 20), 1183, the Lord Bishop of 
Durham, in his own presence and that of his Council, 
caused to be described all the revenues of his whole 
bishopric as they then were, and the assised rents and 
customs as they then were, and formerly had been. The 
Bishop (or Count Palatine) of Durham sat in his Council 
as a King. The crosier fell little short of the sceptre in 
this remote diocese; and the Boldon Buke presents us 
with a picture of the episcopal dominions north of the 
Tees in the early time of the Plantagenets ; although, 


from the nature of the survey, the free tenants of the 
Bishopric come but slightly into view. 

Before copying any portion of it, we propose to make 
an extract or two from the editor's Glossary, thus pre- 
paring the way for a better understanding of the Buke. 
Interpreting the word " Villa " of the ancient manu- 
script (the original of which is lost, copies only remain- 
ing), Canon Greenwell says : " A vill, village, town, or 
hamlet. It appears to have borne much resemblance to 
the village of a German tribe. The house of each villan. 
cottar, or farmer was situated in a toft, with one or more 
crofts adjoining, the houses being in this way separated 
from each other. Many of our villages still show the 
old form, each cottage standing apart in its garden, and 
backed by a small close, the croft. In some villages there 
was also the demesne house (aula) of the lord, and the 
dwellings of one or more free tenants, perhaps not much 
superior in convenience and accommodation to the 
cottages of the servile holder. Attached to the village, 
with its enclosed parcels of ground, was the common 
field, where each tenant had his own portion of acres 
of arable land under the name of oxgangs ; and be- 
yond that was the pasture, where the cattle fed in 
common, under the charge of the village herd. In some 
cases there was also the lord's waste or forest, in which 
his tenants had various rights of pasturage, swine feeding, 
and cutting turf and fire-wood. At the period when 
Boldon Buke was compiled, the aspect of the country 
must have differed widely from its present one. In the 
midst of moorland or extensive woods, there was every 



I April 
[ 1891. 

here and there the large open pasture and cultivated field 
of each village, without hedge or any division, save a 
strip of grass, called now in East Yorkshire a balk, whicn 
bordered each tenant's holding ; and by the side of the 
stream, or where the best land lay, snugly ensconced each 
in their little fields with their hedgerow trees, rose the 
cottages of the humble tillers of the soil, clustering round 
and sheltered by the hall of their lord. Each village had 
its herd for looking after the stock of whatever kind, 
its pounder for taking care of stray cattle, and its smith 
and carpenter. All the people were the servants of the 
lord ; and in return for the work they rendered him, 
they had each his little holding, whinh provided for the 
daily wants of the family." 

Having copied this pen-and-ink sketch of the old Eng- 
lish village, we have only now to quote from the Glossary, 
in addition, some portion of the two pages dedicated to 
" Villenagium, Villanus" "probably from villa, the 
village in which the villan lived." "The villans formed 
that large class, including under this general name cot- 
men, bondtenants, and farmers, the members of whichi 
though not slaves, and holding under the lord some smal 
portion of land, had neither a permanent interest in the 
land, nor could be called freemen. They have been 
divided into villans regardant, those attached to the land, 
and villans in gross, those attached to the lord's person, 
and transferable by him to another. No real distinction, 
however, seems to have existed ; and this distinction 
probably originated from confounding the villan with the 
serf, who was a mere personal slave, and had no interest, 
even of a temporary nature, in the land. The villan 
could not leave his lord's estate, nor, indeed, give up 
the land he held under him : he was a servant for life, 
receiving as wages enough of land to support himself and 
family. If he left his lord, he could be recovered as a 
stray, unless he had lived meanwhile for a year and a 
day in a privileged town or borough, in which case he 
obtained his freedom. He could accumulate no property, 
everything he possessed being his lord's. His services 
consisted of servile work done by himself and his house- 
hold on the lord's demesne land ; such as ploughing, 
harrowing, mowing and reaping, carting dung, and all 
other agricultural operations. These could be changed 
at any time by the lord, though they naturally had a 
tendency to become of a permanent and settled character, 
and in the end became regular and stated in quantity and 
time. We see indications of this in Boldon Buke ; in 
fact, every entry there relating to the village shows a 
settled system of services, such as we should look for 
under the circumstances." We further learn that "the 
villan could not marry his daughter without the lord's 
leave " ; that the " children of villans inherited their 
father's condition " ; that in course of time the villan 
" became the copyholder of later days ; so that, as Coke 
expresses it, copyhold, though of mean descent, is of a 
very ancient house." "The villan, indeed, could acquire 

no property in goods or land ; for, being himself the 
property of his lord, all that he acquired was the lord's. 
But being allowed to hold land, himself and his children, 
ior many years without interruption, the common law 
gave him the title to hold his land on rendering the accus- 
tomed services, or on payment of the money for which 
these services had been commuted. This title the villans 
possessed only by custom, as shown in the roll of the 
lord's court; and from this manner of holding by copy or 
court roll, they became ultimately in name and effect 

Tilling the grateful soil, these villans of England were 
sowing the seeds of freedom of which the laureate sings 
in his oft-quoted lines; and to their patient toil and 
persevering endeavour their onward efforts and upward 
striving their descendants are indebted in the present 
day. Let us see how many of them were in Boldon, 
and how they were employed in 1183, when the Buke 
was compiled. 

" In Boldon," says the Survey, " are 22 villans, of 
whom each one holds two oxgangs of 30 acres, and 
renders 2s. 6d. of scatpennies, and half a scatchalder of 
oats, and 16d. of averpennies " (a payment by the tenant 
in lieu of service by horse or ox, or carriage with either), 
" and five cart-loads of woodlades " (wood for fuel), " and 
two hens and 10 eggs, and works three days in the week 
through the whole year, except the week of Easter and 
Pentecost, and the 13 days of the Nativity of our Lord ; 
and during his work he makes in autumn four precations " 
(boon days of the tenant to his lord) " to reap with all his 
house, except the housewife. Moreover, he reaps three 
roods of averipe " (oats ready for cutting), " and he 
ploughs and harrows three roods of averere " (oat 
stubble?) "and, moreover, each plough of the villans 
ploughs and harrows two acres ; and then for once they 
shall have the corrody " (food, a meal, whence "crowdy ") 
"of the Bishop; and then they are quit of the work of 
that week. But always when they make the great 
precations they have a corrody ; and in their works they 
harrow when there shall be need ; and they make cart- 
loads ; and when they make them, each has one loaf ; and 
they mow one day at Houghton till the evening, and then 
they have a corrody; and at the fairs of St. Cuthbert 
every two villans make one booth ; and when they make 
the lodges and cart woodlades, then they are quit of other 
works. Twelve cotmen, of whom each one holds 12 
acres, work through the whole year two days a week, 
except at the three above-named feasts ; and they render 
12 hens and 60 eggs. Robert holds two oxgangs of 37 
acres, and renders half a marc. The pounder holds 12 
acres, and has from each one plough one thrave of corn ; 
and renders 24- hens and 500 eggs. The mill renders five 
marcs and a half. The villans ought to make every year 
in their work, if there shall be need, one house of the 
length of 40 feet, and the width of 15 feet ; and then, 
when they make it, each one is quit of 4d. of averpennies. 

April \ 
1:91. / 



The whole town renders 17s. of cornage" (payment in 
commutation of a return of cattle}, "and one cow in 
milk. The demesne is at farm with a stock of four 
ploughs and four harrows, and renders for two ploughs 16 
chalders of wheat, and 16 chalders of oats, and 8 chalders 
of barley ; and for two other ploughs, 10 marcs. John 
the baker holds Newton, near Boldon, for 20s. per 
annum. In Newton, near Boldon, 12 mailmen" (inferior 
tenants as opposed to those who held in free tenure or 
drengage) "holds 24 oxgangs, each one of 15 acres ; and 
they render, for every two oxgangs, 5s. of farm rent, and 
two hens and 20 eggs ; and they plough and harrow at 
Boldon each one one acre ; and they make for every two 
oxgangs four precations in autumn with two men. The 
wife of Henry de Montanis holds 40 acres for 40d." 

In this one community, which existed within little 
more than a century after the Conquest, we have a 
representation pretty nearly of the whole. The view is 
not perfect, Select as we may, we cannot make it so. 
But a few more extracts will lessen its imperfections; and 
-we begin with the Cathedral City. Durham had mills 
and a bakehouse. " Reginald the fuller" was among the 
holders of the land. "The dies of the mint used to 
render 10 marcs ; but the Lord King Henry the Second, 
by means of the dies which he placed in Newcastle for 
the first time, reduced the rent of 10 marcs to 3, and in 
the end took away the dies which had been in use many 
years before that time." Currency was coined in the 
county. " The son of William the moneyer holds Stella 
by the proper boundaries which the Bishop caused to be 
ridden for him ; and he renders one marc tor land which 
belonged to Meldred, son of Dolfin." 

There was coining of money and winning of coal. 
"Coals" repeatedly occur. "In Wearmouth and Tun- 
stall are 22 villans. * * The carpenter, who is an old 
man, has for his life 12 acres for making ploughs and 
harrows. The smith, 12 acres for the iron-work of the 
ploughs, and coal which he wins." He must win it for 
himself. The coal-trade, if it had begun, was in its 
infancy ; and the smith of the Wear must supply his 
forge with his own hands. The smith at Sedgfield must 
do the same: he has an oxgang of land "for the iron- 
work of the ploughs, which he makes ; and he finds 
coals." In the Auckland district (whose mineral riches 
led to the project of a canal in the last century and of a 
railroad in a later day) was "a certain collier" in the 
reign of Henry II. He had for neighbours Elzibred, and 
Alan Picundrac, and Umfrid the carter ; but, unfor- 
tunately, his own name is not given. All we know 
of this primitive " carbonarius " is that " he held one toft 
and one croft and four acres, and found coal for making 
the iron-work of the ploughs of Coundon." A tenant of 
Bishop Pudsey in the year 1183, he is the historic father 
of the coal trade of South Durham the earliest coal- 
miner of our acquaintance in the district which gave 
birth to the passenger railway. 

The Survey has mention, also, of the weaver and the 
dyer, the architect and the mason. Craftsmen of various 
kinds were numerous ; and those of them who were 
tenants of the Bishop were not required to render him the 
wonted service for their holdings while he employed them 
in their several callings. "In South Sherburn, Christian 
the mason holds 60 acres, which the Bishop gave him out 
of the moor, for 5s., and two oxgangs which were Arkill's 
for 14d. ; but he shall be quit of these payments so long as 
he is in the Bishop's service for mason-work." In Stan- 
hope, " Lambert the marble-cutter" has "30 acres for his 
services, so long as he shall be in the Bishop's service; and 
when he shall have left the Bishop's service, he renders 
two besants, or 4s." This marble mason of the twelfth 
century, remarks the editor, doubtless provided the 
columns of Frosterley marble with which Pudsey adorned 
his chapel of the Galilee at Durham. " Richard the 
architect" (ingeniator), who occurs under Newton, near 
Durham, " was a man of some note in his profession. He 
was employed by the Bishop about the repair of Norham 

Expert and ingenious were the men of England in the 
time of the great-grandson of the Conqueror. The mas- 
sive Keep at Newcastle is a proof with what knowledge 
and ability they could build. It has kept its ground seven 
centuries, and is strong enough to hold it for centuries 
more. They could build for successive generations ; and 
they could cleverly contrive for the wants of the passing 
day. There were valiant trenchermen in the Bishopric, 
and skilful workmen to supply them with platters by the 
thousands. In Wolsingham, where "Ralph the bee- 
keeper" had six acres for his services at the hive, there 
were also three turners, holding 17 acres: "and they 
rendered 3,100 trenchers, and make four precations and 
assist in mowing the meadows and making the hay." 
They were handy alike at the scythe, the hayfork, and the 
lathe ; and " the monk cook " of North Auckland would 
be among their customers for wooden plates. 

The "great chase" had. rare attractions for lord and 
tenant. It roused the people of the Brishopric to high 
excitement. There is constant allusion to it in Pudsey's 
record : "Little Usworth, which William holds, renders 
10s., and carts wine with eight oxen, and goes in the great 
chase with two greyhounds." "Plausworth, which Simon 
Vitulus holds, renders 20s., and carts wine with eight 
oxen, and goes in the great chase with two greyhounds." 
"Little Burdon, which John de Houghton holds, renders 
10s,, and carts wine with four oxen, and goes in the great 
chase with two greyhounds." William de Hertburne 
"goes in the great chase with two greyhounds." In the 
time of the hunt, the Bishop encamps in the forest, a 
sylvan Nimrod. His tenants and subjects surround him 
with every necessary appliance for the sport. "All the 
villans " of Stanhope "made at the great hunts a kitchen 
and larder, and a kennel ; and they find a settle in the 
hall, and in the chapel and in the chamber, and carry all 



t A'.ril 
\ 1891. 

the Bishop's corrody from Wolsingham to the lodges." 
"All the villans of Aucklandshire to wit, of North 
Auckland and West Auckland, and Escomb and New- 
ton, find at the great hunts of the Bishop, for each 
oxgang, one rope, and make the Bishop's hall in the 
forest, of the length of sixty feet, and of a 
breadth within the posts of sixteen feet, with a 
buttery and hatch, and a chamber, and a privy ; alsu 
they make a chapel of the length of 40 feet, and of the 
breadth of 15 feet; and they have a charity 2s; and they 
make their part of the fence round the lodges ; and they 
have on the Bishop's departure a whole ton of beer, or a 
half one, if it shall remain ; and they guard the aeries of 
hawks which are in the district of Ralph the Crnfty ; and 
they make 18 booths at the fair of St. Cuthbert. More- 
over, all the villans and farmers attend the roe-hunt at 
the summons of the Bishop, and at the mills of Auckland- 
shire." The district of Ralph the Crafty, where hawks 
were bred and trained for a favourite amusement of the 
day, is indicated further on, viz. : "Ralph the Cratfy 
holds Frosterley for half-a-marc." 

There was beer in the forest by the ton when the chase 
was on foot. It was a drink that contributed to the ex- 
chequer. We find it mentioned under "Norton " in asso- 
ciation with a milder beverage: "The toll of beer at 
Norton renders 3s. ; and the whole town renders two cows 
in milk," Stockton, Preston, and Herteburne each render- 
ing one cow in milk. The Stockton tenants comprised 
Adam, son of Walter ; William de Tumba ; Elwin, and 
Robert, and Goderin, cotmen ; and Suan the smith. 
Hertburne had "Alan, son of Osbert." He "holds one 
oxgang : and renders and works as one of the 20 farmers 
of Norton, as much as pertains to one oxgang." At 
Preston were Walter ; Adam, son of Walter de Stockton ; 
Orm, son of Tok ; William, son of Utting ; and Richard 
Rund. At Carlton, Gerebod and Helias ; Walter the 
miller ; Summina, a widow ; and William, son of Orm ; 
the mill of Carlton rendering "20 skeps of wheat, after 
the measure of Yarm." "The passage over the water'' 
at Stockton "renders 20d." 

The "cotmen" of the Tees, Robert and Elwin and 
Goderin, are members of a large class of occupiers. Cot- 
men, or cottagers, holding land and making return, are of 
common occurrence in Boldon Buke : " In Newbottle are 
16 cotmen, of whom each one holds 12 acres, and works 
through the whole year two days in the week, and makes 
in his work four precations in autumn with his whole 
house, except the housewife, and renders one hen and 
five eggs. And three other cotmen, of whom each one 
holds six acres, and works from Pentecost to the feast of 
St. Martin two days in the week." Other holders of land 
in Newbottle are John, son of Heluric ; the bailiff and the 
pounder; and the smith, with "12 acres for his service." 
" In Houghton are 13 cotmen, who hold, work, and render 
as those of Newbottle, and three other half cotmen, who 
work as the above-named three of Newbottle." Houghton 

has also, besides bailiff, and pounder, and smith, a car- 
penter, with "one toft and four acres for his service." 

The good feeling of the episcopal landlord is shown in 
the case of Elstan the dreng. The " dreng " was a sort of 
half-freeman, midway between the free tenant and the 
villan, being the lowest holder who had a permanent 
interest in the land. The term (as we further learn from 
Mr. Greenwell's Glossary) comes from the Anglo-Saxon 
"dreogan, to do, work, bear; the root of our English, 
word drudge." The "dreng" of West Auckland "held 
four oxgangs, and rendered 10s>, and he makes three 
precations in autumn with all bis men, except his own 
house ; and he has ploughed and harrowed two acres, and 
he used to go on the Bishop's errands between Tyne and 
Tees at his own cost, and he used to find four oxen to cart 
wine, and the land is now in the hands of the Lord 
Bishop until the son of Elstan shall be grown up. Of 
that land the Lord Bishop has let 12 acres to the wife of 
Elstan, free of charge, to maintain her children ; and the 
residue of that land renders 13s. of farm rent, and makes 
the other services which Elstan used to make." Pudsey 
was at once merciful and magnificent ; he was gentle as 
well as proud and powerful ; the widow and the fatherless 
were considered in the administration of his affairs. Let 
his kindness to the family of Elstan be kept in grateful 

The service of many of the tenants of the county pala- 
tine extended to the running of their lord's errands. 
"Elfer de Burden," holding two oxgangs of land on the 
Wear, "renders 8s., and goes on the Bishop's errands." 
Easington and Thorp had thirty-one villans ; two of 
whom were Galfrid Cokesmahc and Simon, each holding 
half a ploughland, and rendering 10s., and going the 
Bishop's errands. At Shotton was another of bis lord- 
ship's messengers, " William the lorimer " (a smith 
forging bits, spurs, and other metal furniture of the- 
horse). At Darlington, "Osbert Kate holds two oxgangs, 
for which Gilbert used to render 8s. ; and they now 
render for the same, with the increase of four acres, 10s., 
and go on errands." " Geoffrey Joie, 20 acres for 40d. ; 
and he goes on the Bishop's errands." 

The Survey of 1183 conjures up an animated scene of 
daily life in the Darlington district. The villans of 
Darlington, holding 40 oxgangs, at the rate of 5s. an 
oxgang, "ought to mow the whole of the Bishop's 
meadows, and make the Bishop's hay, and lead it, and 
once to have a corrody ; and to enclose the copse and the 
court, and to make the works which they were accus- 
tomed to make at the mills ; and for each one bovate " 
(oxgang), " one cartload of woodlades ; and to make 
cartloads on the Bishop's journeys ; and also three cart- 
loads in the year to cart wine, and herrings, and salt. 
Four cotmen render 3s., and assist in making the hay- 
cocks, and carry fruit, and work at the mill for their 
tofts." A smith is named; and also Odo, holding land 
"where the beech mast was sown." The pounder holds 

1891. / 



nine acres, and has thraves like the others, and renders 
100 hens and 500 eggs. The boroughs, dyers, and bake- 
houses render 10 marcs. "William holds Oxenhajl," and 
has the "horse mill," and "keeps a dog and a horse for 
the fourth part of the year, and carts wine with four 
oxen, and makes utware when it shall be laid un the 
Bishopric." (He makes "utware"; he renders service 
"out of or beyond the boundaries of that territory to 
which the word haliwere was applied ; in other terms, 
beyond the Tyne or Tees." ffaliwerfolc were "the men 
of the palatinate of Durham who held their lands by the 
service of protecting and defending the body of St. 
Cuthbert, and who were not obliged to cross the Tyne or 
Tees, in defence of the kingdom at large, against their 
will.") "The mill of Burdon, for keeping up the mill- 
dam, which is raised on the land of Haughton, 12s." 
Adam do Selby, who " holds to farm the demesne " of 
Little Haughten, "shall find at Darlington a litter for 
the Lord Bishop on his journeys." At Blackwell, 
"Robert the Ruddy, for a small parcel of ground near 
the Tees," pays 6d. Here we have " Robert the Ruddy " 
on the Tees ; "Richard the Ruddy " occurs at Stanhope ; 
and "Ralph the Crafty " holds Frosterley. 

The miller and the mill, the millstone and the milldam 
come repeatedly before us. There is mention of a horse- 
mill. Horse-power and water-power are in requisition for 
the grinding of corn. Whether or not the wind was 
utilized by the millers of the diocese, does not appear. In 
reviving the landscape of Pudsey's period with the aid of 
his "Buke," we do not see it animated in imagination by 
the revolving sail of the mill. But, further on in the 
Surtees Society's volume, we come to the "Roll of Bishop 
Bee" (1307); and there, at Norton, the windmill appears, 
with a Scotch carpenter (Robert de Tevydale) plying his 
craft in its moving shadows. 

We have only now to pick from the pages, as the leaves 
are turned over one by one, a series of cabinet sketches : 
"Chester, with the villans and the demesne without 
stock, and with the fisheries, and the mill of the 
said town, renders 24 marcs." Urpeth "repairs a 
moiety of the milldam and house of the mill of 
Chester, with the men of Chester." "Birtley and Trib- 
ley render 20s., and attend the great chase with two grey- 
hounds." "The villans of South Biddick hold their town 
at farm, and render 5, and find 160 men to reap in 
autumn, and 36 carts to lead corn at Houghton." " Gatull 
the smith holds 16 acres " in North Auckland " for one 
pound of pepper ; and his heirs for 2s., or two pigs." At 
West Sleekburne, "Patrick renders one pound of pepper. " 
" Robert do Yolton holds the land which was the hermit's 
on the Derwent, and renders one besaut, or 2s." " Eudo 
de Lascelles holds one ploughland of 120 acres in Farnacres 
for the tenth part of one knight's fee." " Sunderland is 
at farm, and renders 100s. Roger de Audry renders for 
the milldam built on the land at Sunderland one marc." 
"The dreng" at Button " feeds a dog and a horse, and 

carts one ton of wine and a millstone to Durham, and 
attends the pleas" (the Bishop's Courts), "and goes on 

Generations have come and gone since the Count 
Palatine sat in council at the feast of St. Cuthbert, count- 
ing up his revenues, and setting forth the rents and 
customs of his Bishopric; he and his colleagues and 
tenants have passed away ; but owners and occupiers have 
continued to succeed in long procession, and "the earth 
abideth for ever." 

Clavfce, SCtttftnr 0f 

[OLLECTORS of Newcastle literature occa- 
sionally come across a volume of 300 pages 
containing satirical essays written in the 
style of the "Spectator, "and entitled "The 
Saunterer, a Periodical Paper. By Hewson Clarke. New- 
castle : Printed by K. Anderson for the author, 1805." 
Perusal of the book excites interest in the author, and the 
question naturally arises, " Who was Hewson Clarke ?" 
Resort is made to the usual sources of local biography, but 
nothing is found there. Local annalists, chroniclers, and 
historians ignore He. vson Clarke all except Mackenzie, 
and he snaps him off in seven lines. To ascertain what 
manner of man the author of "The Saunterer" was, we turn 
to the files of theTyne Mercury, in which paper the majority 
of the essays appeared. There we find a full and minute 
biographical sketch of Hewson Clarke, and discover at the 
same time that nearly all of it was written by himself. 
Below is a copy of the article, with a continuation by Mr. 
W. A. Mitchell, the editor of the paper. 


Hewson Clarke was born at Maryport, in Cumberland, 
in 1787. His father was an innkeeper in Maryport, who 
received a decent competence from the profits of his 
trade. In the year 1791, Hewson was sent to the com- 
mon day school of the place, where he attained a tolerable 
knowledge of his mother tongue and of penmanship. 

After various removals of his family and himself, which 
prevented the complete gratification of his desire for 
reading, they fixed their residence at Workington. 
There he pursued a course of reading perhaps unparal- 
leled. He rose at 7 in the morning, and after the first 
duties of the day were over, secluded himself from the 
observation of his friends till the hour of 11 or 12 in the 
evening. His eagerness for books was such, that he 
could scarcely spare time to attend his meals, but fre- 
quently took a potato or a slice of meat into his hand, 
which served him as sustenance for the whole of the 
day. His reading, however, though extensive, was not 
valuable, his only resource being that of a neighbouring 
circulating library, which contained little else than 
plays, novels, romances, and fairy tales ; of these the far 
greater number were insipid and uninteresting. Young 
Clarke, however, read them with great avidity, and 
during his stay at Workinpton, which lasted for the 
space of a year and a quarter, he had read above 600 
volumes of different kinds. He was frequently engaged 
in the perusal of Peregrine Pickle, or the Arabian Tales, 
when he should have been attending to the wants of hia 



< April 
1 1891. 

father's customers. His parents remonstrated against 
his idleness and misapplication of his time, without much 
effect. His assistance was not really wanted. There 
were four servants in the house, who were more than 
sufficient to execute all its duties. Whatever may have 
been the motives of his parents, independent ot these 
reasons, young Clarke's propensity to reading was suffi- 
cient to resist all their efforts ; they therefore, after a 
long struggle, left him to his own inclinations. 

But this was not of long duration. In the beginning 
of the year 1800, his parents found their situation neither 
profitable nor convenient ; they therefore departed for 
London in the month of March, and early in the ensuing 
month they entered into the possession of the Red Lion, 
Gray's Inn Lane, Holborn. This was the most miserable 
period of Clarke's life. He had no opportunity for 
study but what he gained by a concealment of a few 
minutes in his father's cellar, or what he caught by 
casual glances at a book while sitting in the tap-room, 
amidst the noise of porters, grooms, and chairmen. He 
was seldom able to retire to bed till 2 o'clock in the 
morning, and it was sometimes still later. In the day 
time it was impossible to get out, and he therefore lived 
in the midst of London, with the most ardent desire 
to see its curiosities and its crowds, in total ignorance of 
all that surrounded him. In about three months after 
his arrival in London, his father's affairs took an un- 
fortunate turn, and, through a brewer, it is supposed, to 
whom the house belonged, he was reduced tu great dis- 
tress. During the intermediate time, between their 
departure from the house and their voyage from London, 
his time was spent in sauntering through the streets, 
standing at the book stalls, and making what observa- 
tions his youth and situation would allow on men and 
manners. On the 1st of June, 1800, he bade farewell to 
London, and arrived on the 21st of the same month, after 
a very unpleasant voyage of three weeks, at Newcastle. 
His adventures between this period and his coming from 
Alnwick to the shop of Mr. Huntley, on the 22nd of August, 
1803, are too various to insert in a sketch like this. One 
circumstance, however, it is necessary to mention, as it 
marks the natural bent of his inclination. In the beginning 
of the year 1801, when he had only two hours a day which 
he could devote to study, and when he had not quite 
attained his fourteenth year, he formed the plan of a 
periodical paper which he intended to publish by himself, 
and of which he wrote the three first numbers. His 
dreams upon this occasion will perhaps excite the smiles 
of those who have experienced the scanty rewards of 
literary labour. According to his own calculation, his 
labours, provided he could procure 500 subscribers, 
would produce him 100 guineas a year. He knew, 
however, the laughter that such an attempt by a 
youth of his age would excite, and he therefore resolved 
to conceal his name. He wrote a note to Messrs. Aken- 
head, of Newcastle, desiring to know the terms on which 
they would engage to print a periodical paper of the 
common size and type, and signed it with the fictitious 
name of J. Clarke, Whickham. He was himself the 
bearer of his letter, and received for answer that it was 
impossible to mention the terms till the size of the type, 
&c., were more distinctly specified. This was not very 
difficult, but a different piece of information induced him 
to relinquish his project ; he was informed by a friend 
that security for payment would probably be re- 
quired. His purpose was therefore postponed till a 
more favourable opportunity should occur. On the 23rd of 
August, 1803, he engaged with Mr. Huntley, chemist, of 
Gateshead. In that situation he had some leisure, but 
that leisure, from circumstances which it is unnecessary to 
mention, could not be employed. Had not the irasci- 
bility and meanness of one woman embittered all his 
moments, he might have passed his time very happily 
with Mr. H. If he could not read, he could at least 
meditate ; his duties were servile and sometimes laborious, 
yet they were attended by what seldom accompanies 
them, the respect and civility of the inhabitants. In this 
place he had very great opportunities of observing man- 
kind ; besides the usual frequenters of the shop, he was 
enabled to attend the principal societies of the town 
These indeed were not very fashionable or sensible, but 

they exhibited a sufficient example of the general follies 
and virtues of mankind. 

The Tyne Mercury had been established a little before 
this period. It had frequently attracted the attention of 
Clarke, and seemed to offer an easy method of introducing 
himself to the world. He thought it necessary, however, 
previous to beginning his correspondence, to prepare 
a few numbers for the press. With five numbers, 
therefore, in his possession, he ventured upon his literary 
career on the 7th of August, 1804, when he had attained 
the age of seventeen years and nearly five months. 
Those who are favoured by leisure in the pursuit of 
literature have little idea of the difficulties of him who 
composes his work amidst noise and business, interrupted 
every moment by the calls of a multitude, his thoughts 
bewildered by perpetual tumult, and his words confused 
by necessary haste. Clarke, when he composed the 
Saunterer, seldom had it in his power to overlook his copy 
after it was finished, but was obliged to correct it as he 
proceeded, and commit it to the press with all its want of 
arrangement and connexion. His papers were more than 
once destroyed in the confusion and hurry of business, or 
were employed by mistake to wrap up medicines. Some 
of these compositions were written during the hours 
stolen from sleep, and others upon a counter, amidst 
drugs and merchandise. 

Under these obstacles, the Saunterer seldom appeared 
more frequently than twice in three weeks, and was closed 
by the 26th number, on the 13th of June, 1805. It was 
published in a volume, with 24- additional numbers, in 
November. The publication of the Saunterer was of 
great advantage to him ; it introduced him into the 
society of the most respectable gentlemen in the town, 
and gained him the attention of the late William Burdon, 
of Hartford. Under his patronage, and with the profits 
of the Saunterer, he was able to enter at Emanuel College, 
Cambridge, to which place he repaired on the 21st of 
January, 1806. 

[Thus far proceeds our unknown biographer. As we 
perused the manuscript, we have had frequent suspicions 
that that biographer was no other than Mr. Clarke himself. 
The following particulars of the remainder of his life we 
have reason to believe correct : ] 

At Cambridge, instead of attending his studies, it is 
generally understood that he commenced a satirical work, 
which rendered him remarkably obnoxious. He went 
from college (probably hastened by the enmity produced 
by his conduct) to London. There, after making many 
vain attempts to procure employment from booksellers, 
he at length became connected with a scurrilous publi- 
cation called the Scourge. By this connection he 
offended his friends in such a manner, that some, after 
fruitlessly remonstrating with him on the impropriety of 
having his name associated with a work which was syno- 
nymous with universal abuse, never after spoke to him. 
It is supposed he never took his degree, though amongst 
his acquaintance he was always denominated Dr. Clarke. 
He became involved in quarrels and disputes, and 
finally, from what cause we know not, forfeited the 
esteem and patronage of Mr. Burdon, who may be con- 
sidered the origin of any literary ability he possessed. 
The loss of the friendship of his patron, he himself re- 
peatedly declared to us, was not occasioned by any im- 
proper conduct on his own part, but solely by a whimsical 
disposition he attributed to Mr. Burdon. What was the 
truth we cannot now determine ; but it is certain that 
the author of the "Materials for Thinking" transferred his 
protection to another, who enjoyed it, we believe, to his 
lamented decease. 

While in London, Clarke maintained himself chiefly by 
writing histories of the war, &c., for the booksellers, in 
general for that portion of the trade that deals exclusively 
in numbers. Besides these, which may be called the 
mercenary occupations of literature, he wrote a poem 
called, "The Art of Pleasing," which, Lord Byron says, 
in his "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," must have 
been so called as lucus a non lucendo I The noble lord 
also severely lashes him in a note at the end of his last 
edition, for having said many ill-natured things of a beat 
which his lordship kept at college. 



He was always wishing to do something more than ever 
the world Rave him ability or his manners and connexions 
pave him opportunity to do, and he dragged on to the last 
a half-dissipated, half-plodding life, with the expectation 
that he was about to become more generally known, and 
that time would remunerate him for his youthful 
assiduity and bis maturer exertions. But, alas ! the to-mor 
row for which he looked never dawned upon his destiny. 
He died about the age of thirty, seized with madness. 

Lord Byron's "lashing" of Hewson Clarke in the first 
edition of "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," men- 
tioned by Mr. Mitchell in the foregoing paragraph, reads 
as follows : 

There Clarke, still striving piteously " to please, ' 
Forgetting doggrel leads not to degrees ; 
A would be satirist, a hired buffoon, 
A monthly scribbler of some low lampoon ; 
Condemn'd to drudge, the meanest of the mean, 
And furbish falsehoods for a magazine, 
Devotes to scandal his congenial mind ; 
Himself a living libel on mankind. 

To this satire his lordship adds the following footnote: 

This person, who has lately betrayed the most rapid 
symptoms of confirmed authorship, is writer of a poem, 
denominated the "Art of Pleasing," as "iucus a non 
lucendo," containing little pleasantry and less poetry. He 
also acts as monthly stipendiary and collector of calumnies 
for the Satirist. If this unfortunate young man would ex- 
change the magazines for the mathematics, and endeavour 
to take a decent degree in his university, it might eventu- 
ally prove more serviceable than his present salary. 

In a postscript to the second edition of the same work, 
Lord Byron renews the lasning, as described in the 
Tyne Mercury : 

There is a youth ycleped Hewson Clarke (subaudi 
esquire), a sizer of Emanuel College, and, I believe, a 
denizen of Berwick-upon-Tweed, whom I have introduced 
in these pages to much better company than he has been 
accustomed to meet : he is, notwithstanding, a very sad 
dog, and for no reason that I can discover, except a 
personal quarrel with a bear, kept by me at Cambridge to 
sit for a fellowship, and whom the jealousy of his Trinity 
contemporaries prevented from success, has been abusing 
me. and, what is worse, the defenceless innocent above 
mentioned, in the Satirist, for one year and some 

months. I am utterly unconscious of having given him 
any provocation ; indeed, I am guiltless of having heard 
his name till coupled with the Satirist. He has, there- 
fore, no reason to complain, and I dare say that, like Sir 
Fretful Plagiary, he is rather pleased than otherwise. 


The foregoing article by Mr. Welford appeared in the 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle of January 31, 1891. A later 
issue of the same paper contained the following letter 
from Mr. Edward Pocknell, of London, a well-known 
authority on shorthand : 

Mr. Richard Welford's article on Hewson Clarke, 
author of "The Saunterer," brought to my mind the 
recollection that I had read something about him in con- 
nection with shorthand. I have been able to find the 
passage in a privately printed work (twenty copies only 
having been printed), entitled "The Grand Master: 
being Some Extracts from the Shorthand Correspondence 
of Robert Cabbell Roffe, (Engraver), with his Much 
Valued Friend, Thomas Molmeux, of Macclesfa'eld, edited 
by Alfred Roffe " (1860). 

In a letter from Roffe to Molineux, dated Aug. 1, 1820, 
the former says: "The MS. papers, as they were all 
open, I took the liberty of perusing, as, I presume, you 
intended I should. Lewis's 'Historical Account of Short- 
hand 'is a book that seems to contain a great deal ef re- 
search on the subject of shorthand. You wrote to Mr. 
Lewis as the author of the work, but I have been credibly 
informed that Mr. Hewson (Jlark (sic), who wrote a work 
called 'The Saunterer,' is likewise the writer of the His- 
torical Account, and of Mr. Lewis's other publications." 

Roffe and Molineux were writers of Dr. Byrom's 
system (1767), and Byrom was known amongst his 
followers as " The Grand Master "hence the title of the 
book now referred to. 

j|F a ramble round Richmond be contemplated, 
the best plan is to commence at the railway 
station. Moving in the direction of the 
south bank of the river, \ve soon come 
within sight of the cascade ntar the paper mills, which, 




f April 


though formal in general outline, was "adapted" by 
Turner for a poetical composition, including in its scope 
the grand old castle and the predominating Norman keep. 
There is no denying that this scene is picturesque, though 
the view is more comprehensive from a slight eminence a 
few hundred yards further to the left. 

Our picture of the castle (page 152), which is seen rising 
from the banks of the Swale, was taken from a rustic 
stile near a group of trees that partly hide the formal 
lines of the paper mill. This is only one of the many 
delightful prospects in the neighbourhood, but by no 
means the least attractive, the great bulk of the ruins 
of the old stronghold being seen to the best advantage. 
When the western sun gilds the noble fragments with its 
mellow tints, and the brilliant light is reflected in the 
tarn-like expanse of water below, it will be admitted that 
nowhere in all the North-Country is there a more 
entrancing combination of nobility and loveliness. 

A drawing of Richmond Castle was discovered amongst 
the Harleian manuscripts, and thus conjecture is set at 
rest as to the original design of the building. The ex- 
ternal wall, which was about 600 yards in length, enclosed 
a triangular space of about five acres in extent. Lofty 
square towers, affording accommodation for the chief 
officers, overhung the southern side, the base of the 

triangle, which was the strongest point. Towers also 
strengthened the remaining portion of the wall. The 
great donjon tower was not built until about seventy-five 
years after the foundation of the castle. Ninety-nine feet 
in height, it is a noble specimen of a Norman keep. 
Even after the wear and tear of centuries, it is still as 
firm and true as the solid rock upon which it stands. 
Once so menacing and defiant, it now wears the stern 
aspect of a worn-out warrior. 

The lower storey of the keep is supported by a bulky 
octagonal column in the centre, from which springs circu- 
lar groined arches. In a cavity of the column is a well of 
pure water. A tower 'named after Robin Hood, the 
famous outlaw, is in the eastern wall ; but how he came to 
be associated with Richmond history doth not disclose. 
The lowest chamber was a chapel, but in course of time it 
became too small for the gairison, and a more convenient 
edifice was built on the opposite side of the castle. 
A large window still indicates the site of the later 

On the south-east are the remains of another tower, 
called "The Golden Hole," probably from the circum- 
stance that a sum of money was discovered there. 
Adjoining "The Golden Hole" are the remains of the 
Hall of Scolland, Lord of Bedale, one of the feudatories 





of the Earls of Richmond. The lowest apartment of a 
tower in the south-west corner of the area appears to have 
been used as a dungeon. It was probably here that 
William the Lion, King of Scotland, was immured after 
his capture in 1174 near Alnwick (see Monthly Chronicle, 
1890, p. 178) ; for it is asserted in a rhyming chronicle in 
old Norman French that the royal prisoner was placed 
in a " very narrow prison." 

Richmond Castle is the property of the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Gordon, who has let it on lease to the North 
York Rifles. 

A terrace which runs around by the base of the castle 
wall is kept in good order by the Corporation of Rich- 
mond, which is also to be credited with the pleasant 
appearance of the precipitous banks through the planting 
thereon of young trees. The sylvan adornments are a 
great improvement upon the green slope of old that was 
seared with yellow strips of sandy soil. This terrace is a 
favourite promenade of the Richmond people, who appear 
to fully appreciate the enterprise of the corporate body. 
A local gentleman relates that, on one occasion, as he 
was strolling along this elevated terrace, he saw a man 
rush in an excited manner towards the base of a part of 
the castle walls and hold out his hands. To the astonish- 
ment of the beholder, a child, who bad evidently been 

observed to be in a critical position by her rescuer, fell 
headlong into his arms without sustaining any injury \ 

That part of Richmond which is known as Old Biggin is 
easily reached from the Castle Terrace. Proceeding along 
Quaker's Lane (where formerly was a burying place of 
the followers of George Fox), we come to West Field, 
celebrated for romantic views. Further along is Whit- 
cliffe Wood and Whitcliffe Scar, where rueged and 
imposing rocks arrest the attention of the stranger. Here 
is to be found a spot well known to the inhabitants by 
the name of Willance's Leap, from the circumstance that 
a hunter named Willance was carried by his horse over 
the precipice to the bottom, the rider being little injured. 
Three stones with inscriptions indicate the three bounds 
that the horse made before it reached the edge of the 
precipice. From this point there is a grand prospect of 
the bleak moorlands around the head of Swaledale. The 
river banks, however, are well-wooded, and afford an 
agreeable contrast to the sterner aspect of the adjacent 

A short distance further is the Beacon Hill, where in 
the troubled days of old a fire was lighted in times 
of danger. 

There stands in the pleasure grounds near the Swale, 
once belonging to the family of York? , a lofty tower that 





was erected to commemorate the battle of Culloden, 
built on the site of an old fortalice known as Hudswell 

In the same locality is the Convent of the Assumption, 
founded by the late Duchess of Leeds in 1850 for the 
education of young ladies of the Roman Catholic faith. 
The number of pupils at the present time is between fifty 
and sixty. The building is spacious, the grounds being 
extensive, and the scenery around very beautiful. The 
centre of the convent and the west wing contain class, 
study, music, and recreation rooms, also a large drawing- 
class room, three spacious dormitories, infirmaries, bath- 
rooms, &c., all for the use of the pupils. "The east wing 
is occupied by the sisters. On the same side there is a 
chapel in which there is a very beautifully carved altar, 
the gift of Mr. W. Foggin, of Newcastle. The cost of the 
whole of this pile of buildings was about 8,000. The 
mother-house of the Order of Assumption is at Auteuil, 

There is one other object near Richmond that should 
be visited the Round Howe, an immense amphitheatre, 
surrounded by rugged rocks and hanging woods, and 
somewhat resembling a volcanic crater. It is conjectured 
to have been a temple of the Druids, but there are no 
historical records to support the theory, which is wholly 
founded on the fact that this part of the district was in 
former times a forest of vast extent that might have 
afforded shelter for Druidical priests. A large natural 
cave near the Round Howe is called Arthur's Owen ; but 
tradition is silent as to the connection of this place with 
England's mythical king. 

All the engravings which accompany this article are 
made from photographs by Messrs. Valentine and Suns, 
152, Perth Road, Dundee. 

fflen af JWarft 


i) Jlieljart) Melforb. 



PON the extension to the provinces of the 
London system of bankruptcy procedure, 
under the Bankruptcy Law Amendment 
Act, 1842, a District Court was established 
at Newcastle, and on the 15th November, in that year, in 
a suite of rooms forming the eastern end of the Royal 
Arcade, the court was formally opened for the transaction 
of business. Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst appointed a 
member of a well-known local family Mr. Nathaniel 
Ellison, of the Chancery Bar to be the first Commis- 
sioner or Judge of the new court, and under him, as 
Registrar, he placed Mr. William Sidney Gibson. 

Mr. Gibson, a native of Parson's Green, Fulham, where 
he was born in 1814, was studying for the bar when he 
came down to Newcastle to discharge the duties of his 
office, and shortly afterwards he received his call from the 
Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. Although a 
stranger to the district, the reputation of a scholar, de- 
voted to antiquarian and historical research, had preceded 
him, and he had not been long in the town before he began 
to inquire, to investigate, and to write. One of the first 
objects to attract his attention was the noble ruin of th 
Conventual Church of Tynemouth, familiarly known as 
the Priory, under whose shadow he had fixed his resi- 
dence. Disappointed with the meagre details to be found 


1891. I 



in local literature, he set himself the task of writing 
the history of that magnificent structure, and after three 
years' unremitting labour he published in two volumes, 
royal quarto 

The History of the Monastery founded at Tynemouth, 
in the Diocese of Durham, to the Honour of God, under 
the Invocation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. Oswin, 
King and Martyr. London : William Pickering, 1846 
and 1847. 

Decorated with illuminated pages, and adorned by 
initial letters copied from Mediaeval MSS., resplendent in 
hand-applied gold and colours, these sumptuous volumes 
were further illustrated by etchings from the studio of the 
elder Richardson, by facsimile representations of ancient 
deeds and seals, and by wood engravings. No more 
superb example of typography and illumination had been 
seen in the district, and its illustrations were equalled 
only by the thorough and comprehensive character of the 

text. Apart from the exceedingly "high" views which 
the writer thought fit to express in his preface, and, 
indeed, more or less obtruded throughout, the work is 
well done. Regarded either as a history or a book of 
reference, it leaves nothing to be desired. 

Beyond the titles of the books he wrote, and the lec- 
tures he delivered, little is known of Mr. Sidney Gibson's 
life during the quarter of a century which he passed in 
Newcastle. With the exception of the Homoeopathic 
Dispensary, in which he acted as a member of the man- 
aging committee, he does not appear to have associated 
himself with any public institution in the locality, not 
even in those non-political and unsectarian organisations 
which are devoted to social amelioration and philan- 
thropic improvement. He was a model registrar in the 
Court of Bankruptcy courteous, painstaking, methodi- 
cal, punctual, and accurate ; but to his duties there, and 

occasional lecturing before cultured audiences, his public 
work was limited. Absorbed in literary and antiquarian 
pursuits, he lived the life of a recluse amidst the bustling 
activities of Tyneside. 

Mr. Gibson's literary productions show extraordinary 
mental activity, and the faculty of wielding a rapid 
and fluent pen. Taking in order of publication those 
of his books and papers which treat of local history alone, 
it is seen that in a little over ten years after he had 
put forth his great work on Tynemouth Priory he had 
published five others of importance, each of them in- 
volving patient research, and displaying minute investi- 
gation, viz. : 

Descriptive and Historical Notices of Some Remark- 
able Northumbrian Castles, Churches, and Antiquities : 
In a Series of Visits to the ruined Priory of Finchale : 
the Abbey Church of Hexham ; the Parish Churches of 
Hjughton-le-Spring, Morpeth, Bothal, Ovingham, and 
Ryton ; the antient Castles of Prudhoe and of Bothal, 
the ruined Abbey of Newminster, etc. With Biographi- 
cal Notices of Eminent Persons. First Series. Revised 
and Reprinted (by request) from the Newcastle Journal. 
with numerous additions, and embellished with Views of 
Finchale and of the Abbey Church of Hexham. New- 
castle : Robert Robinson, Pilgrim Street, 1848. 8vo. 
140 pp. 

A Descriptive and Historical Guide to Tynemouth : 
Comprising a Popular Sketch of the History of the 
Monastery, the Church, and the Castle ; with Notices of 
North Shields. Seaton Delaval, and Neighbouring Anti- 
quities. Embellished with highly-finished Engravings. 
North Shields : Philipson and Hare, Tyne Street, 1849. 
Sm. 8vo. 161 pp. 

Descriptive and Historical Notices of Remarkable 
Northumbrian Castles, Churches, and Antiquities. 
Second series. Dilston Hall, or Memoirs of the Right 
Hon. Jas. Radcliffe, Earl of Derweutwater, a Martyr in 
the Rebellion of 1715. To which is added A Visit to 
Bamburgh Casf.le ; with an Account of Lord Crewe's 
Charities, and a Memoir of the Noble Founder. Em- 
bellished with a Portrait of Lord Derwentwater, and 
several highly-finished Engravings. Newcastle: Robert 
Robinson, Pilgrim Street, 1850. 8vo. 220 pp. 

Do. Third Series. Visits to Naworth Castle, Laner- 
cost Priory, and Corby Castle, in Cumberland ; the ruined 
Monasteries of Brinkburn, J arrow, and Tynemouth; 
Bishop Middleham and the Town of Hartlepool ; Nevv- 
castle-on-Tyne and Durham Cathedral. Embellished 
with Views of Naworth Castle, as Restored, and of Corby 
Castle, near Carlisle. Newcastle : Robert Robinson, 
Pilgrim Street, 1854. 8vo. 168 pp. 

A Memoir on Northumberland. Descriptive of its 
Scenery, Monuments and History. Newcastle : F. and 
W. Dodsworth and Robert Robinson, 1860. 8vo, 77 pp. 

These all relate to local history and topography. But 
they by no means indicate the full measure of Mr. Gib- 
son's literary activity at the period in which they were 
written. For while they were passing through the press, 
the author was writing for reviews and magazines, and 
issuing treatises on a variety of interesting subjects. 

At an earlier period Mr. Gibson had published books 
on "The Certainties of Geology," on "Some Antient 
Modes of Trial," a " Letter to the Lord Chancellor on the 
Amendment of the Law in Bankruptcy," and a Prize 
Essay on the "Antiquities of Highgate." In 1858 he 
collected together four-and-twenty lectures and essays, 
the former delivered at various Church Institutes in the- 



\ 1891. 

district, the latter contributed to the Quarterly Review, 
Colburn's New Monthly, Household Words, Notes and 
Queries, the Dublin Review, &c., &c., and published them 
under the title of " Lectures and Essays on Various 
Subjects, Historical, Topographical, and Artistic." 

A few years later (in 1863) another collection of essays, 
lectures, and reviews, which Mr. Gibson had contributed 
to the Ecelesiologist, Chambers'! Journal, Bentley's Mis- 
cellany, Household Words, &c., was published. He 
prepared, also, a "Memoir of the Life of Richard de 
Bury, Bishop of Durham, and Lord Chancellor of 
England, temp. Edw. III." This work, although adver- 
tised, does not appear to have been printed. 

Mr. Gibson was a Fellow of the London Society of 
Antiquaries (F.S.A.); a Fellow of the London Geological 
Society (E.G. S.); a member of the Ecclesiological Society; 
of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copen- 
hagen ; the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, and of the 
Architectural Societies of Durham and St. Alban's; a 
Local Secretary of the [Archaeological Institute ; an 
honorary member of the Academic des Sciences et Belles 
Lettres de Dijon, &c. In 1857, the degree of M.A. was 
conferred upon him by the University of Durham in 
recognition of his contributions to the literature and 
archaeology of the North. Enjoying these honours, and 
the esteem of an ever-widening circle of friends, he 
remained in Newcastle till the abolition of the District 
Courts of Bankruptcy, in 1870, sent him into retirement. 
The Government rewarded his services with a handsome 
pension, which, unfortunately, he was not long destined 
to receive. Seized by a fatal illness, he died in London 
on the 3rd January, 1871, aged 56 years. During his 
lifetime he had expressed an ardent desire to be buried in 
the grounds of tho old Priory Church at Tynemouth, 
about which he had written so copiously and so well, and 
shortly before his decease he obtained from the Home 
Secretary the necessary permission. His remains were 
taken to Tynemouth, and after a solemn service in the 
restored Lady Chapel, at the east end of the ruin, were 
laid to rest in a vault closely adjoining. A headstone 
marks the place of bis interment, and in the chapel itself 
a stained glass window perpetuates his memory. 

The portrait of Mr. Gibson is from a photograph kindly 
lent by H. A. Adamson, Esq., Town Clerk of Tyne- 

s Gibson, 


Dr. Thomas Gibson, born at Morpeth in the latter part 
of the fifteenth century, must have been a remarkable 
man, if all that is told of him by his early biographers be 
true. Later writers have, however, thrown some doubt 
upon the accuracy of the record, suggesting that there 
may have been two persons of the same name living at 
the same time, the one educated at Cambridge and the 
other at Oxford, whose respective achievements have 

been, in error, attributed to the Morpeth worthy alone. 
The Rev. John Hodgson, in the Morpeth section of his 
" History of Northumberland," supports the theory of 
separate individualities, chiefly on the ground that a well- 
known contemporary writer, and a native of Morpeth 
himself, Dr. Turner, makes no reference to Gibson, with 
whose life and labours he must have been acquainted. 
Mr. Hodgson's account, condensed from Bale, Aiken, and 
Watts, is as follows : 

Gybson, or Gibson, Thomas, was not only, like his 
townsman and contemporary, Turner, famous for his 
knowledge in divinity, physic, and botany, but was one 
of the early English printers. Bale mentions him in 
terms of high commendation, and says his cures were 
almost incredible. He entered zealously into the spirit 
of the Reformation, and wrote in its favour ; but during 
the Marian persecution, fled to the Continent, from 
whence he returned on the accession of Elizabeth, and 
settled in London, where he died m 1562. Of the merits 
of his works I have not had an opportunity of forming 
any judgment, having never seen a volume of them ; and 
in turning over such works of Turner as have fallen in my 
way, I have thought it remarkable that I never met 
with Gibson's name, especially as there were so many 
coincidences in their lives, for they were not only towns- 
men and contemporaries, but both reformers, divines, 
physicians, and naturalists, both banished for the same 
cause, and both lived and died in London. All his works 
were printed by himself, excepting the last in the list 
below ; but it does not appear that he printed for any 
other person. 

1. The Concordance of the New Testament, most neces- 
sary to be in the handes of soche as desire the communica- 
cion of any place contayned in the New Testament. 
Imprinted by me Thomas Gybson. Cum privilegio 
regali. London, 1535. 8vo., with the mark T. G. on the 
sides of a cut. 

2. A Treatise behooueful, as well to preserue the people 
from the pestilence, as to helpe and recouer them that be 
infected with the same ; made by a bishop and doctour of 
phisick in Denmark ; which medicines haue been proued 
in many places in London. London, 1536, 8vo. 

3. The Great Herball newly corrected. Then the con- 
tents of this book. A table after the Latyn names of all 
herbes. A table after the English names of all herbs. 
The propertees and qualityes of all things in this booke. 
The descryption of vrynes, how a man shall have trewe 
knoweledge of all sekenesses. An exposycyon of all the 
wordes obscure and not well knowen. A table quyckly 
to fynde remedyes for all dyseases. God save the kynge. 
Loudini in edibus Thome Gibson, 1536. 

4. John Campenses, his Paraphrase on the Psalmes, &c. 
No date. 

5. A summe of the actes and decrees of the bishops of 
Rome. No date. 

6. A Breue Cronyele of the Bysshope of Rome's 
Blessynge, and of his Prelates beneficiall and charit- 
able rewardes from the tyme of Kynge Heralde vnto this 
day. Imprinted by John Daye in Sepulchre Parishe, 
at the signe of the Resurrection, a little above Holbourne 

Anthony Wood, in the first volume of his "Athenae 
Oxonienses," which is devoted chiefly to a history of 
Oxford writers, claims him as a student of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford : 

Thomas Gibson, a noted Physician of the Age he lived 
in, was born at Morpeth in Northumberland, and for a 
year, or years, was, as I conceive, educated here, because 
that several of both his Names and Time were conversant 
with the Muses in this University ; but whether he took 
a Degree, or was licensed to practise Physic it appears 
not. Afterwards he being noted for his extraordinary 
Success in curing Diseases, was very much resorted to by 
great, as well as ordinary People, especially by those of 

1891. f 



the reform'd Party, he being one himself, and a great 
Enemy to the R. Oath. Bishops; in spite and envy to 
whom he wrote 

A History of the Treasons of the Bishops from the 
Norman Conquest to his time. Whether this was 
printed, I know not, because had it been so, there's no 
doubt but inveterate Prynu would have found it, to gain 
matter thence, when he cotnpos'd his Book of the same 
subject. He also wrote, 

An Herbal. 

Treatise against unskilful Alchyir.ists. 

Treat, of curing common Diseases. 

Of the ceremonies used by Popes besides other things, 
and had laid the foundation of a little Book to show the 
various States that Britany hath been in, which he 
divided into five Parts ; but whether he compleated it, 
is uncertain. 

The Coopers, on the other hand, in their " Athenae 
Cantabrigienses, " claim Gibson for the University of 
Cambridge. Thus : 

Thomas Gibson, a native of Morpeth, Northumberland, 
was, it is asserted, educated at Oxford. It is certain, 
however, that one of the name took the degree of M.B. 
in this University, 1511. He was noted for his extra- 
ordinary success in curing diseases, as also for his strong 
antipathy to the Roman Catholics. He wrote much, and 
from 1535 to 1539, or afterwards, carried on the business 
of a printer in London. With one exception, all the 
known productions of his press were compiled by him- 
self. Bishop Latimer, writing to Cromwell, 21st July, 
1537, recommends that Gibson, who was the bearer of the 
letter, should be employed as the printer of a work then 
about to be published. He says, "He ys an honeste 
poore man, who will set ytt forth in a eood letter, and 
sell ytt (rood chepe, wher as others doo sell too dere, wych 
doth lett many to by. Doctor Crom, and other my 
frendes obteyned of me, natt with owght sum impor- 
tunyte to wrytt unto you for hym. " In the reign of 
Mary, he was a fugitive for religion, but returned to 
England on the accession of Elizabeth, and in 1559 had 
a license from this university to practise physic. His 
death occurred in London, 1562. 

To the list of his works printed by Hodgson (omitting 
"John Campenses his Paraphrase"), the Cambridge 
writers add the four extra books named by Anthony 
Wood, and another, "De Utroque Homine." They 
further state that he and his wife and daughter became 
members of the English congregation at Geneva on the 
20th November, 1557. And that is all that is known 
about him. Whether he was one Gibson, or two Gibsons 
rolled into one, is an open question that, in this column 
at any rate, need not be debated. 

JUu. Sljomajs dilloro, 


Before the Reformation, the ancient family of Gillow 
was remarkable for the number of its members who 
entered into holy orders, and assisted to propagate 
Christian doctrine among a rude and unlettered people. 
Since the Reformation the same tendency has continued 
to characterise their race. A " Biographical Dictionary 
of the English Catholics," now in course of publication by 
Mr. Richard Gillow, contains notices of fifteen persons 
bearing the name, and more or less related to each other, 
who have been ordained priests in the Catholic Church 
since the middle of last century. 

Within the scope of this series of biographies only two 

of three members of the family become, by reason of 
their association with the county of Northumberland, 
admissible, namely, the Rev. Thomas Gillow, of North 
Shields, Canon Gillow, one of his nephews, and the Rev. 
William Gillow, a grand-nephew. 

Thomas Gillow, born November 23, 1769, at Singleton, 
fourth son of Richard Gillow, of that place, entered 
Douay College as a student on the 22nd of May, 1784. 
While he was in his pupilaze the French Revolution 
broke out, and the college was placed in a position of 
danger. Upon one occasion a rnob of insurgents 
thundered at the doors for admittance. The authorities 
were frightened ; the boys were terrified all but young 
Gillow. It is recorded that he ran courageously down the 
stairs, met the assailants at the entrance, and by shouting 

"Vive la Republique !" saved the institution. The mob 
seized hold of him and carried him about in triumph 
through the streets of Douay. In August, 1793, when the 
college was broken up and the inmates were ordered 
to retire to their country house at Esquerchin, 
three miles off, aa prisoners, under surveillance, 
young Gillow effected his escape, and through many 
perils reached his father's home in Lancashire. After 
spending a month with his parents, Mr Gillow went 
to the institution at Old Hall Green. There he remained 
till December, 1794, when he was sent to Bishop Gibson's 
newly-founded college at Crook Hall, and three years 
later was ordained priest. Awaiting a vacancy among 
the private chaplaincies of the Catholic gentry, he taught 
at Crook Hall till the 21st August, 1797, when he entered 
upon a ministerial career at Callaly Castle, the seat of the 
Claverings. In that somewhat isolated position his 
duties were light, and he had much spare time, which 





he utilised by establishing and superintending a school in 
the adjoining village of Whittingham. While thus em- 
ployed, in 1817, he was nominated Bishop of the West 
Indies, but declining, from motives of health, to wear a 
mitre, he was selected to conduct a mission at North 
Shields. In June, 1821, after 25 years' service in the 
beautiful Vale of Whittingham, he entered upon his 
work at the mouth of the Tyne. A church had just been 
erected there by his cousin, the Rev. James Worswick, of 
Newcastle, and it became, under Mr. Gillow's care, not 
merely a place of worship for his co-religionists, but a 
centre of active propaganda throughout the distict. To 
the church he added a presbytery and schools, providing 
the means, for the most part, out of his private fortune, 
the residue of which, sunk as a fund for the relief of the 
poor, was lost through the failure of the Union Bank in 

In 1842, a nephew, the Rev. Richard Gillow, was sent 
to aid him in his arduous labours. Born May 9, 1811, 
and ordained at Stonyhurst in 1837, Richard Gillow was 
in every sense a fit helpmate to his uncle. He was a 
theologian of ability, a musical composer of promise, and 
a home missionary of high reputation. After the restora- 
tion of the hierarchy in England, and the revival of the 
see of He.xham, he was raised to the dignity of a canon. 
A most useful career seemed to be opening out before 
him. Short, however, was its course. Devotion to his 
work among the victims of the cholera visitation of 1853 
cost him his life, on the 18th of November in that year, at 
the early age of 42. 

Thomas Gillow survived his nephew four years. 
Although deprived of his eyesight, and, therefore, 
dependent upon the help and guidance of others, he was 
able to say mass till within a week of his death, which 
happened on the 19th March, 1857, in the 88th year of his 
age. "The whole town and neighbourhood, regardless of 
differences in religious belief, flocked to his funeral, and 
even the bells of the Protestant parish church rolled out 
a muffled peal in token of the universal respect in which 
he was held." 

During the last years of Thomas Gillow's life, Dr. 
Chadwick, afterwards Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle, 
assisted the venerable patriarch in his mission, and he 
was followed by his successor in the bishopric, the late 
Dr. Bewick. When Dr. Bewick left, in 1869, his place 
was filled by a grand-nephew of the old priest, the Rev. 
William Gillow. He had been ordained at Ushaw in 
1861, and, after officiating for three or four years at 
Castle Edon, joined the staff of St. Mary's, Newcastle, 
under Monsignor Eyre, now Archbishop of Glasgow. 
From St. Mary's he went to Wolsingham, and from 
thence proceeded to North Shields, where he remained 
till, in 1873, he was removed to Barnard Castle. In 1877. 
having taken charge of the mission at Callaly, the old 
home of his great-uncle, which was undergoing a change 
through the sale of the estate by Sir Henry Bedingfeld 

(heir, by marriage, of the Claverings), his health gave 
way, and he retired to his brother's house in Lancashire. 
The following year he took charge of the mission at 
Berwick, where he died, November 30, 1880, aged 45. 

The Rev. Thomas Gillow published " A Sermon 
preached at the Opening of the Catholic Chapel in the 
town of North Shields, on Thursday, the 14th June, 1821. 
Newcastle : Preston and Heaton " ; and a pamphlet, 
entitled "Catholic Principles of Allegiance Illustrated. 
Newcastle : Edward Walker, 1807." His portrait was 
painted by Ramsay, G. A. Lutenor, and others. One 
of Ramsay's portraits was engraved by C. Turner in 
imperial folio; that of Lutenor, from which ours is 
copied, was engraved, in quarto, by W. Collard. 

Hinjjft'oftn* antr tft* Supper. 

j]ELDOM plentiful in any locality in this 
country, the kingfisher (Alcedo ispida) is 
very generally distributed, its favourite 
habitats being the bosky banks of rivers and 
sparkling trout streams, where it can procure a sufficiency 
of water insects and small fish. As is well known, it is 
our most handsoinely-plumaged native bird ; and when 
seen in its haunts during summer's prime, darting 
athwart some rippling stream, its iridescent plumagu 
glancing in the sun, it is a " thing of beauty " which 
will be long remembered by the observer. It is partially 
migratory in this country, and is the only European 
representative of the group, or family, of Alcedines, 
which principally frequent warm latitudes, the Australian 
representative being the laughing jackass (Docela 
gigantea), a bird well-known to the colonists. 

Mr. John Hancock tells us that the kingfisher is a 
" resident in the district, and is not uncommon." " It is 
mentioned," Mr. Hancock adds, "in Mr. SeJby's 
catalogue as breeding regularly near Mitford and Anger- 
ton, on the Wansbeck. And, according to the same 
authority, the nest has been taken on the banks of the 
Wear near Chester-le-Street. In 1870, it bred at Stocks- 
field and at Winlaton Mill on the Derwent. It also 
breeds by the Skerne, near Darlington, and near Bishop 
Auckland, and in other localities in the county of Dur- 
ham. It visits Jesmond Dene every autumn, and may be 
seen on most of the Northumbrian streams." Recent 
contributions to the Natural History Department of the 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle have shown that the bird 
still frequents Jesmond Dene, notwithstanding the odious 
persecution to which it has been subjected. 

In some localities, in winter, kingfishers appear in 
great numbers, the scarcity of food, no doubt, being the 
cause of such migratory movements. In December, 
1849, and January, 1850, Morris asserts that great num- 

April 1 
1891. / 



bers of these birds appeared near Newcastle, and 
more came into the hands of one game dealer than 
he had had during the previous sixteen or eighteen 

The note of the bird is harsh and sharp, not unlike that 
of the sandpiper, and is often uttered when darting across 
a stream, or when disturbed. The flight is rapid, and the 
wings, which are short, are quickly moved. It usually 
flies in a straight line close to the surface of the water. 
The Rev. W. T. Bree, author of the "Birds of Europe," 
has noticed how tenaciously the kingfisher keeps its flight 
over water, as if it felt a greater security in so doing, 
or in case of necessity, as he suggested, to be able to sub- 
merge itself like the wild duck. One, which was alarmed 
in his presence, and therefore could not have acted as 
it did in search of food, went out of its way to follow 
the windings of a series of brick ponds. 

Mr. Hancock has lucidly and accurately described the 
mode in which the bird secures its finny prey. On one 
occasion, he says, "hearing a kingfisher utter a peculiar 
cry, and thinking that a nest was not far off, I concealed 
myself amidst the foliage. I had not watched long 
before I saw the bird, with rapid fluttering wings, poised 
in the air, about thirty feet above the water ; the body 
was at an angle of about forty-five degrees, the tail down- 
wards ; in a few seconds the body became gradually hori- 
zontal, and then, as if turning on a pivot, the head was 
pointed in the direction of the water, and in an instant 
the bird shot down to the surface. It did not, however, 
succeed in capturing a fish. It made another unsuccess- 
ful attempt, exactly in the same manner, and then disap- 
peared behind some bushes, but in the course of a minute 
or two returned, carrying a fish, which it bore off to some 
roots of an alder tree overhanging the bank, where pro- 
bably its nest was concealed." 

Mr. H. G. Adams briefly and appreciatively describes 
the habits of the kingfisher. "You may see him," he 
observes, "in some quiet out-of-the-way place, beneath 
the shade of the grey alders, sitting motionless as a statue 
upon a branch of an old thorn that projects over the 
stream. It may be that a ray of sunshine finds its way 
between the shivering branches, and out flash the glorious 
tints of its plumage red, and green, and blue, and all 
changeable colours. Truly he is the monarch of fishing 
birds, and rightly named kingfisher ! Not handsome in 
form, certainly not elegant nor well proportioned with 
his short and squat body and stump of a tail, thick neck, 
large head, and immense bill, little feet that seem meant 
for a sparrow, and eyes which, although bright and sharp 
enough, are much too small for the head. But he is a 
swift flier, for all that he looks so awkward ; and, see ! 
quick as light he darts down upon the heedless fish that 
has come near the surface, swallows it at a gulp, and is 
ready for another dart before you can look around 

The birds pair and commence nidification in May. The 
nest is usually placed in holes on the banks of streams, 
often in the hole of the water vole, which the birds 
enlarge or alter to suit their purpose. Nests have, how- 
ever, been found of grass and lined with hair and 
feathers. The eggs range from five to seven, are of 
globular shape, white, and glossy. Seldom more than 
one brood seems to be reared in a season. 

The male bird weighs one ounce and a half; length, 
seven inches ; bill, blackish brown, reddish at the base ; 
from the lower corner of it proceeds a streak of bluish- 
green, joining to that colour on the back, also a dusky 
streak to the eye ; iris, reddish hazel ; behind each eye is 
a patch of light orange brown, succeeded by a white one. 
Forehead, on the sides rufous, the commencement of the 
same colour behind the eye ; crown, deep olive green, the 
forehead tipped with light green ; the neck has a patch of 
green down the sides, in front of the patches behind the 
eye; nape, as the head; chin and throat, yellowish white; 
breast, orange brown, with a sprinkling of green by the 
shoulder of the wing ; upper part of the back, green ; 
down the back is a list of greenish blue, varying in 
different lights; greater and lesser wing coverts, deep 
greenish blue, margined with a paler shade, forming 
spots ; primaries, brownish black, edged with olive green ; 
secondaries, the same ; greater and lesser wing coverts, 
pale chestnut; tail, greenish blue, the shafts black or 
dusky; underneath, brownish black, edged with olive 
green ; under tail coverts, light orange brown ; legs, very 
short and pale red, with a tinge of yellowish brown ; toes 
and claws the same. The female is less varied in her 
colours, and the white on the sides of the neck is also 
more subdued. 

The dipper or water ousel (the Cinclus aquaticus of 
Bewick and Yarrell) is classed by some naturalists with 
the thrushes and the starlings. It is the Turdus cinclus 
(the tail-moving thrush) of Pennant, and the Slurnus 
cinclus (tail-moving starling) of Montagu. The bird 
derives its most modern scientific name cinclus from 
the peculiar manner in which it moves or flirts its tail, 
and aquaticus as pertaining to water. Water ousels, 
which are met with in nearly all parts of the world, but 
more especially in northern countries, have all slender 
bodies, which, however, appear stout, owing to the great 
thickness of the plumage. 

The bird has been, and still is, much persecuted by 
gamekeepers and fishermen through the mistaken notion 
that it feeds largely on the spawn of fish, particularly 
that of trout and salmon. John Hancock, Thomas 
Edward, and other observant naturalists have, however, 
laudably done their best to explode this cruel fiction. 
"This interesting bird," as Mr. Hancock observes, "is a 
constant resident [in Northumberland and Durham], 
delighting in our rocky burns that abound in little 
cascades, and have lively running streams. In such 
sequestered situations they are sure to be found nesting, 



I Auril 
I 1891. 

but sparingly, never more than a pair being found 
together; it is a solitary, retiring species. I found, 
many years ago, a nest of a dipper in the roof of a tunnel 
at Tanfield Dene; and I have observed it in Jesmond 
Dene on one occasion during summer, but it has never 
been known to breed there. This harmless frequenter of 
our brooks has of late been accused of devouring salmon 
spawn, and in some quarters has been doomed to the fate 
of all vermin. A few years ago I examined specimens 
that were killed because they were feeding on the spawn- 
ing ground of the salmon in North Tyne, and found their 
crops contained nothing but aquatic insects and their 
larvae ; no trace whatever of spawn could be detected. In 
fact, the insects upon which our poor doomed friend had 
been feeding were much more likely to destroy fish spawn 
than it was." Thomas Edward has also clearly shown 
that the dipper does not feed on fish spawn. In his list 
of the Banffshire birds he observes: "Every means has 
been put into requisition to destroy this little bird. It 
was abundant thirty years ago, but m now rarely to be 
seen. It was supposed to destroy the young salmon; 
hence it was shot down wherever found. But I have 
never yet found anything appertaining to fish in its 
stomach, and I have dissected about forty water insects 
and their larvae being what I have most frequently ob- 

The dipper, \vhile in search of food, such as water 
beetles, has the power of walking at the bottom of the 
water almost as nimbly as if on terra jirma. In search- 
ing for food at the bottom of a brook, it proceeds against 
the stream. It can remain for a considerable time and 
travel some distance under water. The young are said to 
be able to dive before they are fully fledged. The bird 
has a rather rapid and strong flight, effected by regular 
pulsations of the wings. The song of the dipper, though 
short, is lively and melodious. Its period of song is not 
confined to any particular season, but it is in finest voice 
in warm, sunny weather. The ordinary note of the bird 
is a "chit, chit," which it utters when on the wing after 

being disturbed, or when perched upon a rock or boulder 
in mid-stream. 

To the presence of man. Dr. Brehm remarks, the dipper 
usually exhibits the utmost repugnance, whether he comes 
in the guise of friend or foe, nor is it less fearful of the 
attacks of the numerous birds of prey that dwell around 
and within its rocky haunts. The birds are rather pug- 
nacious and unsocial, and they drive off the birds which 
may have taken up their quarters near their nests or 
"beats." Even the bellicose robin is occasionally 
drubbed, as the following singular incident shows : "A 
gentleman," says a correspondent of the Field, "was 
walking along the bank of a little stream in Pembroke- 
shire, when he saw a dipper, shooting along with its usual 
arrowy flight, divert itself from its course, and, dashing 
against a redbreast that was quietly sitting on a twig over- 
hanging the stream, knock it fairly into the water. The 
savage little bird was not content with this assault, but 
continued to attack the poor redbreast as it lay fluttering 
on the waves, endeavouring to force it beneath the sur- 
face. It twice drove its victim under water, and would 
have killed it had it not been scared away by the shouts 
and gestures of the witness. The robin at length suc- 
ceeded in scrambling to the bank, and got away in 

The domed nest, with a hole in the side, is a large and 
compact structure, and almost invariably well concealed. 
It is about twelve inches in diameter, and seven to eight 
in depth. It is usually built near the water, in the 
crevice of a rock, under a ledge of stone overhanging a 
brook, under bridges, and sometimes behind waterfalls. 
Like the common wren, the dipper not unfrequently 
builds near the root of a clump of ferns overhanging a 
brook, and the exterior of the nest can scarcely be dis- 
cerned from the green-coloured moss surrounding the 
roots of the plants. The nest is composed of moss and 
grass, and generally lined with dried oak leaves. Two, 
and sometimes three, broods of young are reared in the 
year. The birds will nest in the same place season after 
season, if not disturbed. 

The male dipper is from seven to eight inches in 
length ; bill bluish black, tinged with brown at the 
edges ; iris pale brown, with a ring of black in the 
middle ; the margin of the eyelid white ; head, crown, 
neck on the back and nape, dark brown ; chin, throat, 
and breast on the upper part, clear white, on the lower 
part chestnut, blending towards the tail with deep grey ; 
on the sides it is a deep grey ; back deep, dark grey ; and 
as each feather is deeply margined with black, the back 
plumage has a rich and handsome appearance. The 
wings, which are about a foot in width, extend one-third 
down the tail, and consist of nineteen quill feathers. 
Greater and lesser wing coverts brownish black, the tips 
of the first lighter greyish black ; primaries, secondaries, 
and tertiaries, dark brown, tinged with grey. The tail, 
short and slightly rounded, consists of twelve feathers ; 



upper tail coverts, brownish black ; under tail coverts, 
deep grey, slightly tipped with pale brown. The legs 
and toes are bluish grey, tinged with brown ; claws 

dusky. The female in plumage resembles the male, but 
is about half an inch shorter. 

militant tovtvttan'6 
tff tft* 

J1ILLIAM BRERETON, of Handford, 
Cheshire, was born in 1604, and was created 
a baronet at the age of twenty-three. He 
married a daughter of Sir George Booth, 
"f Dunham Massey, and represented his native county 
in the Parliaments of 1627-8 and 1639-40. During 
the civil wars of the time of Charles I., he headed the 
Parliamentary party of Cheshire. He was, in fact, 
appointed commander-in-chief of the Cheshire forces. In 
an engagement near Nantwich, on the 28th January, 
1643, he defeated the Royalist forces under the command 
of Sir Thomas Aston. The explosion of one of the 
enemy's cannons greatly aided his victory. He there- 
upon occupied Nantwich, which became the head-quarters 
of the Parliamentary party, whilst Chester was held by 
the Royalists. He was first successful, but afterwards 
was worsted at Middlewich, in March of the same year. 
In the following summer he successfully captured Staf- 
ford, Wolverhampton, and Whitechurch. In 1644 he 
laid successful siege to Liverpool and Shrewsbury. In 
1645 he captured Beeston Castle in Cheshire, and in 
February, 1646, he secured the city of Chester itself. In 
March he took Lichfield, and in May Dudley Castle was 
surrendered to him. In the same month, near Stow-on- 
the- Wold, he dispersed the forces of Lord Ashley, the 
last considerable body of Royalists in arms. In reward 
for his services various dignities aud lands were granted 
to him, amongst other possessions being that of the 
archiepiscopal palace at Croydon. In one of the many 
curious pamphlets of that period he is described as "a 
notable man at a thanksgiving dinner, having terrible 

long teeth and a prodigious stomach, to turn the arch- 
bishop's chapel at Croydon into a kitchen ; also to 
swallow up that palace and lands at a morsel." He died 
at Croydon on the 7th of April, 1661. His body was 
removed thence to be interred in the Handford chapel in 
Cheadle Church ; but there is a tradition that in crossing 
a river the coffin was swept away by a flood, and this is 
confirmed by the fact that there is no entry of burial, but 
only of the death, in the Cheadle register. 

Our redoubtable general was a considerable traveller. 
One journal of his travels, written in 1634 and 1635, when 
he was about thirty years of age, has been printed, and 
others are believed to exist. In these journeys he 
travelled through Holland, the Netherlands, England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. He came into the Northern 
Counties, where we meet with him, on Friday, the 19th 
day of June, 1635, travelling along the ancient Roman 
Watling Street, from Catterick Bridge. He enters the 
county ot Durham at Pierce Bridge, and makes his way 
to the residence of Henry Blakistone, at Archdeacon 
Newton. Here he tells us he was "kindly and neatly 
entertained." Blakistone, by marriage, was the travel- 
ler's distant relative. He conducts him forward to Bishop 
Auckland. Brereton spent the night at Binchester, 
at the house of Blakistone's nephew, Wren, "who married 
Sir William Blakistone's daughter, a fine gentlewoman, 
and of a free carriage," and whom he elsewhere mentions 
as "a mighty gallant, a fine dainty gentlewoman, if she 
knew but how to value and prize the perfections God 
hath given her." Brereton left Binchester the following 
day, not, however, without bestowing many words of 
commendation on his host's successful farming operations, 
and especially on his skilful bee-keeping. A good hive, 
he tells us, was worth 1 10s. to 2 a year, and adds 
"here I saw the most and best purest honey that I ever 
met withal; one great pot worth 5 or 6; greater 
profit herein than in any other commodity, and with 
least trouble and charge." 

From Binchester the traveller proceeds to Auckland 
Castle, and becomes the guest of Bishop Morton, " who 
maintains great hospitality in an orderly, well-governed 
house." His description of the bishop's residence is 
interesting, and in the light of later changes, valuable 
also. "This castle, as it is a stately, pleasant seat of 
great receipt, so is it of great strength, compassed 
with a thick stone-wall, seated upon the side of 
an hill, upon a rock, a river running below, 
and good store of wood, though little timber, 
encompassing above. Here is a very fair, neat hall, 
as I have found in any bishop's palace in England. 
Two chapels belonging hereunto, the one over the other ; 
the higher a most dainty, neat, light, pleasant place, but 
the voice is so drowned and swallowed by the echo, as 
few words can be understood. . . . Here are three 
dining-rooms, a fair matted gallery, wherein there was 
placed on both sides these pictures : John Huss, Jerome of 





Prague, Luther, Zuinglius, Craumer, Latimer, Whitaker, 
WickliEe, Calvin, Beza, Perkins, Bullinger, Jewell, 
Pagius, Ridley, Bradford, Zanchius, Bucer, &c. And 
none but of this strain. A dainty stately park, wherein I 
saw wild bulls and kine, which had two calves runners. 
There are about twenty wild beasts, all white ; will not 
endure your approach, but if they be enraged or distressed 
become] very violent and furious." The time spent with 
the bishop was employed in conversation, anecdotal, theo- 
logical, and medicinal, much of which the traveller reports. 

From Auckland Brereton proceeded to Durham. His 
first view of the city impresses him as '' a stately and 
delightful prospect, especially the Minster and the 
Bishop's Palace, which is built castlewise, and is a place 
of great strength, and is in good repair, wherein the 
bishop doth winter." The cathedral he found " as neatly 
kept as any in England, built like unto Paul's" meaning 
the old cathedral of St. Paul, London. He describes the 
" eight great and stately pillars," on each side, " as great 
as Paul's." He mentions the font" the daintiest that I 
have seen in England" "a stately pair of double organs," 
and " a stately altar stone, all of fine marble." He tells 
us that when the communion was adn.inistered " a 
stately cloth of gold" was laid "upon this altar, or 
rather communion table." He mentions the copes, one of 
them a " new red embroidered cope, which is wrought full 
of stars, like one I have seen worn in St. Dennis in 
France." He describes the site of the shrine of St. Cuth- 
bert, and alludes to the Chapel of the Nine Altars. 
Apparently speaking of one of the windows of the eastern 
transept, he says, "there is placed the picture of St. 
Cuthbert praying in the holy isle, the water flowing up to 
his chin : the picture, also in glass, of a friar correcting a 
nun " in a way which need not be described. After 
referring to the Galilee and the tomb of Bede, he intro- 
duces the following singular legend : "In the churchyard 
is the tomb of him who was the steward, and disbursed 
the money when the church was erected ; of whom it is 
reported that, all his money being paid over night, his 
glove was by a spirit every night filled and supplied, so 
as, though it was empty over night, yet was replenished 
next morning ; his hand is made holding a glove stuffed 
with money, and by this means was the great work built : 
the name of the steward of the work was Hubbapella." 

From Durham the traveller comes on to Newcastle, 
glancing at Lumley Castle on his way, "in reasonable 
good repair, though of no great strength." Newcastle, he 
declares, "is beyond all compare the fairest and richest 
town in England, inferior for wealth and building to no 
city save London and Bristol." The old house-and-shop- 
girt bridge of Tyne is, he says, "except London Bridge 
over Thames, and the bridge at Berwick over Tweed, one 
of the finest bridges I have met with in England." The 
church of St. Nicholas "is as neat pewed, and formed 

ith as much uniformity, as any I have found in England, 
and it is as neatly kept and trimmed." He mentions the 

market, kept every day, " and in a dainty market place." 
"Tuesday and Saturday," he adds, "a mighty market, 
and much provision comes out of Northumberland ; infinite 
store of poultry." Many of the streets he finds so steep 
that " horses cannot stand upon the pavement therefore 
the daintiest flagged channels are in every street that I 
have seen : hereupon may horse or man go without danger 
of sliding." 

Our traveller takes an excursion by river to Tynemoutn 
and South Shields. He mentions Tynemouth Castle, 
"which," he says, "is a dainty seated castle, almost 
compassed with the sea, wherein hath been the fairest 
church I have seen in any castle, but now it is out of 
repair, and much neglected." At South Shields he only 
sees the salt pans, but of these he gives a long and 
minute description much too long to be quoted. He 
tells us that here there are more salt works 
and more salt made "than in any part of England." 
The result, however, was "such a cloud of smoke" that 
"you cannot see to walk." 

Returning to Newcastle he finds " the fairest quay in 
England," stretching "from Tyne Bridge all along the 
Town Wall, and almost to the glass-works, where is made 
window glass." The Nag's Head Inn, at the foot of 
Akenside Hill, is "the fairest built inn in England " that 
he had seen. He lodged, however, at the Swan in Bigg 
Market, kept by Mr. Swan, the postmaster, " and paid 
3d. ordinary, and no great provision." "This town," he 
goes on to say, "is also famous for the walls which 
compass round the town, about which you may walk, and 
which is strengthened with strong towers placed upon the 
wall at no great distance." 

Brereton devotes a few sentences to the Roman Wall 
" the ancientest monument I have heard of in England." 
In some places, towards Carlisle, he was told, it was 
" above tsventy yards broad 1" " The people go to market 
upon it." 

Morpeth is the next stage in the traveller's journey. 
Here he sees " a fine little castle, in good repair," and "a 
market-town with poor houses." He dined at the post- 
master's and paid 12d. ordinary, and 6d. ordinary. 
Thence he proceeds to Alnwick, and lodges there at the 
post-master's, paying "6d. ordinary, and good victuals 
and lodging." Many parts of the Castle he found in 
decay, "but my lord is repairing the same by degrees." 
Great revenues, he learns, are paid unto the same "my 
lord " out of " this country : at least eight horse-load of 
money." Brereton spends the night at Alnwick, " 6d. 
ordinary supper, and 4d. breakfast; good lodging and 

The traveller goes forward to Belford, and thence to 
Holy Island. Between the ruins of the Priory and the 
Cathedral of Durham he discovers structural resemblances. 
He mentions the "dainty little fort," where resided 
Captain Rugg, its governor, "who is as famous for his 



generous and free entertainment of strangers, as for his 
great bottle nose, which is the largest I have seen." 

From Holy Island Brereton proceeds to Berwick. He 
is struck with the "fair, stately bridge over Tweed" of 
fifteen arches, built by King James, and costing, he was 
told, 17,000 The river he describes as "most in- 
finitely stored with salmon, 100 or 200 salmons at one 
draught." "But much more," he goes on to say, "was 
reported by our host, which is most incredible, that there 
were 2,000 salmons taken since Sunday last"; -that is, in 
four days, for this was written on Thursday, the 25th of 
June. Berwick he describes as a poor town, having no 
trade, but many indigent persons and beggars. The 
harbour had "only one little pink of about forty tons 

. . . and some few fishing boats." His account o! 
the fortifications is interesting. " Here were the strongest 
fortifications I have met with in England, double-walled, 
and outworks of earth, and the outer walls like unto 
Chester walls, and without the inner walls a deep and 
broad moat well watered ; the inner walls of invincible 
strength, stone wall within, and without lined with 
earth about twenty yards thick, witn bulwarks con- 
veniently placed to guard one another." At Berwick our 
traveller lodged at the Crown, where he was well used, 
" 8d. ordinary, and 6d. our servants, and great entertain- 
ment and good lodging, a respective host and honest 
reckoning." Having paid which, he crosses the Border, 
and we bid him adieu. J. R. BOYLE, F.S.A. 

at tft* Barker* 



flENTION has already been made of a gipsy 
of note, known by the title of " the Earl of 
Hell." Several others have born the same 
name perhaps, though we are not sure of 
the fact, in hereditary succession. One of these swarthy 
noblemen was, about eighty years ago, tried for a theft 
of a considerable sum of money at a Dalkeith market. 
The proof seemed to the judge fully sufficient, but the 
jury returned a verdict of "not proven." On dismissing 
the prisoner from the bar, the judge informed him, in 
plain braid Scotch, that he had "rubbit shootherswi' the 
gallows " that morning, and warned him not again to 
appear there with a similar body of proof against him, as 
it seemed scarcely possible that another jury would con- 
strue it so favourably. The impudent gipsy, however, 
replied, "that naebody had onny richt to use niccan 
language to him." The last "Earl of Hell" we have 
heard of had left off gipsying and betaken himself to 
farm work, but be still retained many traits of the old 
s'avageism. Once when a young would-be artist was 
sketching his profile on the whitened kitchen wall with a 

burnt stick, unbeknown, of course, to the earl, his lord- 
ship, seeing what the youth was about, clicked him up in 
his arms without saying a word, laid him on the fire, and 
left him there. 


The Gipsies of the Borders, like their kindred all over 
Christendom, have always been great frequenters of 
fairs. At the various horse fairs St. BosweU's, St. 
James's, Berwick, Morpeth, Newcastle, Durham, Stag- 
shawbank, Whitsunbank, Carlisle, &c. the gipsies used 
to bring out their horses in the afternoon, and trot them 
up and down to effect sales, but more commonly ex- 
changes. A more grotesque sight could scarcely be wit- 
nessed anywhere. Anyone wishful to see what a Turko- 
man, Koord, or Arab encampment is like, might have 
formed some idea of it from the gipsies on St. BosweU's 
Green on the morning after the fair, especially when, as 
often happened, it had been accompanied by a St. 
Boswell's flood. 


Down till the end ot last century, and even later, some 
of the gipsies carried on a considerable trade in horse- 
stealing between England and Scotland. The animals 
which were stolen in the South were taken to Scotland, 
and sold there ; those stolen in Scotland were, on the 
other hand, disposed of in the South. The crime of 
horse-stealing brought a great many of these wanderers 
to an untimely end. 


The gipsies, it is said, were long in the habit of stealing 
children. A curious case is on record. Adam Smith, 
author of the " Wealth of Nations," was actually carried 
off by a band of them, when a child three years old, from 
his widowed mother's house in Kirkcaldy. Being pur- 
sued by his uncle, with such assistance as he could obtain, 
the thieves were overtaken in Leslie wood, and the child 
was rescued. To this day, in the South of Scotland, 
when a child becomas unruly, his father will often say, in 
the most serious manner "Mother, that cannot be oor 
bairn ; the tinklers must ha' ta'en oors, an' left theirs. 
Gie him back to the gipsies, an' get oor ain." The other 
children will look bewildered, while the subject of remark 
will instinctively fly to his mother, who as instinctively 
clasps him to her bosom, quieting his terror, as only a 
mother can, with the lullaby- 
Whist nu, whist nu, dinna fret ye ; 
The black tinkler winna get ye. 

The gipsies, Simson tells us, frighten their children in the 
same manner, by saying that they will give them to the 
gorgio, that is, being interpreted, " the oppressor," a 
term applied to all who are not of gipsy blood. 


It was a common practice, about the middle of last 
century, for old female gipsies to strip children of their 
wearing apparel when they happened to meet them alone 
in sequestered places. Tradition has preserved many 



such incidents, in which the notorious Jean Gordon, 
another virago named Esther Grant, and a third, nearer 
our own time, named Kachael Mo'gomery, conspicuously 
figure. The latter once shockingly mutilated a poor boy 
who had done something or other to provoke her. For 
this offence she was never tried or punished, but her 
name was a terror over the country-side as long as she 


The Faws, or Faas, and the Baliols, Bailyows, or 
Baillies, have always been reckoned the aristocracy of the 
Scottish gipsy race. The respective heads of these two 
families have been contemporary kings and queens to 
their countrymen for several hundred years. The district 
held to belong to the Faas comprehended Northumber- 
land, Berwickshire, Roxburghshire., and East Lothian. 
The Baillies roamed and ruled further inland, from Lang- 
holm, Longtown, and Lockerby, to Linlithgow and Bath- 
gate. The two royal families were always at feud. The 
Baillies deemed themselves of quite superior rank to the 
Faas, while, on the other hand, the Faas spoke with great 
bitterness and contempt of the Baillies. In some old 
records the name Faa is written Faley. This guides us 
to the etymology of the word, falwe : fallow, sallow, or 
tawny yellow, indicating the complexion of the tribe. 
The Baillies, like the Blythes, are mostly fair and ruddy, 
as of a different stock. Other clans or septs, besides those 
already mentioned, are the Stewarts, Cowans, Geddeses, 
Greys, Wilkies, Hallidays, Wilsons, Keiths, Robertsons, 
&c., numerically less powerful and holding a subordinate 


We have written records and biographies of the Royal 
Faas for several generations back, and they can trace 
their lineage, we believe, to that "John Faa, Lord and 
Earl of Little Egypt," with whom James the Fifth of 
Scotland entered into a league and treaty in the year 
1540. The last three who bore the kingly title, all named 
William, were remarkable men. Auld Wull Faa, the 
first of the trio, is said to have done some service in 
Mar's Year (1715) to Sir William Benuet, the friend of 
the poet Thomson, and laird of Grubbet, in which barony 
Kirk Yetholm is situated. For this he got a free house to 
live in, and a right of pasturage on the common, while 
feus or perpetual leases were granted to members of his 
tribe. The second Wull Faa had twenty-four children, 
and at each christening he appeared dressed in his original 
wedding robes. These christenings were celebrated with 
no small parade. Twelve young handmaidens were 
always present, as part ef the family retinue, and for the 
purpose of waiting on the numerous guests, including 
several of the neighbouring lairds and farmers, who as- 
sembled to witness the ceremony, and to partake of the 
subsequent festivities. His son and successor, Wull the 
Third and Last, was a very shrewd as well as active man, 
an accomplished athlete, a famous football player, a 

daring smuggler who had often braved the gaugers, a 
skilful adept in the piicatorial art, a capital hand with 
the gun, and a fiddler who might have matched Niel 
Gow. He died in 1847, at the age, it was said, of 96 


Wull Faa was succeeded by his sister's son, Charlie 
Blythe, called by his kindred "Charles I.," a decent, 
respectable man, naturally sharp, and by no means ill- 
informed: He died in 1861, aged 86, and his son David, 
whose right it was to succeed him, waived his claim in 
favour of his sister Helen, the youngest princess of the 
family. But Esther, vulgarly called Ettie or Eatie, the 
eldest, protested against this arrangement. She bore the 
royal name of Faa from her mother, and resolved to assert 

her right to wear the crown, She accordingly issued a 
proclamation, asking for a plebiscite, which was taken on 
the 12th day of November, 1861, the result being that she 
was unanimously elected to fill the throne. The follow- 
ing account of Queen Esther's coronation and subsequent 
career was contributed by Thomas Tweed to the Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle shortly after her Majesty's death : 

The coronation was a stately pageant, and is memorable 
in gipsy annals. A gaily -arrayed palfrey had been pro- 
vided for the Queen, who was attired in a robe of royal 
red. Her majesty was attended by a royal brother and 
nephew, two princesses of the blood, several grandchildren 
of the queen-elect, and a miscellaneous retinue of fol- 
lowers. An order of procession having been formed, the 
calvacade proceeded to the Cross at Kirk Yetholm, where 
the crowner, the village blacksmith, George Gladstone by 
name, produced the crown (which had been fabricated by 
himself, and polished bright as burnished tin could be 
made, with a Scotch thistle forming one of its conspicuous 
adornments), and made ready, in virtue of his office, first 
exercised by him when he set the crown upon the vener- 

l prill 
891. / 



able head of Charles Blythe, to consecrate and crown the 
new sovereign. First, he made proclamation of his right 
to exercise his high office, and, having in the most courtly 
fashion, set the glittering emblem of royalty upon her 
head, proclaimed the heroine of the day Queen Esther 
i"aa Blythe, " Challenge who dare !" Cheers both loud 
and long made the welkin ring, and then, when wishes for 
long life and a happy reign had been expressed, her 
Majesty conveyed in royal terms her thanks to her sub- 
jects for their countenance and support, and counselled 
them to live quietly and at peace with all men. An 
address of congratulation was next presented to her 
Majesty in the name of those who were not her subjects, 
and the more formal proceedings terminated, the wet and 
ungenial character ot the weather helping to end them 
prematurely. But the Queen and her subjects were not 
easily overcome by the unfavourable weather, and they 
did not forego a pre-arranged procession round the village, 
with a call at the public places of entertainment in pass- 
ing. Subsequently, a levee was held in the "royal 
palace, " and afterwards dancing was attempted on the 

village green ; but the character of the weather robbed 
these proceedings of their life and vigour, and brought 
them to an early close. Nevertheless, the formalities, 
which attained considerable publicity at the time, were 
enough to set Esther firmly on the throne of her father. 

The Queen was naturally of a sprightly disposition, 
though, when she was angry, as she frequently was, woe 
betide the victim of her wrath ! Aged people have been 
heard to say that it was not pleasant to remember her 
free or fiery language either in hot blood or in lighter 
badinage when she gave full scope to her powers of speech. 
But like good wine, she improved with age, and she could 
chat pleasantly and intelligently with people in any con- 
dition of life during all the period of her reign. She 
"married beneath her" before she came to the throne, 
and she was a widow and mother of twelve children when 
that dignity was reached. Her husband, with whom she 
made a Coldstream marriage, was neither of her race nor 
rank, being a common person of the name of Rutherford, 
otherwise " Jethart Jock, " and he long pre-deceased her, 

she being left to provide both for herself and those of her 
children who were not able to shift for themselves. This 
was a task not easily accomplished, and so sadly beaten 
did she at one time feel that she made application to the 
parish of Jedburgh for a pauper's allowance. When she 
mounted the throne she fairly turned the corner on 
adversity. Queen Esther had many visitors in "the 
palace" at Kirk Yetholm, and none of them ever came 
away without something to remember and much to talk 

Her Majesty was, like many of her gipsy sex, greatly 
addicted to smoking, her favourite kind of pipe being a 
short and black clay, always, if possible, lighted by a 
brief insertion in the fire. This method of raising a 
" reek " has now almost gone out of fashion ; but it 
produced an odour and flavour only to be tolerated, not to 
say enjoyed, by persons of strong tastes and acquired 
habits. She used intoxicants very sparingly, and never 
made herself the worse for what she took. 

Before the close of her life, her Majesty removed 
from the prolonged scene of gipsy royalty at Kirk 
Yetholm to Kelso, where, in accordance with " the fitness 
of things, "she spent her declining years, and where her 
death took place on the 12th July, 1883. Her remains 
were, however, interred in the sepulchre of her kin at 
Kirk Yetholm. The funeral took place on the 15th of 
the month, and, the date being Sunday, it was attended 
and witnessed by considerable numbers in Kelso, and by 
still larger numbers at Yetholm. The coffin bore a 
wreath of white roses sent by Lady John Scott, of 
Spottiswood, besides other floral tokens of respect ; but 
the royal cloak of the Queen was thrown over all when 
the bier was being carried from the gate to the grave in 
Yetholm Churchyard. 

None of Esther's progeny were deemed fit to fill her 
shoes or wear her gipsy honours, and gipsy royalty 
among the Border tribes came to an end when she was 
laid in the grave. W. B. 

j|AMBURGH is a place of such ancient re- 
nown, having so many associations, both 
legendary and historical, that one is perhaps 
just a little disappointed to find it so incon- 
siderable (though attractive) a village. A puny offspring 
it seems of the far-famed capital of the Anglian kinglets. 
To the lover of antiquity there is little to regret in the 
fact that Bamburgh has remained but an old-world vil- 
lage, instead of becoming, like Newcastle, a city of com- 
merce. In this quiet watering-place he may yield himself 
unreservedly to the influence of the past, feeling assured 
that nothing too aggressively modern will disturb his 
meditations. Historically interesting, Bamburgh is also 
one of the most picturesque villages on the Northumbrian 
coast. From no standpoint is it seen to more advantage 
than from the walls of the mighty castle which overlooks 
and dwarfs it. 
The village lies on the gentle slope of a ridge which in- 





clines to the sea. It consists of a number 
of email villas and cottages, arranged, as 
it were, along the sides of a triangle, the 
apex of which is the castle, and tbe base the 
high brick wall of the castle gardens. Of 
the space thus enclosed the greater part is 
now occupied by a little plantation of 
trees sycamores, oaks, elms, &c., about 70 
years old. There is a row of cottages 
called the Wyndings between the main 
body of the village and the lifeboat 

Most of the cottages are low, one-storey 
buildmgs, their front walls bedecked with 
such flowers and plants as the honeysuckle, 
fuchsia, bindweed, rose, canary-creeper, 
ivy, and cotoneaster. Behind them are 
several small kitchen-gardens, in which one 


may see, above the hedges sur- 
rounding them, a few black pop- 
lars and laburnums. The oldest 
house in the village, so it would 
seem, is on the south side. 
Carved on its doorhead is the 
date 1692. Some of the newer 
cottages form a range of build- 
ings which, with their mullioned 
windows and dripstone mould- 
ings, have somewhat of a mon- 
astic appearance. One sees every 
where pots of musk and migno- 
nette, fuchsias and geraniums, 
evincing that love of flowers so 
characteristic of country people. 
At the foot of the village are 
several new villas, with a row 
of trees in front of them on the 
road. Several prettily-designed 
ted brick houses with dormer 
windows and porches have re- 
cently been built on the north 
side of the village. The hostelries 
of the place the Lord Crowe's 
Anns and the Victoria and the 
Castle Inns are all on the south 

The eye lingers with pleasure 
on the details of the picture 
spread out from the walls of 
the castle the broad street of 
the village with the red-tiled 
cottages on each side, the clump 
of greenery in the middle, the 

1891. I 



oblong garden plots, the pale yellow stacks clustering round 
a farmstead, the low modern school-room, the massive 
church tower rising above the trees at the head of the 
village, the fields and pastures to the south and west, 
the heather-covered hills to the north, the long bare 
line of sand-hills, and the grand old ocean with its 
islets endeared to the memory by stories of piety and 

Fair is the actual scene, but the fascination it is capable 
of exercising is only to be felt by the spectator who can 
call up before him a vision of bygone things. "At 
Hamburgh above all," to quote Mr. Freeman, "we feel 
we are pilgrims come to do our service at one of the great 
cradles of our national life." Around Bamburgh there is 
also a legendary interest, lor is it not said to have been 
the castls of Sir Lancelot du Lac the Joyeuse Garde of 
the Arthurian romances ? Here, as in the 
valley of the Tweed, is it true that 

The air is full of ballad notes 
Borne out of long ago. 

History enables us in the first place to 
look back to the year A.D. 547. Then Ida 
began to reign over the English, and 
"timbered Bebbanburh that was erst with 
hedge betyned and thereafter with walL" 
At this time, and perhaps previously, it 
was known to the Celts as " Dinguayrdi " 
or "Dinguoaroy." Its present name was 
not acquired until the reign of Ida's grand- 
son Ethelfrith, who gave the place to his 
wife Bebba, and called it after her name. 
Bamburgh was twice besieged by Penda, 
the Mercian. So strong was the position, 
that his assaults were in vain. On the 
first occasion, being unable to take it by 
force, he attempted to burn down the city 
by setting fire to some planks, &c., at the 
base of the crag ; but the flames were 
dri ven back by the wind into the camp of 
the Mercians, in answer, it is alleged, to 
the prayers of St. Aidan, who was then on 
the Fame. 

Bamburgh was attacked and taken by 
Athelstau in 926, its defender, King 
Aldred, seeking safety in flight. From 
being a royal city it became the seat of 
several powerful earls. In 995 it was 
sacked by the Danes. In 1095, William 
Rufus led an army against Bamburgh, to 
punish the defection of Robert de Mow- 
bray, the third Norman Earl of Northum- 
berland. The earl, receiving a secret 
message from the wardens of Newcastle, 
promising to throw open the gates if he 
appeared suddenly before it, made his way 
out of his stronghold with thirty followers 

and escaped by sea, but was eventually captured at 
Tynemouth. His wife, Matilda de Aquila, however, 
still holding out, the king, it is said, took the hapless 
earl to a spot in front of his caatle, and threatened to 
put out his eyes if the stronghold were not immediately 
surrendered. A woman's choice between two such alter- 
natives may safely be predicted. The countess threw 
open the gates, and the garrison capitulated. In the reign 
of Stephen, Bamburgh offered a successful resistance to 
David of Scotland, who, however, forced the outworks, 
and put to the sword a hundred of the defenders. 

It would appear, from a passage in Reginald of Dur- 
ham, that the greatness of Bamburgh in the 12th century 
was declining. "The city," he says, "renowned for- 
merly for the magnificent splendour of her high estate, has 
in these latter days been burdened with tribute and been 




April I 
1891. f 







reduced to the condition of a handmaiden. She who 
was once the mistress of the cities of Britain, has ex- 
changed the glories of her ancient sabbaths for shame 

and desolation. " When, about 1164, Henry IL repaired the 
castle and built the great tower or keep, there was little 
fear of Bamburgh losing its fame or importance during the 
succeeding centuries of Border warfare. Royal visits were 
of frequent occurrence. King John was here in 1201 and 
again in 1213, Henry III. in 1221, Philippa of Hainault 
in 1333, Edward III. in 1356, Margaret of Anjou in 1462, 
and Henry VI. in 1463. During the Wars of the Roses, 
Bamburgh was held now by one party, now by the other. 
After the battle of Hexham, it was bombarded by the 
Earl of Warwick, and very much damaged. With this 
event the glory of Bamburgh may be 
said to have departed. The castle was 
allowed to fall into ruins, and it remained 
in this condition until the latter part of 
the 18th century, when Dr. Sharp, Arch- 
deacon of Northumberland, and one of 
the Crewe Trustees, restored it at his own 
expense, thus making it available for the 
charities he was about to establish in con- 
nection with the Crewe Trust. The nature 
of these charities has been described in the 
Monthly Chionide, vol. ii., p. 510. 

Bamburgh is exceptionally rich in 
memorials of the past. These are the 
castle, the Church of St. Aidan, and the 
fragments of the monastery of the "Preach- 
ing Friaris." 

There is no more imposing mass of 
masonry in the North of England than the 
castle, and no situation more impressive 
than the pile of columnar basalt on which 
it is seated. The thick curtain wall with its 
towers and bastions runs along the very edge of the crag 
and seems to form an integral portion of the rock. Part 
of it belongs to the original work. The area of the rocky 

1891. f 



platform is about three acres, and is divided into three of the smaller round-headed windows and a mural gallery 
wards. The entrance is at the south-east, though running round the upper storey. In a vault on the 

originally, it is believed, it was at the north-west corner, ground floor is a remarkable draw well 150 ft. deep, much 

by what is now the postern. In the upper or southern 1(J er than tne castle, for Simeon, of Durham, a monk 

ward stands the great rectangular keep 70 ft. high. Its who wrote about A.D. 1129, in describing Hamburgh under 

ancient features are the fine base and doorway, some date A.D. 774, says, " There is in the western side and in 

K/ffr<4r K i #&, iz, .i-wo 

JWf^ ^>*m 
'^~\^.;' ff "Ws 

W~^-- '" : ^- ll/l 





the highest part of the city a fountain hollowed out 
in a marvellous fashion, and the water of which 
is sweet to drink and most limpid to the sight." 
Along the west side of the ward are the domestic build- 
ingsthe King's Hall, 65 ft. by 30 ft, the Great Kitchen, 
&c., ranged against the wall and overlooking the cliff. 
These principally form at present the Girls' School. In 
the south-east corner of the ward are the interesting re- 
mains of the Norman apaidal chapel of St. Oswald. 

Our sketches would be incomplete without a view such 
as Scott had in his mind when he wrote of " King Ida's 
castle huge and square." Here we see it almost as it 
would be presented to the eyes of St. Hilda and her maids 
as the bark flew past before the breeze to Lindisfarne. 
But Bamburgh needs not the story of Marmion to lend 
interest to the grim-looking pile. Turner, it may be 
noted, made a drawing of Bamburgh Castle from the Stag 
Hocks, near the spot selected by our artist for the picture 
on page 169. The effect in the illustration is that of a 
lowering day in summer, the clouds gathering thickly 
over the Fame Islands, which are shown more distinctly 
in two other sketches on pages 171 and 172. In the middle 
distance is seen the lifeboat, which has just returned after 
taking part in the opening of the harbour works at the 
neighbouring port of North Sunderland. Along the 
beautiful sands many an interesting ramble may be taken, 
and th castle itself may be visited again and again 
without losing its charm. 

After the castle, one naturally turns to the large and 
beautiful church of St. Aidan. which stands at the head 
of the village on a site, there is reason to believe, of 
the greatest historic interest. For here, his head resting 
against a buttress supporting the west wall of his little 
timber church, St. Aidan breathed his last on the 31st 
of August, 651. Three periods of architecture are repre- 
sented in the present building the Transitional, c. 1170, 
in the nave and transepts, the Early English in the chan- 
cel, and the Geometrical Decorated in the 
south aisle. The most striking part of the 
building is the chancel, which is of unusual 
length in proportion to its breadth, viz., 
62 ft. by 21 ft. It is richly arcaded, eight 
of the delicate lancet arches on the south 
side, four on the north, and three on the 
east being pierced as windows. Most of 
these are filled with Flemish stained glass. 
The old ritual arrangements are very com- 
plete, consisting of sedilia, piscinas, and 
aumbries. Other features of interest are 
two low-side windows, a finely panelled 
hagioscope or squint, a low arched mural 
recess, with the effigy of a knight within 
it, and the deflexion of the chancel arch to 
the sooth supposed to represent the 
drooping position of Christ's head on the 
cross. Beneath the chancel is an Early 

English crypt of two chambers, with groined roof, 
probably the abode of a recluse. It is known as the 
Forster vaults, for here lie buried several members of 
that family, among whom are Ferdinando Forster, 
treacherously killed in a duel by Mr. John Fenwick, of 
Hock, near the White Cross, Newcastle ; Thomas Forster, 
the general of the Jacobite forces in 1715 ; and Dorothea, 
his sister, the heroine of one of Mr. Walter Besant's most 
fascinating novels. The nave arcades consist of four 
arches, supported by circular pillars. The capitals are 
plain, with one exception, and this is richly carved. 
The Sharp Monument, by Chantrey, in the north 
aisle, is a fine example of that eminent sculptor's 

In the churchyard lie the remains of Grace Darling. 
The effigy on her monument, by Mr. Raymond Smith, was 
renewed in 1885, the old one being placed in the north 
transept of the church. A little to the east of this ceno- 
taph is the grave of Prideaux John Selby, whose magni- 
ficent illustrations of British ornithology are well known 
to most lovers of nature. The house occupied by the 
sexton, opposite to the churchyard the last house on the 
left-hand side of the road leading to Belford stands on 



#,//./' L rtJ x^ 





the site of the cottage in which Grace Darling was born, 
December 17th, 1815. A little further along the road 
near a farm called the " Bamburghfriars" are considerable 
remains of the monastery of the "Preaching Friars," 
including the north-west corner of the chancel of the 
church and the outline of the cloister garth. Incor- 
porated with the farm buildings is also much ancient 

A few of the people of Bamburgh still follow the 
calling of fishermen. At one time, up to a hundred years 
ago, there was a fishing village of some extent, it is said, 
between the castle moat and the site of the Lifeboat 

Wherever we move at Bamburgh we are haunted by 
memories of the past. Even along the sea shore 
they throng in upon us. We see in imagina- 
tion the wreck of the magnificent barge of the 
Bishop of St. Andrew's, the San Salvador, in 1472, 
and picture to ourselves the delight of the villagers as 
they plundered the cargo rich merchandise from 
Flanders, for they were confirmed " wreckers " at this 
time, and even as late as 1559, when they treated other 
Scottish vessels in a similar way. We behold the strange 
sea-animal which was cast ashore here in 1544, so 
terrible to look at that "sundry took great fear and 
dreadour for the sicht of it a laug time after. " We are 
onlookers as it were at the duel which was fought on the 
sands here between the rival candidates, Mr. Latnbtcm 
and Colonel Beaumont, in the fierce election contest of 
1826, and which happily ended without bloodshed. From 
the spell of historic Bamburgh there is no escaping, and 
under its influence we gaze at the rock-based castle and 
the picturesque seaside village beneath its walls. 


JJENDRAGON CASTLE is the name given in 
"Rokeby" to Percymyre Castle (locally pro- 
nounced Fassimer, or Passimore), a precipi- 
tous rock-face, about 200 feet high, standing out of the 
hillside, on the Durham bank of the Tees, about a mile 
from Cotherston. By riding over this crag, the last of 
the Fitzhughs, Lords of Romaldkirk, tradition says, met 
his fate. I subjoin a copy of a ballad on the subject, 
written y^ars ago, by whom I know not. 

JOHN H. CHIPCHASE, Pontefract, 

In Cotherston Castle, acres since, 
There lived a gallant knight, 

Who, though to peaceful arts inclined, 
Was dauntless in the fight 

The sun had risen gaily up 

One fine September morn, 
When he and a goodly company 

Rode out, with sounding horn. 

To hunt the deer in Marwcod Chase, 
They merrily coursed along, 

While field and woodland echoed loud 
With many a jovial song. 

The dewdrops glistened on the grass 

In every forest glade ; 
The dogs they leapt right joyfully, 

The horses pranced and neighed. 

Now soon the throng approached the Tees 

And spied a cottage lone, 
Wherein through many a season's change 

Had lived an ancient crone. 

Her husband years and years before 

Had fallen in the fray, 
When fighting: by his chieftain's side, 

In Pay nim land away. 

And she his widow ever since, 

Protected by her lord 
(The grandson of her husband's chief), 

Had dwelt beside the ford. 

Now as the cavalcade swept by, 

Beside her door she stood, 
And cried unto young Lord Fitzhugh, 

" Oh ! pass not yonder flood ! 

"For oh ! last night I had a dream 

A fearful dream I trow 
I thought you lay beneath yon rock 

The death sweat on your brow." 

She pointed, as she spoke, across 

The rapid, rippling stream 
To Percymyre, that awful crag 

Unsunned by one bright beam. 

For the sun his smiles now brightly threw 

On river and on tree, 
But on that black and fearful crag 

Not a single glance shed be. 

"Stay, stay," she cried, " for if thou fall, 

Who then will fill thy place? 
Forknow'st thou not, my noble lord, 

The last thou'rt of thy race ?' 

" Nay." laughing said the young man then, 

" Wilt tell me, Elspeth, pray, 
Are all thy dreams so surely true, 

That thou shouldst bid me stay v " 

"No, my lord, many dreams I've had 

That never yet came true." 
" Why, then, farewell ! " he smiling said, 

And down the pathway flew. 

He crossed the ford, and urged his steed 
Quick up the neighb'ring height, 

And Joined his friends just as the horn 
Announced a deer in sight 

Away they bounded, every one 

The game was full in view; 
And foremost in that glittering throng 

Was seen the Lord Fitzhugh. 

They hunted till the evening came 

And then they turned back ; 
The stag had soon outstripped the dogs 

And baffled all the pack. 

But Lord Fitzhugh, where was he then ? 

He had followed fast the deer, 
When all the field except himself 

Were left far in the rear. 

" Oh ! to Barnard's Castle he's gone," 

Cried one, " to see the Earl, 
And ere to-morrow's sun has risen 

He'll meet us in the hall." 

"Nay. by my faith," another said, 

" 'Tis not the Earl to see ; 
I'll wager my best hunting horse 

"Tig one dearer far than he." 

And they, thus jesting, crossed the ford 
That morning they had passed, 

And lingered not upon the road, 
For night was falling fast. 

Now, Lord Fitzhugh the deer had chased 

Into a lonely vale ; 
He bridle drew and looked around, 

He was in Lang ley dale. 

He turned his steed and climbed a hill ; 

The stag was out of sight, 
The sun was sinking in the sky, 

And soon it would be night 

But far away he could descry 

Old Barnard's massy walls, 
And, gazing, thought of that dear form 

Within its lordly halls. 




For ere another summer came 

Her consent he had won 
The Earl's fair daughter, Madeline, 

Would reign in Cotherston. 

Then as he pensive homeward went. 

Near to the ford he drew, 
Twas nearly dark but could it be? 

The deer swift past him flew ! 

Two faithful hounds, who'd followed well 

Their master all the way, 
Now bounded OD in hot pursuit, 

As though 'twas break of day. 

But night had fallen, and nearby 
Yawned a chasm, dark and dread : 

'Twas to the top of Percymyre 
The deer so swiftly sped. 

The young lord followed recklessly. 

Forgetting danger near; 
His every thought was fixed upon 

The slaying of the deer. 

But now the dogs stopped suddenly 

A flash, as though of lire, 
Revealed unto the luckless youth 

The drink of Percymyre. 

And far below, in that dark dell, 

Crept the river on its way, 
Like some huge serpent coiling round 

Its quiv'ririg, ghastly prey. 

Where are thy visions, Lord Fitzhugh* 
Of happiness in store ? 

Thy fair young bride will weep in vain- 
She'll never see thee more. 

The owl will shriek a dismal dirge 

Over thy bloody corse ; 
The raven light and feed upon 

Thee and thy noble horse. 

He checked his steed ; but 'twas too late, 
The tired beast reeled and fell, 

Rolled OD his rider, and they both 
Went down that awful delL 

And then amid the dark, dim night, 

Arose a tearful scream, 
And horse and rider mangled lay 

Fulfilled was Elspeth's dream 1 

f!0rtft=CatmtrD <8ft0st 

[OTWITHSTANDING the manifest growth 
of popular enlightenment, there is still a 
vast amount of superstition in the North- 
Country. Almost every neighbourhood has 
its wise woman, to whom credulous fools resort to have 
their fortunes told, or for the recovery of lost goods, or to 
find out who are their enemies, and learn how to circum- 
vent and punish them. The fairy people, it is true, now 
only linger in childish tradition ; but ghosts are still not 
uncommon, as witness the scare at Chollerford in the 
early days of the present year, on account of the alleged 
apparition of a murdered pedlar at the house of the 
railway station-master. 

An old farmer on the Borders, of the name of Bell, said 
to have been a monstrous glutton, who required to have a 
round of beef set by his bedside every night, used to 
come back after death, and ride up and down about his 
"onstead," even in daylight, if common report was to be 
believed. This was about eighty years ago. We had the 
particulars of the case from an honest woman, named 
Kirsty Weatherstone, who had been a servant at the 
place, and who had seen the apparition many and many a 

time, as, indeed, all the people thereabouts had. The 
old fellow was as fat and "ugsome," she said, as when 
alive, while he sat in what seemed to be his accustomed 
gig, drawn by what seemed to be his favourite black 
horse ; but never a word did the ghost utter, whatever he 
might see very different from Bell's habit when a 
denizen of the earth, for he had been an awfully profane 
man. The ghost's visits were so frequent, Kirsty added, 
that the people at last got familiarised with them, and 
would merely say, when they saw him riding his rounds, 
"There's the old thief again !" 

Another Border farmer, named Dunlop, having quar- 
relled with his wife, kept her for years shut up in a room in 
his house, where no one was allowed to have access to her 
but a certain comely maid servant, who took in her meals 
and otherwise attended to her, and who, after the poor 
woman's death, married the widower. Common report 
ran to the effect that the unhappy prisoner was starved ; 
but, however this may have been, her ghost certainly 
came back, unless the most knowing among the neigh- 
bours were under a gross delusion. One night a woman 
named Katy Winchester, whom we were well acquainted 
with in our youth, distinctly saw her standing, stock- 
still, at the farm-house end, when she was going home at 
a late hour to the village where she lived, she being an 
expert and well-employed midwife. Besides, Mr. Dunlop 
himself, after death had bereaved him of his second wife, 
was haunted by the ghost of his first, whom he used to 
see sitting opposite him at the parlour fireside, "mowing" 
at him like the foul fiend. 

The keeper of a bumble ale-house in a small Border 
town gave lodging, on the night before the annual fair of 
St. James, sometime in the first decade of the present 
century, to a South-Country traveller, who had heavy 
saddle-bags. The man was seen to go in, but was never 
seen to come out ; and the ale-house keeper, who had 
been notoriously poor before, became afterwards "passing 
rich." Murder, said the neighbours, must be the ex- 
planation of the secret. And when the son of the 
alleged guilty publican rose to be a wealthy man, and 
lived in good style in a grand house, all the bells in it 
were said to begin a-ringing on each anniversary night 
of the traveller's mysterious disappearance, though the 
ghost never appeared in bodily shape. A clever bell- 
hanger suggested that it was the rats which did this 
ringing, as they crept through a hole in the wall where 
the wires from the different rooms converged ; but if that 
were so, the thing was still more wonderful, it being quite 
incomprehensible how these nimble rodents should have 
known how to play the pranks they did on "the glorious 
Fifth of August, " and on no other day of the year. 

The author of "Rambles in Northumberland " tells his 
readers that, in passing a cottage, in which he remem- 
bered that an old woman had dwelt, who was suspected 
of having caused the death of one of her children, he in- 
quired of a native of the village if he knew anything of 

A prill 
1891. / 



the circumstance, and received from him the following 
account : 

I knew the woman, who ii now where the Lord pleases, 
very well. She was the wife of a " day-tale " man, and 
they had more small bairns than they could well provide 
for ; and in harvest she used to go out a-shearing. One 
year, about the harvest time, she had a young bairn at 
the breast, which she thought was one too many; and 
that she might not be hindered of the shearing by staying 
at home with it, and that she might get rid of it alto- 
gether, she smothered it in the cradle. There was no 
public inquiry made, nor inquest held, but all her neigh- 
bours, especially the women folk, believed that the bairn 
was wilfully made away with, for she had the character 
of being a cold-hearted mother. She never did well, 
though she lived for nearly forty years afterwards, She 
fell into a low way, and was, at times, almost clean past 
herself. She was always at the worst about the time of 
the harvest moon ; and would then often walk about the 
house, and sometimes go out and wander about the 
common, all night, moaning and greeting in a painful 
way. I have many a time seen her holding her head 
atween her hands, rocking herself backwards and for- 
wards on a low chair, groaning and sighing, and every 
now and then giving an awful sort of shriek, which 
folken who knew her best said was her way when she 
fancied she heard the bairn cry out in the same way as it 
did when she was smooring it. About the harvest time, 
she often used to see the spirit of the innocent that she 
had put to death ; and her neighbours often heard her 
talking to it, bidding it to be gone, and not to torment her 
longer with its cries. She is now dead, and in her grave, 
and has been many years ; and whatever may be her punish- 
ment in the next world for taking away the life of a 
harmless bairn of her own flesh and blood, she certainly 
dreed a heavy penance in this. 

The same gentleman relates another story, concerning 
a pedlar who, according to popular report, was murdered 
in a lone farm-house above Rothbury about eighty years 
before he wrote. The pedlar had the character of being 
possessed of a large sum of money, which he always 
carried about with him. In his regular visits to that 
part of the country, he had been accustomed to call at 
this house ; and from the hour he was last observed to 
enter it he was never seen alive. The farmer's wife was 
the only person at home when the pedlar called ; and 
tradition ascribed his murder to her. As he was sitting 
in the kitchen, with his back to the door, eating some 
food which she had set out, she came suddenly behind 
him, and felled him to the ground with a blow from a 
churn-staff. Then, after taking his purse out of his 
pocket, she threw him into a deep well in the yard. On 
her husband's return from the field, she informed him of 
what she had done ; and the next day, when the servants 
were absent, husband and wife drew the body from the 
well and buried it. The writer goes on to say that, 
though the neighbours noticed that their worldly cir- 
cumstances were much improved, and that they had 
much more money at command than formerly, yet they 
were never " suspected of having murdered the pedlar. 
But their ill-got gain, as in all such cases, brought them 
no happiness. The husband, a few years afterwards, fell 
from his horse and broke his neck ; and at times the 
widow was seized with fits of terror which appeared to 
deprive her of reason. She survived her husband several 
years, and on her death-bed communicated to a person 

who attended her the circumstances of the pedlar's mur- 
der and the cause of her terror. She confessed that fre- 
quently, when she entered the kitchen where the deed 
was done, she fancied that she saw the pedlar sitting at 
the table ; and after she had removed to another house, he 
used sometimes to seat himself opposite to her, with his 
hair wet and hanging down over his face, as he appeared 
when she and her husband drew him from the well. 

It is universally agreed among ghost-seers that, when 
the murderer changes his abode, the spectre of his victim 
shifts along with him. But when a perturbed spirit, 
"revisiting the glimpses of the moon," appears to a third 
party, it usually does so at or near the spot where the deed 
was committed, which becomes known as a haunted place. 

Some half century since, a farmer named Wilson, who 
had been attending Stockton market, and left that town 
at a late hour, rather the worse for drink, to ride home 
to Middlesbrough, lost his way in the dark, and rode 
into the Tees, where he was drowned. His body was 
recovered soon after, but his hat, as was natural, had 
disappeared. His ghost was said to appear, causing 
terror to belated travellers. A Methodist local preacher, 
named John Orton, who had been at Middlesbrough, con- 
ducting divine service, was returning alone one night 
to Stockton, when, about the locality where the farmer 
was lost, he met a man without any hat, to whom he bade 
"Good night, "but received no answer. It being near mid- 
night and the place quite solitary, Orton wondered what 
the man could be doing at that untimely hour. He 
therefore turned round and followed him, to see, if 
possible, where he went, for he suspected, from his 
appearance, that he was upon no good errand. But after 
retracing a few steps, he lost sight of him all of a sudden, 
the man disappearing, or rather vanishing, into a bush 
on the left-hand side of the road ; and when Orton went 
cautiously forward and peered into the bush, there was 
no living creature there or near about. When he reached 
home, and told his wife what he had seen, she instantly 
exclaimed, " Why, man, it's been aad Wilson !" 

Orton's son-in-law, who told us this anecdote, gave us 
also the following account of a ghost which he himself 
once saw : 

One night, a few days after my father died, I was 
sitting in the back yard getting my pipe, when, all on a 
sudden, a great black dog, as large as an elephant, came 
and stood right before me, as motionless as a rock. I was 
suffering from the effects of drink at the time, and 
terribly out of sorts, with a head ready to split, and some 
feeling not unlike the horrors ; but still I was in full pos- 
session of all my senses. So I determined to find out 
whether what I seemed to see really existed outside of 
me, or was within my own brain ; and therefore I sat 
watching it for about five minutes. It stood motionless 
all the time my eye was steadily fixed on it. But at last, 
in order to satisfy myself, I moved my eye sideways, first to 
the left and then to the right, and finding that the dog moved 
either way, each time I tried the experiment, I was con- 
vinced that it existed only in my own disordered brain. 

The late Mr. Christie, land surveyor, who was em- 
ployed by the Duke of Buccleuch to survey and make 
a plan of the country hunted by his grace's foxhounds, 



\ 1891. 

related to us a tale of a certain Northumbrian gentleman, 
who, it seems, had been guilty of a secret murder, and 
who was ever after haunted by the ghost of the murdered 
man, dressed in the costume he had worn when alive. 
This unwelcome visitor was in the habit of coming at 
all hours, without any formal announcement, just opening 
the room door and walking in. If the gentleman had re- 
turned his salute, it might have disclosed his secret, and 
BO have led to disagreeable consequences. So, whenever 
the door opened, it was his habit to look round and 
put his finger to his eye, in such a way as to cause 
himself to see double if the entrant was composed of flesh 

and blood, while, if it was only his disembodied friend, 
materialised for the nonce, the vision remained single, 
and he took no notice. W. B. 

il YDON CASTLE is situated about a mile and 
a half north-east from the town of Cor- 
bridge. For the tirst half mile we take the 
Matfen road, and then turn into a grassy 
high-banked lane on the left. This "lonnin," as it is 



locally styled, presently degenerates into a field path. 
Sometimes ascending, sometimes descending, but most 
frequently the former, we proceed on our way. And, 
truly, it is a pleasant one. If we pause a moment to rest, 
and look back, we see an extensive, a varied, and a 
picturesque landscape spread out before us. We over- 
look one of the most beautiful parts of the valley of the 
lower Tyne. The fields on our left as we resume our way 
are known as Deadridge, whilst the hill on our right, 
crowned by a clump of trees, is called Gallow Hill, and 
has, in the past, no doubt, been all that the name sug- 
gests. By and by, we reach the brink of a wooded glen 
a happy hunting ground for botanists and entomo- 
logists. Beneath us, the Cor, a tiny streamlet, babbles 

noisily on its way over its shelving bed of rock. A steep 
path leads us down to a pretty wooden bridge, and, after 
an equally sharp ascent on tho other side, we are beneath 
the walls of Aydon Castle. 

This ancient house is in many ways an interesting 
structure. It occupies a position, amongst the fortresses 
of Northumberland, midway between that of a great 
castle, such as Alnwick or Dunstanborough, and a small 






tower or keep of the kind usually styled pelcs. The 
former were the residences of the great overlords : the 
latter were the homes of petty squires and yeomen. The 
castle was planned and arranged, not only for de- 
fence, but for the comfort of its occupants, and 
even possessed features which provided for their 
love of splendour and hospitality, and for such 
luxuries as were then known. It had its great 
hall, its minstrels' gallery, and its chapel. The pele, 
on the other hand, was contrived for defence alone. 
Comfort and luxury did not come within the reach of its 
proprietor. If provision were made lor his safety, and 
for that of his family, his dependants, and his cattle, in a 
time of feud or warfare, he was abundantly satisfied. 
Aydon ranks, as I have said, between the great castle and 
the pele, and in this fact lies one of its great features of 
interest. But it has others. It is to a very large extent 
entire. Many parts, especially of the outer walls and 
subsidiary buildings, are more or less ruinous, but the 
house itself is practically perfect, and the plan and 
arrangements of every portion are perfectly clear. It is, 
also, almost entirely a building of our date. The plan 
originally laid down was the plan which was at once 
carried out and completed, and it is the plan which we 
see to-day. 

The position occupied by the castle is a striking and a 
strong one. It stands in an angle of the high land 
formed by the course of the Cor. On three sides the 
ground descends almost precipitously down to the stream. 
In this angle the house itself is planted. The level land 
on the more accessible side is occupied by the outer 
court-yard, which has been strongly protected by en- 
circling walls. A two-fold advantage results trom this 
arrangement. The house occupies the least accessible 
and therefore the safest part of the plateau, and it also 
overlooks the charming scenery of the little vale of the 

The castle may be ascribed to about the middle of the 
thirteenth century, or a little earlier. We have no record 
of its erection, and are left to determine its date by its 
architectural character alone. At the period just named, 
and for some time before, the manor of Aydon was in 
the possession of a family who took their name from the 
place. The castle was unquestionably built by some 
member of this family. In the reign of Edward the 
First, the heiress of the Aydons, Emma de Aydon, 
married Peter de Vallibus, or de Vaux, by whose heirs 
the manor and castle were held for several generations. 
In the year 1346, King David of Scotland and bis army, 
in marching to Corbridge, laid siege to Aydon. The 
occupants surrendered, and were " allowed to depart with 
their lives." In 1415 the castle was in the hands of 
Robert Ramsay and Sir Ralph Grey. The Ramsays and 
the Carnabys held it until the time of Charles the First, 

Such is a brief outline of the history of Aydon Castle. 
Its interest, however, is structural rather than historic. 

The plan is a very singular one, and, considering the size 
of the house itself, the area enclosed by the outer walls is 
very considerable. The whole castle, with its court-yards 
and gardens, covers about an acre. The plan has been 
compared to the letter H. Of course the letter H has 
many varying shapes, but it would be difficult to point 
to any one of these which in any degree resembles the 
plan of Aydon Castle. The plan is not one which it is 
easy to describe. The house itself consists principally of 
an oblong block, the length of which lies east and west. 
On the north side, at the west end, a long wing runs out. 
The angle between the main block and this wing is 
enclosed by a wall, and ferms the inner court-yard. Then 
at the east end of the main block there is a second wing, 
parallel with the first one, but projecting to almost an 
equal distance on both the north and south sides. From 
this second wing a small third one runs out on the east 
side. The only entrance in the outer walls, which is 
unmistakably original, is a wide arch on the west side, 
leading into the outer court-yard. The wall in which this 
gateway exists runs in a direction which is diagonal to 
that of the main body of the house. It is also broken by 
a turret, about two-thirds of the distance from its south 
corner, the corbelled parapet of which still exists. Be- 
tween the turret and the gateway there is the shaft of a 
garderobe, resting externally on corbels. This garderobe, 
as seen from the outer side, is shown in the accompanying 
engraving. At the extreme north end the wall ends in 

a bastion-like projection, which is the outside of a small 
oblong apartment, entered from the court-yard, and having 
a barrel vaulted roof. 

From this outer court-yard two inner yards are entered, 
both nearly square, though one contains nearly three 
times the area of the other. The smaller of these yards is 
the inner court already mentioned. The other is a large 
yard which covers the whole west front of the house. It 

1891. J 



has clearly been occupied on its south side by buildings of 
some sort which are now destroyed. Their roof line may 
be distinctly seen on the west gable of the main block of 
the house. They were obviously of later date than the 
existing portions of the castle, and have been ascribed to 
Peter de Vallibus, the husband of Emma de Aydon. 
Their destruction leaves the house in its original pro- 

The wall of the inner court-yard is surmounted by a 
bold battlemented parapet, with rampart behind. The 
entrance to the rampart, now walled up, may be seen in 
the wall of the west wing. This inner court is entered by 
a bold, plain arch of excellent character. From this 
court- yard a doorway in the wall, on the east side, leads 
into yet another enclosure, which is now, and probably 
always has been, the garden. 

Returning to the inner court-yard, our attention is first 
drawn to a broad flight of steps leading to a doorway on 
the first floor. This was originally the principal entrance 
to the house. The scairway was formerly covered by a 
roof of some kind, the water line of which is very obvious 
on the wall over the steps and doorway. The landing is 
protected by a parapet which rests on corbels. The 
doorway is a plain pointed arch of two chamfered orders, 
and is covered by a dripstone. It opens into a passage 
from which a door on our left leads into what we may 
regard with confidence as the great hall. It is not a very 
large apartment, measuring only about 30 feet by 24. It 
has a window on each side. Each of these consists of two 
lancets enclosed by a single arch. A ladder from this 
room leads to the roof, from which splendid views of the 
valley beneath and of the surrounding country may be 
obtained, and an excellent idea may be also formed of the 
general plan of the castle and its outworks. From the 
passage by which this room is entered two doorways lead 
into other and smaller apartments. In one of these we 
find one of the original fireplaces, on the stone mantel 
tree of which the coat of arms of the Carnabys has been 
rudely sculptured. In the same room there is a stone 
drain or sink in the wall, the spout of which may be seen 
outside. In another of these rooms we notice three 
lockers in the wall, whilst in the third we find the 
passage from which the ramparts of the court-yard wall 
were reached. These rooms were doubtless the kitchens 
and pantry. 

The interior arrangements of the eastern part of the 
castle, which is now used as a residence, are complicated, 
and, partly at least, are modern also. Here, however, 
we find two of the original fireplaces. Of one of these the 
mantel tree is surmounted by a kind of hood, over which 
is a shelf, and beneath this a series of carved corbels, 
consisting of six heads, with a very large dog-tooth 
ornament in the centre. 

Through a doorway close to the foot of the external 
stairs an apartment is entered in which we find another 
fireplace, the jambs of which are moulded shafts of ex- 

cellent character. But the most noticeable feature about 
this fireplace is its chimney, which constitutes one of the 
most striking and singular features of the south front of 
the castle. It has, for about half its height, the ordinary 
buttress-like appearance of a projecting chimney. At 
about the level of the first floor, however, it assumes a 
semi-circular section, and so continues till it reaches the 
parapet, against which itjterminates in a conical cap. 
Beneath the cap and between two moulded string courses 
are two elits, one on each side, for the escape of the 

A door on the west side of the inner court leads into 
the stables, which are situated in the basement of the west 
wing. They are worthy of examination. Their roofs 
are of stone and are vaulted, and the mangers are also 
constructed of stone. 

A most interesting feature of Aydon Castle is its series 
of two light windows. Though varying in detail, one 
general character distinguishes the whole of them. In 
each case two lancet lights are enclosed within a single 


arch. In every instance in which the interior arrange- 
ments can be examined we find 'the holes in which iron 
stanchions were fixed and the rebates into which the 
shutters fitted. Then there are side seats, of the usual 
type, in the recesses. The central shaft which divides 
the lights is more or less decorated, and has moulded 
capital and base. In no case is the spandril space over 
the lights pierced, but in one instance it is ornamented 
with a sunk quatrefoil, and in another (shown in en- 
graving) a quatrefoil within a circle is filled by a carved 
human head with beard. 
A bold battlemented parapet runs round the whole 



\ 1891. 

of the house, except the west wing. The water is carried 
from the gutters by a series of projecting stone spouta or 

One of our illustrations is a view of part of the south 
front looking westward. A massive buttress, supporting 
the angle of the eastern wing, is seen in the foreground, 
whilst beyond we see the singular chimney shaft pre- 
viously described, and beyond this again the spout of 
the kitchen sink. Our second large illustration shows 
part of the inner court-yard, with the stairway and 
entrance to the great hall, and on the right the door 
leading to the stables. This is sketched from a photo- 
graph by Mr. J. P. Gibson, of Hexham. 



tfu fJcrrtft. 

HE Apostle and Founder of Methodism 
achieved his first great ministerial success 
among the colliers of Kingswood, near 
Bristol, and the remembrance of that re- 
markable "time of refreshing" begot in him a fervent 
desire to publish the glad tidings to the pitmen in the 
North. This desire was framed into a purpose at the 
instance of the Countess of Huntingdon. There had 
been a semi-methodistic movement, probably a sort of 
Moravianism, in Newcastle before Mr. Wesley set foot 
in the place or even turned his thoughts and projects 
towards the district at all. A man named John Hall 
appears to have been the agent of this little religious 
revival, and doubtless his followers were the persons 
who gave Mr. Wesley the hearty welcome he speaks 
of in his journal. 

Night was falling as John Wesley first set foot in 
Newcastle. He had taken a lodging at an inn close to 
the Gateshead end of the Tyne Bridge. He was inexpres- 
sibly pained by the sights he saw and the sounds he heard 
as he wearily paced the lower streets of the town. " S.> 
much drunkenness, "he says, " such cursing and swearing 
even from the mouths of little children do I never 
remember to have seen and heard before in so small a 
compass of time. Surely this place is ripe for Him who 
came to call sinners to repentance." On Sunday morn- 
ing, 30th May, 1742, he betook himself to Sandgate, 
intending to preach. He was accompanied by John 
Taylor, at that time his travelling companion. Taking 
up as suitable a position as he could find, he with good 
John's help sang out lustily the well-known 100th Psalm. 
Then, as now, the locality so far resembled the agora, of 
Athens that the men and women resorting there were 
prone to the indulgence of curiosity, especially at an idle 
time like Sunday morning. Three or four people stopped 
in their stroll and sidled to the spot where the two 

strange beings were holding church out of doors. As the 
singing went on, the number of listeners increased, until 
some four or five hundred might have been counted 
within sight and hearing. Mr. Wesley took for his text, 
" He was wounded for our transgressions. He was bruised 
for our iniquities ; the chastisement of our peace was 
upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed." When he 
had finished his discourse, the people, who by that time 
numbered about fifteen hundred, stared at him as though 
they thought him mad, or were on the point of going mad 
themselves. The preacher, taking encouragement from 
their rapt demeanour, said, " If you desire to know who I 
am, my name is John Wesley. At five in the evening, 
with God's help, I design to preach here again." 

Long before the appointed hour a vast multitude had 
gathered to hear what "this babbler " would say. Mr. 
Wesley's own account of his Sunday afternoon on the 
Sandhill is as follows : " I never saw so large a number 
of people together, either at Moorfields or at Kenningtou 
Common. I knew it was not possible for the one half to 
hear, although my voice was then strong and clear, and 
though I stood so as to have them all in view as they 
were ranged on the side of the hill." After preaching, 
the poor people were ready to tread him undr foot out of 
pure love and kindness. He reached his inn by a back 
way ; the folks, however, were there before him, aud 
begged him not to leave them. 

It was on one of these occasions that the incident re- 
corded by the Rev. Dr. Bruce is supposed to have taken 
place. Mr. Wesley spoke from one of the landings of an 
external staircase leading to the main floor of the Guild- 
hall, Sandhill. "The preacher, " say s Dr. Bruce in his 
"Old Newcastle," "was assaulted by some riotous per- 
sons, when a fisherwoman, of the name of Bailes, rushed 
to his assistance. Putting one hand round his waist, she 
extended the other with clenched fist towards his assail- 
ants, and exclaimed, ' Now touch the little man if you 
dare.' Her appeal was irresistible, and the preacher pro- 
ceeded in peace." 

John Wesley stayed but a short while on his first visit ; 
but his brother Charles came and organised "the wild, 
stariug, loving " converts into a proper Methodist society. 
Charles puts on record that he had never more success 
than he had at Newcastle, and yet it was here notably 
that he began to exercise great caution and strict discip- 
line, "distinguishing between merely animal emotions and 
the true work of God in the heart, and leading all to try 
themselves by the only infallible rule, their conformity to 
the Word of God." Mr. Wesley came again on the 13th 
November, 1742. On the 14-th he preached at five in the 
morning, an arrangement which created quite a sensation 
in those days. Then he went to All Saints' Church (not 
the present building, but a very ancient one on the same 
site) at ten, where he was delighted to find a much 
greater number of communicants than he remembered 
seeing at any church except in London and Bristol. His 

A Drill 
1891. / 



chief preaching place in Newcastle was the Keelmen's 
Hospital Square; later on he preached at the Castle Garth. 
The earliest meeting place for the society was in Lisle 

In November, 1742, Mr. Wesley commenced negotia- 
tions for a site in the northern part of Newcastle on 
which to erect a chapel, that should also serve as an 
orphan house, somewhat like the Georgian orphanages 
of Whitfield, or the Halle orphanage of Francke. " We 
could get no ground," he says, "for love or money. I 
like this well. It is a good sign. If the devil can hinder 
us, he shall." At length he got a piece of ground, or 
thought he had got it. In fact he got two pieces, one 
from Mr. Stephenson and one from Mr. Riddel. Mr. 
Stephenson, however, demurred and delayed until Mr. 
Wesley brought to bear upon the matter some of that 
straightforwardness which played so large a figure in his 
successful career. He gave the hesitating seller a piece of 
his mind as follows : 

Sir, I am surprised. You give it under your hand, 
that you will put me in possession of a piece of ground 
specified in an article between us in fifteen days' time. 
Three months are passed and that article is not fulfilled. 
And now, you say, you cannot conceive what I mean by 
troubling you. I mean to have that article fulfilled. I 
think my meaning is very plain. I am, sir, your humble 
servant, JOHN WESLEY. 

The project was received with various feelings by the 
public and even by the members in society doubt as 
to its feasibleness predominating in most minds except 
Mr. Wesley's. It was to cost close upon 700 ! On the 
occasion of laying the foundation stone, 20th December, 
Mr. Welsey himself presided at the ceremony and 
preached in the evening of the same day. "Many," he 
writes, "were gathered from all parts so see it ; but none 
scoffed or interrupted while we praised God and prayed 
that He would prosper the work of our hands upon us. 
Three or four times in the evening I was forced to break 
off preaching that we might pray and give thanks to 

Here, at the Orphan House in Northumberland Street, 
the society had its head quarters for nearly 80 years, 
Brunswick Chapel not being erected till 1821. This 
Orphan House was the second place of worship built for 
the United Society, and the third used the foundry in 
Moor Fields having been purchased, not specially built, 
for Wesley. The lower part was the chapel, over 
which were a band room and class room. On the next 
story were "prophet's lodgings" for ministers, while 
perched on the roof was the wooden fabric now in the 
gardens of Cleveland House, North Shields, and long 
known as "Mr. Wesley's study." The original design, 
indicated by the name of the house, was never carried out. 
Grace Murray, the first matron-evangelist of the Orphan 
House, was a few years after her appointment the object 
of a curious attachment on the part of Mr. Wesley. (See 
Monthly Chronicle, 1888, page 503.) 

One of the places early visited by Mr. Wesley, and still 

earlier by his brother Charles, was Tanfield Lea. He 
was well received indeed, but appeared to make no im- 
pression on the hearts of his hearers. ' So dead, sense- 
less, and unaffected a congregation, " be writes, "I have 
scarce ever seen, except at Whickham. Whether Gospel 
or law, or English or Greek, seemed all one to them." 
He left the gaping villagers, as he says, "very well 
satisfied with the preacher and with themselves "; but it 
rejoiced his heart to hear a few days later that the seed 
that had fallen into the heart of one John Brown was 
springing up in wild luxuriousness as a plant of grace. 
But John became crazy with his new-born religious 
ecstacy, and very speedily made his appearance in New- 
castle on horseback, " hallooing and shouting, and driving 
all the people before him, saying God had told him he 
should be a king, and should tread all his enemies under 
his feet." Mr. Wesley dealt wisely and kindly with this 
crazy "captive to his bow and spear," sending him home 
to his work and bidding him pray for a lowly heart : 
which advice honest John laid to heart, and the conse- 
quence was that he became a noted lay preacher. He 
subsequently removed to the Lower Spen, and there by 
his "rough and strong, but artless words, " many of his 
neighbours were convinced, so that when, in the following 
year, Mr. Wesley paid them a visit, he found the "field 
white unto the harvest." 

It was in company with John Brown and Christopher 
Hopper that Wesley visited Prudhoe. Here he preached 
in 1757 at the side of Mr. Anthony Humble's house at five 
in the morning, breakfasting afterwards at Thomas New- 
ton's, in what is still known as Prudhoe Hall Farm. It 
was on a piece of land given by Humble that the first 
chapel was built, Wesley himself staking out the 
ground, and Whitfield preaching the opening sermon. 
Amongst other places in which traditions of Wesley's 
visits survive may be mentioned Ryton, where he 
preached at the Cross in 1742 ; and Greenside, where in 
1751 he had the largest congregation he ever saw in the 

Charles Wesley visited Hexham at the instance of Air. 
Wardroper, a Dissenting minister. Of this visit he 

I walked directly to the Market Place, and called 
sinners to repentance. A multitude of them stood staring 
at me, but all quiet. The Lord opened my mouth, and 
they drew nearer and nearer, stole off their hats, and 
listened; none offered to interrupt but one unfortunate 
squire, and he could get no one to second him. His 
servants and the constables hid themselves. One, at 
length, he found, whom he bid to go and take me down. 
The poor constable simply answered, " Sir, I cannot have 
the face to do it ; for what harm does he do ?" Several 
Papists attended ; also the Church minister, who had 
refused me his pulpit with indignation. However, he 
came to hear with his own ears. I wish all who hang us 
first would, like him, try us afterwards. I walked back 
to Mr. Ord's through the people, who acknowledged "it 
is the truth, and none can speak asrainst it." A constable 
followed, and told me "Sir Edward Blackett orders you 
to disperse the town, and not raise a disturbance here." 
I sent my respects to Sir Edward, and said if he would 



\ 1891. 

give me leave I would wait upon him and satisfy him. 
He soon returned with an answer that Sir Edward 
would have nothing to say to me, but if 
preached again, and raised a disturbance, he would 
put the law in execution against me. I answered that 
I was not conscious ot breaking any law of God or man, 
but if I did I was ready to suffer the penalty; that 
as I had not given notice of preaching again at the 
Market Cross, I would not preach again at that place, nor 
cause a disturbance anywhere. I charged the constable, 
a trembling submissive soul, to assure his worship that I 
reverenced him for his office's sake. The only place I 
could get to preach in was a cock-pit, and I expected 
Satan would come and fight me on his own ground. 
Squire Roberts, the justice's son. laboured hard to raise a 
mob, for which I was to be answerable, but the very boys 
ran away from him when the poor Squire was urging 
them to go down to the cock-pit and cry " fire." I called 
in words then first heard in that place, "Repent and be 
converted, that your sins may be blotted out." Gjd 
struck, the hard rock, and the waters gushed out. Never 
have i seen people more desirous of knowing the truth at 
the first hearing. 

A fortnight after, Charles is again at Hexham, preach- 
ing in the Market Place at the Cross. At four in the 
afternoon he attempts to preach in the cock-pit, but the 
territory of the enemy is claimed by his own servants. 
The butlers of Sir Edward Blackett, and of the magis- 
trate, bring their cocks, and "set them a-fighting." "I 
gave them the ground," says Mr. Wesley, "and walked 
straight to the Cross, where we had four times as many as 
the other place could hold. Our enemies followed, and 
strove all the ways permitted them to annoy us. Neither 
their fire-works nor their water works could stop the 
progress of the Gospel. I lifted up my voice like a 
trumpet, and many had ears to hear." 

Several of Charles Wesley's most spirited hymns are 
supposed to have been written during this sojourn in the 
North. That, for instance, numbered 40 in the Wesleyan 
Hymn Book, in which the triumphant progress of the 
Gospel is noted in glowing verse, he himself states to have 
been penned " after preaching to the Newcastle colliers.' 
The hymn was in all likelihood written on the occasion 
thus referred to in his journal : " Sunday, November 30. 
I went into the streets of Newcastle, and called the poor, 
the lame, the halt, the blind, with that precious promise, 
'Him that cometh unto Me I will in no way cast out. ' 
They had no feeling of the sharp frost, while the love of 
Jesus warmed their hearts." 

That John Wesley could sometimes relinquish the 
meekness of non-resistance, and like a wounded stag 
turn at bay against hia enemies, is apparent from his 
method of dealing with one who constantly persecuted 
his followers in Newcastle and personally insulted him- 
self. To this ill-behaved man he sent the following 
laconic epistle : 

Robert Young, 

I expect to see you between this and Friday, and to 
hear from you that you are sensible of your fault. Other- 
wise, in pity to your soul, I shall be obliged to inform the 
magistrates of your assaulting me in the street. I am 
your real friend, JOHN WESLEY. 

"Within two or three hours," says the reprover, "Robert 
Young came and promised a quite different behaviour. 

So did this gentle reproof, if not save a soul from death, 
yet prevent a multitude of sins." 

A remarkable story about Newcastle is told by Mr. 
Wesley in his diary towards the close of 1743. When 
he arrived there on Nov. 2, he found the town placarded 
with this announcement : " For the benefit of Mr. Este. 
By the Edinburgh Company of Comedians, on Friday, 
November 4, will be acted a Comedy, called 'The Con- 
scious Lovers,' to which will be added a Farce, called 
'Trick upon Trick, or Methodism Displayed.'" Here is 
Wesley's account of what happened : 

On Friday a vast multitude of spectators were 
assembled in the Moot Hall to see this. It was be- 
lieved there could not be less than fifteen hundred people, 
some hundreds of whom sat on rows of seats built upon 
the stage. Soon after the comedians had begun the first 
act of the play, on a sudden all those seats fell down at 
once, the supporters of them breaking like a rotten stick. 
The people were thrown one upon another, about five foot 
forward, but not one of them hurt. After a short time, 
the rest of the spectators were quiet, and the actors went 
on. In the middle of the second act, all the shilling seats 
gave a crack, and sunk several inches down. A great 
noise and shrieking followed : and as many as could 
readily get to the door went out, and returned no more. 
Notwithstanding this, when the noise was over, the actors 
went on with the play. In the beginning of the third act 
the entire stage suddenly sunk about six inches : the 
players retired with great precipitation ; yet in a while 
they began again. At the latter end of the third act. all 
the sixpenny seats, without any kind of notice, fell to. the 
ground. There was now a cry on every side, it being 
supposed that many were crushed in pieces ; but, upon 
inquiry, not a single person (such was the mercy of God !) 
was either killed or dangerously hurt. Two or three 
hundred remaining still in the hall, Mr. Este (who was 
to act the Methodist) came upon the stage and told them, 
for all this he was resolved the farce should be acted. 
While he was speaking, the stage sunk six inches more ; 
on which he ran back in the utmost confusion, and the 
people as fast as they could out of the door, none staying 
to look behind him. Which is most surprising that 
those players acted this farce the next week, or that 
some hundreds of people came again to see it? 

Mr. Wesley visited the town twice, if not three times, 
in the year 1745. When news came that the Pretender 
was at Holyrood Castle, he hastened to Newcastle, and 
endeavoured to improve the popular commotion to the ad- 
vancement of spiritual work. He offered to preach to the 
troops, but this apparently was not accepted. He did the 
next best thing he could by preaching as near the camp 
as he could get, and as often as he could. His own 
account of the state of matters is as follows : 

Wed., Sep. 18. About five we came to Newcastle, in 
an acceptable time. We found the generality of the in- 
habitants in the utmost consternation, news being just 
arrived that, the morning before, at two o'clock, the Pre- 
tender had entered Edinburgh. A great concourse of 
people were with us in the evening, to whom I expounded 
the third cnapter of Jonah, insisting particularly on that 
verse, " Who can tell, if God will return, and repent, and 
turn away from his fierce anger, and we perish not?" 

Thur., 19. The Mayor (Mr. Ridley) summoned all the 
householders of the town to meet him at the Town Hall, 
and desired as many of them as were willing to set their 
hands to a paper, importing that they would, at the 
hazard of their goods and lives, defend the town against 
the common enemy. Fear and darkness were now on 
every side, but not on those who had seen the light of 
God's countenance. We rejoiced together in the evening 
with solemn joy, while God applied those words to many 


1891. j 



hearts, "Fear not ye; for I know that ye seek Jesus 
which was crucified." 

Fri., 20. The Mayor ordered the townsmen to be under 
arms, and to mount guard in their turns, over and above 
the guard of soldiers, a few companies of whom had been 
drawn into the town on the first alarm. Now, also, 
Pilgrim Street Gate was ordered to be walled up. Many 
began to be much concerned for us, because our house 
stood without the walls. Nay, but the Lord is a wall of 
tire unto all that trust in him. I had desired all our 
brethren to join us on this day in seeking God by fasting 
and prayer. About one, we met and poured out our souls 
before Him ; and we believed He would send an answer 
of peace. 

Sat., 21. The same day the action was came the news 
of General Cope's defeat. Orders were now given for the 
doubling of the guard, and for walling up Pandon and 
Sallyport Gates. 

Sun., 22. The walls were mounted with cannon, and all 
things prepared for sustaining an assault. Meantime, our 
poor neighbours, on either hand, were busy in removing 
their goods. And most of the best houses in our street 
were left without either furniture or inhabitants. Those 
within the walls were almost equally busy in carrying 
away their money and goods ; and more and more of the 
gentry every hour rode southward as fast as they could. 
At eight I preached at Gateshead, in a broad part of the 
street, near the Popish chapel, on the wisdom of God in 
governing the world. How do all things tend to the 
turtberance of the Gospel ! I never saw before so well- 
behaved a congregation in any church at Newcastle, as 
was that at St. Andrew's this morning. The place 
appeared as indeed the house of God ; and the sermon 
Mr. Ellison preached was strong and weighty, which he 
could scarce conclude for tears. 

All this week the alarms from the North continued, and 
the storm seemed nearer every day. Many wondered we 
would still stay without the walls ; others told us we must 
remove quickly ; for if the cannon began to play from the 
top of the gates, they would beat all the house about our 
ears. This made me look how the cannons on the gates 
were planted ; and I could not but adore the providence 
of God, for it was obvious, 1. They were all planted in 
such a manner, that no shot could touch our house. 
2. The cannon on New Gate so secured us on one side, 
and those upon Pilgrim Street Gate on the other, that 
none could come near our house, either way, without 
being torn in pieces. 

On Friday and Saturday many messengers of lies 
terrified the poor people of the town, as if the rebels were 
just coming to swallow them up. Upon this the guards 
were increased, and abundance of country gentlemen 
came in, with their servants, horses, and arms. Among 
those who came from the North was one whom the Mayor 
ordered to be apprehended, on suspicion of his being a 
spy. As soon as he was left alone he cut his own throat ; 
but a surgeon, coming quickly, sewed up the wound, so 
that he lived to discover certain designs of the rebels, 
which were thereby effectually prevented. 

Sun., 29. Advice came that they were in full march 
southward, so that it was supposed they would reach 
Newcastle by Monday evening. At eight I called on a 
multitude of sinners in Gateshead, to seek the Lord while 
he might be found. Mr. Ellison preached another earnest 
sermon, and all the people seemed to bend before the 
Lord. In the afternoon I expounded part of the lesson 
for the day Jacob wrestling with the angel. The con- 
gregation was so moved, that I began again and again, 
and knew not how to conclude. And we cried mightily 
to God to send his Majesty King George help from his 
holy place, and to spare a sinful land yet a little longer, if 
haply they might know the day of their visitation. 

On Monday and Tuesday I visited some of the societies 
in the country, and on Wednesday, October 2, returned 
to Newcastle, where they were just informed that the 
rebels had left Edinburgh on Monday, and were swiftly 
marching toward them. But it appeared soon that this 
also was a false alarm, it being only a party which had 
moved southward, the main body still remaining in their 
camp, a mile or two from Edinburgh. 

On Thursday and Friday I visited the rest of the coun- 

try societies. On Saturday, a party of the rebels about 
a thousand men came within seventeen miles of New- 
castle. This occasioned a fresh alarm in the town, and 
orders were given by the General that the soldiers should 
march against them on Monday morning. But these 
orders were countermanded. 

Mr. Nixon (the gentleman who had, some days since, 
upon being apprehended, cut his own throat), being still 
unable to speak, wrote as well as he could, that the design 
of the Prince (as they called him) waa to seize on Tyne- 
mputh Castle, which he knew was well provided both 
with cannon and ammunition, and thence to march to 
the hill on the east side of Newcastle, which entirely 
commands the town. And if this had been done he would 
have carried his point, and gained the town without a 
blow. The Mayor immediately sent to Tynemouth 
Castle, and lodged the cannon and ammunition in a safer 

Wed. Oct. 9. It being supposed that the danger was 
over for the present, I preached at four in Gateshead, at 
John Lyddel's, on " Stand fast in the faith, quit you like 
men, be strong." 

There can be no doubt that Mr. Wesley conceived to 
the last a specially warm interest in the people of the 
North. He soon gathered a society of 800 members at 
Newcastle, and had planted settlements of the faith in 
many of the neighbouring villages. He seemed greatly 
taken with Pelton, and still more with Chowdene. 
Referring to his first visit to the latter place, he records in 
his journal, " I found we were got into the very Kings- 
wood of the North. Twenty or thirty wild children ran 
round us as soon as we came, staring as in amaze. They 
could not properly be said to be either clothed or naked. 
One of the largest (a girl of about fifteen) had a piece of 
a ragged dirty blanket some way hanging about her, and 
a kind of cap on her head of the same cloth and colour. " 

Again, on Good Friday, 1743, he has this entry in his 
journal : 

I had a great desire to visit a little village called 
Placy (Plessey), about ten measured miles north of New- 
castle. It is inhabited by colliers only, and such as had 
been always in the first rank for savage ignorance and 
wickedness of every kind. Their grand assembly used to 
be on the Lord's day, on which men, women, and children 
met together to dance, fight, curse and swear, and play 
at chuck-ball, span-farthing, or whatever came next to 
hand. I felt great compassion for these poor creatures, 
from the time I heard of them first ; and the more, be- 
cause all men seemed to despair of them. Between seven 
and eight I set out with John Heally, my guide. The 
north wind, being unusually high, drove the sleet in our 
face, which froze as it fell, and cased us over presently. 
When we came to Placy we could hardly stand. As soon 
as we were a little recovered, I went into the square, and 
declared Him who "was wounded for our transgressions " 
and "bruised for our iniquities." The poor sinners were 
quickly gathered together, and gave earnest heed to the 
things'which were spoken. And so they did in the after- 
noon again, in spite of the wind and snow, when I be- 
sought them to receive Him for their King, to "repent 
and believe the Gospel." 

In 1746 he was back again, preaching at his old spots in 
Newcastle, and also at the Spen, Biddick, Burnopfield, 
and hard-hearted Whickham, as well as gracious Plessey, 
"a pattern to all the societies in England." "No person," 
he says in his journal, "ever misses his classes. They 
have no jars among them, but with one mind and one 
heart provoke one another to love and good works." 
Sunderland was getting on too, and had a chapel. But 



unfortunately for a season there was grief upon grief 
because the Sunderland boys could not be brought to see 
the sin of smuggling. Upon the whole, after a searching 
investigation into the real progress of the little societies 
round about in 1747, the oldest of them only five years 
old, he bad every reason, he said, to rejoice over them. ' 
When at length compelled to tear himself away, he jots 
down in his diary, " I could gladly have spent six weeks 
more in these parts." One of his farewell sermons in 
Newcastle was attended by many of the most respectable 
people in the town, which led him to make the following 
entry in his journal : " Surely God is working a new 
thing in the earth. Even to the rich is the Gospel 

In 1748, he spent several weeks at Morpeth, Alnwick, 
Berwick, Allandale Town, and other places round about. 
One Saturday he preached at Newlands at noon, at Tan- 
field Cross at 3 p.m., and at Newcastle in the evening. 
On another day, after he had preached three times at or 
near Stockton, and ridden fifty miles, some people from 
Yarm begged so hard for a sermon that he went there 
and preached for them, and then went on to Osmotherley, 
and preached there. "Whitfield preached at Newcastle 
with great power in 1749, and Wesley generously 
acknowledged the value of his services. For many 
years nine in succession he visited Alnmouth, but 
was never sufficiently successful to form a society 
in that place. But his heart was refreshed by 
the signs of progress almost everywhere else. Even 
poor godless Whickham showed some fruits. Bid- 
dick, Plessey, and Sunderland were bright spots in 1752. 
In 1757, even Swalwell came in for a few drops of "the 
shower of blessing." Wesley spent part of June, 1759, 
in Newcastle, and what sort of a place it was in those 
days may be gathered from this entry in his journal, 
under date of Monday, 4th : " Certainly, if I did not 
believe there was another world, I would spend all 
my summers here, as I know no place in Great 
Britain comparable to it for pleasantness. But I 
seek another country, and therefore am content to be 
a wanderer on earth." 

The last time Mr. Wesley visited his flock in the 
North he is reported to have paid no fewer than 
twenty-six visits was in 1790. With intense and 
genuine affection he records in his diary : " Here 
and at Kingswood, were I to do my own will, I 
would choose to spend the remainder of my days. 
But it cannot be. This is not my rest." He came 
by way of Hexham from Carlisle, "down the side 
of a fruitful mountain shaded with trees, and sloping 
down to a clear river, which ran between this one and 
another fruitful mountain well wooded and improved." 
Hexham had a newly-built chapel and " a lovinir 
people." He was asked to preach in Lamesley Church ; 
but at the last moment the clergyman changed his 
mind. The service was held in the little Methodist 

Meeting-house. It was as hot as a stove, but neither 
high nor low seemed to mind it, for "God was there." 
Among the audience was Sir Henry Liddell, with his wife 
and numerous setvants. "Having (on Wednesday, 9th 
June) despatched all the business I had to do hero 
(Newcastle), in the evening I took a solemn leave of this 
lovely people, perhaps never to see them more in this life." 
The anticipation was verified. The venerable father of 
Methodism died in the year following his last visit to 
Newcastle March 2, 1791. 


j]R, MANDELL CREIGHTON, who has been 
appointed Bishop of Peterborough in succes- 
sion to Dr. Magee, promoted to the Arch- 
bishopric of York, is a North -Countryman in every 
respect by birth, by education, and by long residence. 
Dr. Creighton was born at Carlisle in 1843, was then 
educated at Durham Grammar School, and was after- 
wards appointed to the living of Embleton, in Northum- 
berland. It was while residing there that he made much 
of the literary reputation he has acquired. Six or seven 
years ago, however, he accepted the professorship of 


(From photo by RiuiM and Sons, Baker Street, London.) 



Ecclesiastical History at Cambridge. And now he has 
been promoted to the episcopal bench. 

Although Dr. Creighton took high honours at Oxford 
in the classical school, he has devoted his inaturer studies 
to the domain of history. The lectures he delivered on 
his favourite subject enjoyed a high reputation at Oxford 
when he was Fellow and Tutor of Merton twenty years 
ago, and his well-known " History of the Papacy during 
the period of the Keformation" is described as the best 
modern treatise on that fascinating time which English- 
men possess. The impartiality of judgment and breadth 
of view which mark this work earned for its author the 
compliment of a highly appreciative notice from Cardinal 
Manning. In 1884, two years after the appearance of its 
earlier volumes, Dr. Creighton was chosen to be the first 
Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. Subsequently he rendered most 
substantial service to the study of history in this country 
by promoting the English Historical Review, which he has 
edited during the five years of its existence. Glasgow 
conferred upon him his first honorary degree in 1883, 
when he was made an LL.D. Two years later he received 
the degree of D.C.L. at Durham, and in 1886 he became 
an honorary LL.D. of Harvard. 

Essentially a scholar, the new Bishop has nevertheless 
had considerable experience of the practical side of 
clerical life. Ordained deacon in 1870 and priest in 1873, 
he left Oxford in 1875 for Embleton. The late Dr. 
Lightfoot, Bishop of Durham, appointed him Rural Dean 
of Alnwick in 1879, and three years later he was named 
an honorary canon of the new diocese of Newcastle, and 
examining chaplain to Bishop Wilberforce. In 1885 he 
was preferred by the Crown to a canon's stall at Wor- 
cester, and was transferred to the Windsor Chapter only a 
few weeks before his appointment to the Bishopric of 


REMARKABLE character in his day and 
generation was the so-called Poet Close ; but 
he would, probably, never have had more 
than a local reputation had it not been for 
the successful efforts of certain persons in Westmoreland 
to obtain for him a pension from the Civil List. 

Born at Gunnerside, Swaledale, Yorkshire, in 1816, 
John Close, at an early age, removed with his parents to 
Kirkby Stephen. Here he was brought up to the 
butchering business, but he aspired to something greater. 
At the age of fifteen he conceived the idea that nature 
had destined him to be a poet, and he forthwith set 
about, as best he could, to remedy his defective educa- 
tion. Had he, at this time, been encouraged in his 
praiseworthy endeavours, he might have developed into 
something more than a writer of rhyming advertisements. 

Fate, however, decreed otherwise. Close's besetting sin 
was vanity. Such stray bits of wisdom as he could pick 
up in a casual way seem to have constituted his literary 
stock in-trade. 

In 1846 he established himself as a printer at Kirkby 
Stephen, and sent forth to his little world several volumes 
of verse and prose. 
Inasmuch as the 
contents of one of 
these was not a little 
scurrilous, he was in- 
volved in an action 
for libel, which, on 
being tried at Liver- 
pool, resulted in a 
verdict against him 
for 300. This un- 
fortunate affair did 
not, however, damp 
his ardour. In 1860 
he published a 
series of biographi- POET CLOSE. 

cal sketches under 

the title of " Great Men of Westmoreland. " Then came 
the great disappointment of his life. After the publica- 
tion of "Memorials of the Dead," a number of his friends 
got up the following petition to Lord Palmerston, and 
some five hundred signatures were appended to it : 

We the undersigned noblemen, magistrates, and clergy, 
yeomen and others, of the several counties of Westmor- 
land, Cumberland, Durham, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, 
Bedfordshire, and in London, in consideration of the 
Literary Talents and Genius of Mr. John Close, a Self- 
taught Poet, commonly called the Kirkby Stephen and 
Westmoreland Poet; a, Public Writer for the last thirty 
years, now near fifty years of ape ; author of "The Book 
of Chronicles " (Legends a nd A ntiquitiesoj Westmoreland); 
also "Memorials of the Dead," and divers other valuable 
and meritorious works; and now being very poor, through 
certain misfortunes and no extravagance of his own; with 
a wife and five small children ; of good character, an 
honest, hard-working, sober man : of sound religious 
principles, and OBTHODOX IN HIS WHITINGS ; warmly and 
humbly recommend the said Mr. John Close to the 
gracious NOTICE OP THE CKOWN, that the name of said 
Mr. John Close (now dwelling in the town of Kirkby 
Stephen aforesaid, and County of Westmoreland) be 
placed on the Civil List for the next vacancy, for such a 
pension as it may please HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY to 

Owing to the exertions of Lord Lonsdale, a Civil List 
pension of 50 was granted to Close. The announce- 
ment fairly took the literary world by surprise, for 
nobody outside Westmoreland had heard of the poet or 
seen his poetry. The truth soon oozed out. There was 
no hiding the circumstance that Close was the author of 
the veriest doggerel. Some of his effusions were printed 
in the London papers ; Punch especially made great fun 
of the business ; and unsparing denunciations were 
directed against the Minister who had perpetrated the 
strange blunder. Lord Palmerston soon saw the mistake 
he had made. Indeed, he never attempted to defend the 



\ 189L 

proceeding in the House of Commons, where the subject 
was brought forward by Mr. Sterling, afterwards Sir 
William Sterling Maxwell. The ultimate result was that 
the pension was withdrawn, though the unfortunate poet 
was consoled with a gratuity of 100 out of the Royal 

A " brother poet " in Sunderland wrote to congratulate 
the Westmoreland bard on the receipt of 100 from the 
Queen : whereupon Close sent the following characteristic 
reply : 

I have certainly got 100 from the Queen a mere sop 
to keep me quiet a mere flea-bite to me when I had fairly 
and honestly won the pension. You little know all 1 
have suffered by all this Political trickery. Bradbury, a 
Poet of whom the world has heard nothing, he got 50 
in 1858; and now, forsooth, he must have 20 more, 
because he is in favour with Lord Carlisle, and not a word 
is said ; but I, who have fought a thousand Battles, must 
be coolly kicked aside, with a 100 to make up for near 
600 I have lost by my Pen. Lord Palmerston nearly 
killed my wife by his weather-cock changes ; but I oh ! 
I wish I could stand before the House of Commons, I'd 
tell them my mind; "Kill me," no, I scorn them all, 
and will not die broken-hearted to please the Court of 
Queen Victoria. 

Furthermore, he lampooned his enemies, as he was 
pleased to call them, in a marvellous work entitled " A 
Grand Pindaric Poem ! London Critics, Penny-a-Liners, 
Scotch Curs, and English Asses : a Quid Pro Quo, in 
which Poet Close flogs the Floggers, pays his Debts, and 
shakes hands with all Good Men." 

From this tim until his death the poor poet posed as 
an injured man. He was generally to be found during 
the tourist season at Bowness, on Lake Windermere, 
where he fixed up & stall and vended his own books and 
pamphlets. The nobility and gentry of the district, out 
of compassion for his weaknesses, purchased his wares, 
and tourists were frequently induced to invest a few 
shillings in some of his productions, to be kept as literary 
curiosities. Thus he contrived to pick up a pleasant 
living in summer, while in winter he went back to Kirkby 
Stephen to follow his calling as a printer and bookseller. 

Close, of course, had no claim whatever to the title of 
poet. He was not even a respectable versifier, and his 
prose was worse than his verses. Until a few weeks 
before he closed the 75 years of his life, he continued to 
write and print all kinds of sad rubbish. Death overtook 
him, after an illness of very short duration, at Kirkby 
Stephen, on February 15, 1891. 

For nearly thirty years Mr. Close issued an annual 
Christmas Book. That for 1874 is before us. The first 
part is devoted to his own biography, and the remainder 
to doggerel and sketches. As a specimen of his muse, the 
following lines on the death of a local gentleman may be 
of interest : 

Another of the fine brave sons 

Of Westmoreland is gone ; 
A true and noble-hearted man, 

If ever there was one. . 
So free and gentle in his way. 

All loved his hand to shake ; 

It was a hand both true and warm, 
And one we loved to take. 

Alas ! no more his kindly voice 

Will cheer our Muse to sing : 
Or compliment us on our Poems 

In vain she'll stretch a wing : 
His welcome and the hearty grasp 

He shook our feeble hand - 
Made us admire the gallant youth, 

The pride of Westmoreland. 

Sleep on ! sleep on ! thou worthy son 

Of this our Northern Land ; 
Full many weep when thou art gone 

As o'er thy grave they stand. 
In distant lands he fell asleep, 

Far from his native home : 
One of the good old stock is gone 

To this we all must come ! 

Ten years ago a polite reference to the poet was pub- 
lished in the " Gossip's Bowl " of the Newcastle Weekly 
Chronicle. This pleased the poor man so much that he 
sent the writer a rather handsome copy of his "Fifth 
Grand Christmas Book," with the following grateful in- 
scription : 


Presented to that (ever dear to me) gentleman who 
styles himself, in the admired and wondrous Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle, "Robin Goodfellow," whose warm 
heart prompts him to sympathise with the persecuted and 
too often broken-hearted 


who has three sons very ill, and his great hope and pride, 
the famous blue-coat boy, now in Garland's Asylum all 
explained in his next Christmas book, dedicated to 
England's Queen 1 

Nor did the poet's gratitude end here. The volume con- 
tained, besides the unique inscription just quoted, such a 
poem as Lord Falmerston must have read when he 
granted the bard a pension. It will be seen that Poet 
Close describes Robin and himself as "two droll birds 
of one feather," and proclaims a sympathetic alliance be- 
tween " the genius great of Newcastle " and the " Bard 
of Westmoreland." The following gracious lines are 
cited here as a further sample of the poet's powers : 

" Love begets love," and thus it is 

That we have got together : 
In such a weary world as this 

Two droll birds of one feather 
" Extremes will meet," and this is true 

\Ve two to thus shake hand 
The genius great of Newcastle 

And the Bard of Westmoreland. 
Some lie on beds of roses soft and nice, 

Others on benches awful hard; 
And thus they squeeze thro' life at last, 

A Poet's true (but poor) reward. 
And such is life with Crowned Heads 

Have often corresponded, 
And still I toil like a galley slave 

On shore of life quite stranded. 


Mr. W. S. Gilbert's amusing poem " Ferdinando and 
Elvira; or, the Gentle Pieman," contains an allusion to 
Close. Elvira, it may be explained, has expressed a 
longing to know who wrote "those lovely cracker 
mottoes." Ferdinando exclaims : 

"Tell me, Henry Wadswortb, Alfred, Poet Close, or 
Mister Tupper, 

II. I 




Do you write the bon-bon mottoes my Elvira pulls at 

But Henry Wadsworth smiled, and said he had not had 

that honour ; 
And Alfred, too, disclaimed the words that told so much 

upon her. 
" Mister Martin Tupper, Poet Close, I beg of you, inform 

But my question seemed to throw them both into a rage 

Mister Close expressed a wish that he could only get 

anigh to me ; 

And Mr. Martin Tupper sent the following reply to me : 
"A fool is bent upon a twig, but wise men dread a 

bandit " 
Which I know was very clever, but I didn't understand it. 

farmhouse at night awaiting an opportunity to speak to 
the young woman, and he determined to give him a 
fright. So he loaded an old blunderbuss with cold por- 
ridge, and the next night awaited the appearance of the 
love-sick son of toil. That worthy put in his appearance 
about the usual time, and on seeing him the farmer fired 
his blunderbluss full in his face. The ploughman fell to 
the ground in a terrible plight, full of the belief that his 
last hour had come. The noise brought out the farm 
hands, who went and raised him up. " Are ye much 
hort, man?" was the excited question. "Aa divvent 
knaa, "be exclaimed, as he wiped the porridge from his 
beard: "but heor's ma brains aall ower ma hands an' 
fyece !" 


A country-woman who visited Newcastle lately and 
saw a pack of harriers (young lads belonging to a running 
club) tearing through the city, told her husband when she 
returned home that she had seen "a lot of ballet lads 
runuin' roond the toon in thor stage dresses !" 


A woman met a friend in a railway carriage and the 
following dialogue ensued : "Hoo are ye getting on with 
yor things for the chapel tea?" " Varry canny, hmny. 
We've aall the cakes ready, and the new cups and saucers 
will be coining the day." " Ma word, but ye're far mair 
pushener than we are 1" 


Two pitmen had an argument about the wisdom of 
betting. One held that it led to ruin, and ought to 
be avoided. "Had away," replied the other; "ye're 
bund te win in the end." "Hoo's that?" asked the 
other. "Wey, "was the reply, "if ye loss the forst time, 
back agyen ; and if ye loss the} second time, wey, back 
anuthor. Ye cannot back wrong yens elwis !" 

A short while ago a committee of a local co-operative 
store met and discussed the different qualities of pro- 
visions. During the proceedings, one of the committee 
slipped downstairs and asked the counterman for a plate 
of cheese and a few biscuits. Suddenly he returned and 
observed to the counterman : " Wey, man, this is bad 
cheese. What's the price?" "Eightpence a pound," 
said the counterman. "What's this yen a pund, then?" 
asked the committee man, tasting another sample. 
"Sixpence," was the reply. "Sixpence! Wey, man, 
yor warst cheese is the best !" 


A local farmer's daughter was somewhat annoyed by 
the attentions of her father's ploughman, and she asked 
her parent to put a stop to his advances. The farmer 
found that his man was in the habit of hanging about the 

Mr. James Turnbull, of Hownam Grange, near Yet- 
holm, a, well-known Border farmer, died on the 9th of 

Mr. Hudson Scott, head of the tirm of Hudson Scott 
and Sons, lithographers and colour printers, Carlisle, and 
at one time publisher of the Carlisle Examiner, during the 
editorship of Mr. Washington Wilks, died on the llth of 
January, at the age of 83 years. 

On the llth of February, the death was announced, in 
his 91st year, of Mr. Ralph Uowans, who for several years 
had had charge of the woods in the Warkworth district, 
and who had served successively under five Dukes of 

On the 12th of February died Mr. John Field, of the 
Northumberland Street Post-Office, Newcastle, and for 24- 
years superintendent of the Haymarket. 

Mr. Mark Douglas, who had held many important 
public positions in Sunderland, died in that town on the 
14th of February, at the age of 76 years. 

Also, on the 14-th of February, at the age of 72, died 
Mr. James Eadie, of Blaydon, long prominently identi- 
fied with educational, political, and co-operative move- 
ments in the district. The deceased was a relative of the 
late Dr. John Eadie, the eminent minister and professor 
in connection with the United Presbyterian Church in 

Mr. David Richmond, a somewhat remarkable and 
eccentric shoemaker, died at Darlington on the 15th of 
February. About half a century ago, he joined the 
Socialistic movement of Robert Owen, and lived in 
fraternity at Ham Common. After being there a short 
time, he went to the Shakers in America, where he intro- 
duced vegetarianism in some measure amongst them, 
though it was by no means universally followed. With 
his wife, who followed him in his wanderings, he lived 
some years amongst the Shakers, but ultimately left 
through some differences. He was afterwards engaged 
in other social movements in the States, and visited the 
Fourierite settlement in company with Mr. Horace 
Greeley. Twice, during his stay with the Shakers, he 
visited Great Britain in the peculiar garb of that 
community, and introduced spiritualism amongst the 




Secularists at Keighley. Mr. Richmond also delivered 
lectures and attempted other propaganda at Darlington, 
in London, and in other quarters. He finally settled 
down in Darlington in 1862, and subsequently developed 
some very mystic views, which were not appreciated by 
Spiritualists generally, but which he enforced in pamph- 
lets sent out from Darlington to the great rulers and 
leading men of Europe. He carried on the trade of a 
shoemaker, working himself in Darlington down to the 
time of his death. Mr. Richmond was 75 years of age. 

Dr. George Seymour Dixon, long the oldest medical 
practitioner in Gateshead, where he had resided for fifty- 
two years, died on the 15th of February, his age being 81 

Mr. Richard Willan, solicitor, of the firm of Willan 
and Yeoman, died suddenly at Darlington, on the 16th of 

On the same day was announced the death, in his 64th 
year, of Mr. Joseph Stanley Mitford, for many years 
permanent-way inspector for the North-Eastern Hallway 

Mr. John Close, popularly known to visitors to the 
English Lake District as "Poet Close," died on the 16th 
of February, in his 75th year. (See page 185.) 

On the 18th of February, at the age of 80, Elizabeth, 
second daughter of the late Andrew Tinwell, for many 
years master of the Trinity House School, Newcastle, 
and granddaughter of William Tinwell, the author of 
"TinweH's Arithmetic," died at Sunderland. 

Mr. Robert Gillender, one of the leaders in the famous 
nine hours' movement in Newcastle, died at Whickham, 
on the 16th of February. The deceased was secretary to 
the Swalwell Co-operative Society, and for the past 14 
years he had been school attendance officer for the 
Whickham School Board. 

On the 18th ot February, Mr. Thomas Middleton, who 
a few days previously had met with a serious accident, 
died at his residence, Burnham-in-Crouch, Essex. The 
deceased gentleman, for many years, held a responsible 
position under Mr. Walter Scott, contractor, Newcastle, 
for whom he superintended the construction of the 
Hartlepool new docks. Mr. Middleton was 72 years 
of age. 

As the result of an accident, Mr. Henry Belk, Town 
Clerk of Hartlepool, died on the 20th of February. He 
was the seventh son of the late and brother of the present 
Recorder (Mr. J. Belk), and had held the office of Town 
Clerk since 1882. Mr. Belk was only 35 years of age. 

Mr. Alderman Foggitt, of Darlington, died very sud- 
denly, from an attack of apoplexy, on the 21st of 
February. He had been a member of the Town Council 
since the incorporation of the borough, and in 1878 he 
occupied the position of Mayor. The deceased gentleman 
was a leading member of the Wesleyan body, and was 77 
years of age. 

On the same day, at the age of 75, died Mr. Robert 
Calvert, auctioneer, of Bishop Auckland, who formerly 
conducted a successful printing business at Sunderland, 
where he befriended the eminent artist, Mr. John Wilson 
Ewbank, R.A.S. 

Mr. John Middleton, of Dockwray Square, North 
Shields, merchant and broker, and prominently identified 
with several large commercial enterprises in the North, 
also died on the 21st of February. 

Mr. Edward Sinclair, formerly a mining engineer in 
Borneo, but latterly living in retirement at North Shields, 


where he was recognised as an authority on literature and 
art, died on the 22nd of February. 

Following upon an accident by the fall of his horse on 
the 20th, Mr. Alderman 
George Davidson, of 
Gateshead, died suddenly 
while proceeding to 
church from his house at 
Dunstou Hill, on the 
22nd of February. For 
many years he had been 
a member of the Town 
Council of that borough ; 
and in 1886-87, and again 
in 1887-88, he filled the 
office of Mayor. Mr. 
Davidson was an enter- 
prising and successful 
man of business ; his 
most important under- 
taking being the glass- 
works at Teams, which 

he established in 1868. The deceased alderman was 68 
years of age. 

On the 24th of February, Mr. William Dickinson, an 
alderman of the Newcastle City Council, and head of the 

firm of William Dick- 
inson and Co., mer- 
chants, Sandhill, died 
rather suddenly at his 
resi dence, Benton 
House, Long Benton. 
In addition to his posi- 
tion as a member of the 
Council, with which he 
had been connected for 
many years, the de- 
ceased gentleman, who 
was 70 years of age, 
had a seat, as repre- 
sentative of the due- 
payers, on the Tyne 
Commission, and he 
was also a Justice of the 
Peace for the borongh. 
Mr. Dickinson was 
especially conversant 

with shipping and other commercial questions ; and some 
years ago he succeeded in obtaining the appointment of a 
special committee of the Newcastle Council to consider 
the project of a canal from, the Tyne to the Solway. 

Mr. Cuthbert Harrison, merchant tailor, Grey Street, 
one of the oldest tradesmen in Newcastle, died oa the 
2nd ot March at the advanced age of 83 years. 

On the same day the death occurred of Mr. Thomas 
Williams, of Consett, vice-president of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Arbitration for the North of England Manu- 
factured Iron and Steel Trades. Mr. Williams was 42 
years of age. 

On the 5th of March, the death was announced of Mr. 
William Usher, of Gateshead, who was 74 years of age, 
and had been close upon fifty years in the employment of 
the North-Eastern Railway Company as an engine-driver. 
Mr. Thomas H. Hodgson, Clerk of the Peace for the 
county of Cumberland, an office which he had held for 
upwards of fifty years, died on the 5th of March. 





On the 5th of March, the Rev. Robert Forrester Proud- 
foot, B.A., died at Fogo Manse, Berwickshire, of which 

parish, in connec- 
tion with the 
Church of Scot- 
land, he had been 
minister for forty- 
eight years. The 
deceased gentle- 
man, who was in 
the 74th year of his 
age, received the 
early portion of his 
education at the 
Grange School, 
Sunderland, an in- 
teresting sketch of 
which he contri- 
buted to the Weekly 
Chronicle some 
years ago, among 
his contemporaries 
having been the 
late Mr. Tom Tay- 
lor, editor of Punch. 
During the pasto- 
rate of the Rev. G. 
C. Watt, M.A., now of Edinkillie, Scotland, Mr. Proud- 
foot frequently officiated in the Caledonian Church, 
Argyle Street, Newcastle, and his visits were always 
regarded with much favour by the members and friends 
of that congregation. 

Captain Theodore Williams, chairman of the Norham 
and Islandshires Bench of Northumberland county justices, 
died at Heatherslaw 
House, Cornhill - on - 
Tweed, on the 7th of 
March, at the age of 
70 years. The deceased 
gentleman was for- 
merly connected with 
the 10th Hussars, and 
the Hon. Corps of 

Mr. James Horsley, 
who for upwards of 
thirty years was in 
the employment of . 
Mr. Andrew Reid, of ^ 
Printing House Build- > 
ings, Newcastle, as 
manager and editor of 
"Reid's Railway 
Guide," died on the 
8th of March. The 
deceased, who was a 
native of Alnwick, but 
had early removed to 

Newcastle with his parents, was the author of several 
songs in the Tyneside dialect, and a frequent contributor 
to local journals. 

On the 9th of March, Mr. W. Rowntree, a member of 
the Local Board, and otherwise prominently associated 
with public affairs, died at his residence, North View, 
Bishop Auckland, at the age of 55 years. 




10. John Gowland, master stoneman, aged 56, and 
another workman named John Dick, aged 29, were 
burned to death by an explosion of gas in the workings of 
the Beamish Second Pit. 

11. There was launched from the shipyard of Sir W. 
G. Armstrong, Mitchell, and Co., Elswick, Newcastle, 
the Indian torpedo gunboat Assaye. 

Mr. G. T. France tendered his resignation as a mem- 
ber and chairman of the Gateshead School Board. 

A severe gale prevailed over Newcastle and district. 

What was supposed to be a pocket of natural gas was 
struck at a depth of 760 feet, during some drilling opera- 
tions on the Tees Salt Company's royalty, Haverton 
Hill, near Stockton. 

Mr. Charles Fenwick, M.P., and Mr. John Wilson. 
M.P., were examined before the Royal Commission on 
Mining Royalties. On the following day, Mr. Ralph 
Young, representing the Northumberland Miners' Associ- 
ation, and Mr. W. H. Patterson, the Durham Miners' 
Association, gave evidence. 

12. A meeting in furtherance of the formation of a 
recreation ground and baths club for Jesraond was held 
under the presidency of Sir C. M. Palmer, M.P. 

A dividend of 4i per cent, was declared at the annual 
meeting of the Byker Bridge Company. 

Mr. Andrew Leslie, of Coxlodge Hall, near New- 
castle, and formerly shipbuilder at Hebburn, intimated 
his desire to defray the cost of erecting a hospital for 
Hebburn, estimated at 2,500. 

A policeman, named Tough, died from the effects of 
injuries received whilst driving into the arched entrance 
to the Westgate Fire Brigade Depot, Newcastle. 

13. Mr. E. A. Maund, F.R.G.S., delivered a lecture 
at the Northumberland Hall, Newcastle, under the 
auspices of the Tyneside 
Geographical Society, on 
" Our New Colony of Zam- 
besia." Mr. Maund had 
accompanied the Embassy 
sent by the Chief Loben- 
gula to her Majesty the 
Queen. The lecture was 
illustrated by limelight 
views, and proved ex- 
tremely interesting. 

It was announced that 
Mr. Councillor Gray, of 
Durham, had received, by 
subscription, the sum of 
11 14s. 6d. for the pur- 
pose of raising a tombstone 
at Gibraltar over the 

grave of the late Mr. Alexander Blyth, secretary to the 
Northumberland and Durham Miners' Permanent Relief 
Fund, who had died there on the 12th of December, 1885. 

14. Mr. Charles Fenwick, M.P., was among the mem- 
bers of a Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the 
effect of coal dust in originating or extending explosions 
in mines. 

MR. S. A. JIAL'.VIi. 



f April 
1 1891. 

15. Mr. C. R. C. Steytler was the Sunday lecturer at 
the Tyne Theatre, his subject being " Edison's Latest 
and Most Perfected Phonograph." 

It was officially intimated that the Rev. Canon 
Creighton, LL.D., D.C.L., formerly vicar of Einbleton, 
in Northumberland, had been appointed Bishop of Peter- 

16. Mr. William Cairns Wicks, surgeon and physician, 
West Parade, Newcastle, who had previously been in a 
desponding state of mind, committed suicide by taking 
hydrocyanic acid. 

The paint stores at Messrs. Edwards and Sons' 
repairing dock, Dotwick Street, North Shields, were 
destroyed by fire. 

The Sunderland Town Council resolved to apply to 
the Board of Trade for a provisional order under the 
Electric Lighting Acts. 

17. A cordial reception was accorded to the Hon. J. 
B. Patterson, statesman and ex-Minister of Victoria, 
Australia, who is a native 
of Alnwick, on his arrival 
in Newcastle. On the 
following evening, he was 
entertained by a number 
of leading citizens to a 
complimentary banquet 
in the Continental Res- 
taurant, Grainger Street, 
Newcastle, the chair being 
occupied by the Mayor 
(Mr. J. Baxter Ellis), and 
the vice - chair by the 
Mayor of Gatesbead (Mr. 
Alderman Silas Kent). 
On the following day, 
Mr. Patterson arrived at 
Alnw^k, and was met 
and cordially received by 
the leading tradesmen of 
the town and members of the Local Board. 

A commencement was made with the disposal by 
auction, at the Academy of Arts, Blackett Street, New- 
castle, of the extensive and valuable library of the late 
Mr. William Brockie, journalist and author, of Sunder- 
land. The books related generally to topography, 
genealogy, and philology, the Border counties and towns 
of England and Scotland ; and there were rare tracts and 
other publications bearing upon the counties of North- 
umberland and Durham, and the towns of Newcastle, 
Sunderland, and Shields. For many of the works there 
was keen competition, and good prices were realised. 
One of the most eagerly contested books was Mr. White's 
"Battle of Otterburn," which was eventually knocked 
down at 32s. ; and Mr. Brockie's own "Folks of Shields" 
brought 29s. The privately-printed books of the late Mr. 
James Clephan also sold well, as did Mr. Welford's 
"Newcastle and Gateshead." On the second day Mr. 
Brcckie's cuttings of contributions to the Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle, 23 volumes, went for 3 ; while his 
"Annals of the Northern Counties " from A.D. 50 to 1850, 
in nine volumes, brought 3 10s. The third and last 
day's sale was devoted to works of general literature. 

Master Jean Gerardy, a remarkable young 'celloist, 
gave a performance in the Assembly Rooms, Barras 
Bridge, Newcastle. 
The marriage of Mr. W. B. Beaumont, M.P. for the 


Tyneside Division of Northumberland, to Edith Althea, 
widow of Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Pomeroy- 
Colley, K.U.S.I., and daughter of Major-General Meade 
Hamilton, C.B., took place in St. Paul's Church, 

18. It was made known that, as the result of a ballot 
which had taken place, the miners employed at the Lon- 
donderry collieries, in the county of Durham, to the 
number of 1,064, had voted in favour of a strike in support 
of their fellow-workmen at Silksworth, and 233 against. 
On the following day, after having been postponed several 
limes, in the hope of a settlement, the eviction of the 
miners at Silksworth Colliery was commenced. With 
the exception of one day and, of course, the intervention 
of Sunday, the evictions were continued de die in diem 
until the 27th, when the first batch of magisterial 
warrants had been executed. On two of the days, the 
proceedings were of a very exciting and disorderly 
description. The strike at Silksworth had its foundation 
in the demand of the miners that the deputies should 
become members of the Miners' Union. 

It was intimated that, under his will, the late Mr. 
H. B. Brady, had left 1,000, free of duty, to the 
Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to be 
applied to the foundation of a college museum to assist in 
the teaching of natural history science, or in such other 
way as the Council might deem desirable for the further- 
ance of the study of natural history in the said colleee. 

19. Mrs. Mary Wilson, wife of Mr. John Wilson, 
deputy-overman at South Hetton Colliery, was run over 
and killed by a passing train on the railway near Soutli 

Newcastle and Northumberland Assizes were opened, 
the judges being Mr. Justice Mathew and Mr. Justice 
Smith. The chief criminal case was a charge against 
George Walls, aged 30, labourer, of having wilfully 
murdered Dennis O'Neil, dealer in waste paper, in Low 
Friar Street, on the 27th of November last. The jury 
found him guilty of manslaughter, and he was sentenced 
to eight years' penal servitude. In the Civil Court, the 
jury awarded 1,000 to Elizabeth Holmes, a married 
woman residing in North Shields, as damages for injuries 
sustained in the railway accident at Ryhope, in May, 
1890. On the 23rd, a little girl named Harrison obtained 
a verdict for 600 damages in consequence of injuries 
received at Blaydon Railway Station. 

20. Sir William Gray, of Hartlepool, was elected 
president of the Chamber of Shipping in London. 

It was announced that a large bed of coal had been 
feund near the village of Satley. 

21. For the second time, Mr, Arthur Brogden and his 
Swiss Choir gave a musical treat, in the Town Hall, 
Newcastle, to the members of the Dicky Bird Society 
connected with the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. In 
addition to the vast assemblage of little people, number- 
ing 3,000, who completely filled the area of the hall, and 
nearly all of whom wore the familiar yellow badge of the 
society, there was a large attendance of adults. A suit 
able address, inculcating lessons of kindness and be- 
nevolence, was delivered by the Vicar of Newcastle, the 
Rev. Canon Lloyd. At the close of an excellent enter- 
tainment, votes of thanks were, on the motion of Mr. 
Alderman John Lucas, seconded by Mr. Councillor 
Goolden, enthusiastically awarded to the Vicar, Mr. 
Brogden, and the choir. Three lusty cheers were, at the 
call of Mr. Alderman McDermott, given for Uncle Toby. 




The last performance of the pantomime, "Jack in 
the Beanstalk," was given at the Tyne Theatre, New- 
castle. The final representation of the pantomime, 
"Dick Whittington and his Cat," at the Theatre Royal, 
took place on the 28th. 

22. Tbe Sunday lecturer at the Tyne Theatre was Mr. 
Willmott Dixon, LL.B., and his subject was "Our 
Empire of the Sea, and How we have Kept it." 

24-. The London Gazette contained a notice that a 
petition had been presented to her Majesty in Council, 
by the inhabitant householders of South Stockton, pray- 
ing that the township of Thornaby might be constituted 
a municipal borough by the name of Thornaby -on-Tees. 

A woman named Jane Robinson was found dead, 
with her skull fractured, in a lodging house in the lower 
part of Gateshead, and a man named Walter M' Arthur 
was arrested on suspicion of being concerned in her 
death. There being no evidence against him, however, 
he was ultimately discharged. 

25. It was announced that the famous Thornton Brass, 
after having been renovated and cleaned at the works of 
Messrs. Abbot and Co., Gateshead, at the expense of Mr. 
Lawrence W. Adamson, managing director of that estab- 
lishment, had been replaced in the vestry of All Saints' 
Church, Newcastle. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell, and Co. launched 
from their Elswick shipyard the new British cruiser 
Spartan, the christening ceremony being performed by 
Lady Ridley. 

M. Felix Volkhovsky, an escaped Siberian exile, and 
editor of Free Russia, gave the first of two lectures in the 
Assembly Rooms, Barras Bridge, Newcastle, his subject 
being "Life in Russian Prisons as a Political Suspect." 
A second lecture was delivered in the same place, on the 
27th, the title being "Life in Siberia and my Escape to 
Freedom. " There was a large attendance on each occa- 

26. Durham Spring Assizes were opened, and there 
were only eleven prisoners for trial. 

27. In the Northumberland Hall, Newcastle, a lecture 
was delivered under the auspices of the Tyneside Geo- 
graphical Society by Mr. J. Scott Keltic, Librarian of 
the Royal Geographical Society, on "The Partition of 

28. It was announced that, during the week, the 
-whole of the charitable legacies left by the late Mr. John 
Fleming, solicitor, amounting to 66,500, had been paid 
by the executors, through Mr. J. G. Youll, solicitor, to 
the various institutions, free of legacy duty. 


1. Mrs. Annie Besant delivered a lecture in the Tyne 
Theatre, Newcastle, her subject being "The Inevitable- 
ness of Socialism." 

2. In the Banqueting Hall of the Old Castle, New- 
castle, a number of well-known local gentlemen were 
entertained to dinner by the High Sheriff of Northum- 
berland, Mr. Cadwallader J. Bates, to celebrate the 
commencement of the preparation of a new history 
of Northumberland. The High Sheriff himself pre- 
sided, and the old hall presented an exceedingly pic- 
turesque and quaint appearance. In addition to the 
chairman, the speakers were the Rev. A. 0. Medd, 

Rector of Rothbury; the Rev. Canon Franklin, New- 
castle; Mr. Owen Wallis, Old Ridley; Mr. Wheeler, 
commissioner to the Duke of Northumberland ; Dr. 
Bruce, Newcastle ; Mr. Robert Blair, South Shields ; Dr. 
Murray, Newcastle ; Mr. Watson Askew-Robertson, 
Pallinsburn ; Dr. T. Hodgkin, Newcastle ; and Mr. C. B. 
P. Bosanquet. 

A series of central services for Newcastle and Gates- 
head, in commemoration of the centenary of the death of 
John Wesley, was held in Brunswick Place Chapel, New- 
castle. The chair was occupied by the Rev. Joseph 
Bush, ex-president of the Wesleyan Conference. On the 
following day, a circuit convention and reunion took place 
in Clarence Street Chapel, Shieldfield, under the pre- 
sidency of the Rev. Francis Hewitt. The proceedings in 
both cases were very interesting and successful. 

3. A complimentary banquet was given in the Con- 
tinental Restaurant, Grainger Street, Newcastle, to 
Colonel A. S. Palmer, chairman of the Gateshead Board 
of Guardians, in commemoration of the opening of the 
Gateshead New Workhouse. In the course of the 
evening a handsome illuminated address was presented 
to Colonel Palmer. 

Canon Dunn, Newcastle; Canon Taylor-Smith, 
Wolsingham ; and Canon Greene, South Shields, recently 
appointed by the Pope, were installed at St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Clayton Street, Newcastle, in the room of 
the late Canons Curry (Carlisle), Kearney (The Brooms), 
and Dr. Wilkinson, whose elevation to the Bishopric 
created the third vacancy. 

4. Mr. William Temple, builder, was unanimously 
elected an alderman of the Newcastle City Council in 
the room of the late Mr. Alderman Dickinson. Mr. 
Temple has been a member of the Corporation since 
the 4th of December, 1877. He was then elected one of 

the representatives of 
Jesmond Ward, on the 
elevation of Colonel 
Potter to the position 
of alderman. He was 
the author of the re- 
distribution scheme 
which came into opera- 
tion a few years ago, 
and the ward which, 
under the new arrange- 
ment, was assigned to 
him was that of Hea- 
ton. Our portrait is 
taken from a photo- 
graph by Mr. James 
Bacon, Northumber- 
land Street, Newcastle. 
On the same day, Mr. 
W. H. Dunn was elec- 
ted an alderman of the 

Gateshead Town Council, in succession to the late Mr. 
Alderman Davidson. On the following day, Mr. T. T. 
Sedgwick was elected an alderman of Darlington 
Town Council, in place of the late Mr. Alderman 

By a practically unanimous vote, the Newcastle 
Council decided not to entertain a scheme submitted by 
Mr. Farquhar Laing for the conversion of the City 
Markets into a Public Hall and Art Gallery. 

Mr. Herbert W. Bell, solicitor, of Hartlepool and 




I April 
X 1891. 

West Hartlepool, was appointed Town Clerk of Hartle- 
pool, at a salary of 200 per annum. 

5. The seventh annual meeting of the Bishop of New- 
castle's Fund was held, under the presidency of Earl 
Percy. From a statement made by the Bishop, it ap- 
peared that there had been raised altogether a sum of 
80,000, out of which there had been provided twenty- 
eight new clergymen, nine new churches, and three new 
mission rooms. The fund, it was announced, would be 
continued till the end of 1893. 

6. A deputation from the Corporation of Darlington 
waited upon Mr. Ritchie at the Local Government Board, 
in reference to the polluted state of the river Tees. 

7. At the Sunderland Petty Sessions, Superintendents 
Isaac Burrell and James Oliver were summoned on 
charges of assault preferred by Mr. Samuel Storey, M.P. 
The proceedings arose out of a visit paid by Mr. Storey 
to " Candy Hall " in connection with the Silksworth 
evictions on the 20th ult. The case against Superintendent 
Burrell, which was taken first, was dismissed, on which 
the prosecution withdrew the charge against Superin- 
tendent Oliver. 

The dispute at the Silkswortn Colliery culminated 
in a general strike of all the collieries belonging to Lord 
Londonderry in the county of Durham. The county 
magistrates at Sunderland renewed evictions warrants in 
155 cases, execution to be stayed for 21 days. 

As the outcome of a recent reunion, there was formed 
in Birmingham an association under the title of the Bir- 
mingham and Midland Tyneside Club, its objects being to 
bring Tynesiders in touch with each other for social inter- 
course, and to give a welcome to any prominent Tyne- 
sider who might visit the Midlands. Mr. Councillor Thos. 
Barclay, a native of Felling, was elected president ; Mr. 
W. D. Welford, Mr. J. W. Oliver, and Mr. G. H. 
Haswell, vice-presidents ; and Mr. J. Pattison and Mr. 
W, F. Clark, bon. secretaries. 

On the evening of this, and during nearly the whole 
of the following day, a very severe snowstorm prevailed 
in Newcastle and throughout the North of England. The 
snow measured nearly two feet deep. A number of tele- 
phone wires between Newcastle and Gateshead were 
damaged, and the tramcar traffic in the former town was 
suspended for a considerable time. The storm was the 
most violent that had been experienced in the district 
since March, 1886. 

It was stated that Messrs. T. and R. Nicholson, 
solicitors, Morpeth, had become the purchasers of all the 
buildings and land connected with Morpeth Gaol, except 
the Court House and Police Station, with a view to the 
laying out of the ground in sites for detached and semi- 
detached villas, by Messrs. Oliver and Leeson, architects, 

8. In the Tyne Theatre, the last of the lectures for the 
session in connection with the Tyneside Sunday Lecture 
Society was given by Max O'Rell, whose subject was 
"Some Platform Reminiscences." 

Fires, attended with a considerable amount of 
destruction, broke out in the shop of Mr. Joseph 
Minnikin, confectioner and provision dealer, Raby Street, 
Byker, and on the premises of Messrs. J. Imeson and 
Sons, boot and shoe manufacturers, Clayton Street, New- 

9. Lord Morpeth. eldest son of the Earl of Carlisle, 
addressed a crowded meeting of the Morpeth Temperance 
Society in the Town Hall of that borough, under the 
presidency of the Rector, the Rev. H. J. Bulkeley, M.A. 

ffierteral cettmnces. 


14. News received that the Government forces in Chili 
had been defeated by the insurgents. 

16. A motion by Mr. John Morley in the House 
of Commons, censuring the Government for their harsh 
administration of the law in Ireland, was defeated by a 
large majority. 

A sum of 11,000 in bank notes was stolen from a 
clerk, whilst in the National Provincial Bank of England, 
Bishopsgate Street, London. 

14. An unfortunate woman named Frances Coles, aged 
25, was found with her throat cut in Chambers Street, 
London, and from the nature of her injuries it was 
surmised that she had fallen a victim to the miscreant 
known to the police as "Jack the Ripper." A man named 
Sadler was arrested and charged with the crime. Owing 
to the want of evidence, however, he was discharged. 

17. At a political meeting held at Toronto, Sir 
John Macdonald, Premier of Canada, announced that he 
took the full responsibility of charging Sir Richard 
Cartwright with a deliberate conspiracy to annex Canada 
to the United States. The reading of a document, showing 
that negotiations were in progress with that